Traditional games and competitions
in original physical training of Siberian indigenous population
August 29, 2006
Russian State Vocational Pedagogical University
Today, in conditions of global integration,
our future mostly depends on preservation of its cultural variety.
way of life and life in harmony with
the nature are not only our past, but also the future in its significant part.
Scientists see a way out of economic, ecological, psychological and moral crisis
of industrial and urban society in centuries-old experience of those people who
have kept their own ethnographic space in extreme conditions of XXI century.
indigenous populations, having mostly a traditional way of life
on the nature, have saved up an invaluable experience of a survival
in heavy climatic
conditions. Especially significant place in it is borrowed with national physical
training of these people, and in particular their traditional games and competitions.
is the following scientific contradiction of research: on the
one hand, in the theory and practice of physical training of
Siberian region ideas of contemporary
pedagogic of sports are realized. On the other hand, people of northern regions
within many centuries have saved up invaluable experience of an effective use
of traditional games and competitions which are close to them on spirit in contemporary
educational process. Unfortunately such games and competitions are not applied
in contemporary physical training of Siberian indigenous populations. Such situation
undoubtedly leads to oblivion of national physical training sources of these
people. So, a problem of studying out a centuries-old experience, substantiation
of the concept of formation and an effective using of traditional games and competitions
in original physical training of Siberian indigenous population is arising.
general goal: To work out the concept of an effective
use of historically formed systems of traditional games and competitions
in original physical training
of Siberian indigenous population.
During our research work we used the following
methods: general scientific methods
of theoretical research (the analysis, synthesis, classification, analogy); the
theoretical analysis of Russian and foreign scientists-pedagogies and travelers
research works, containing data on traditional physical training of different
people, mainly Siberian indigenous population; the retrospective analysis of
Siberian indigenous population traditions connected with physical training of
young generation; method of field ethnography (supervision, interrogation, conversation,
interview). Also long-term researches on studying ethnos of Siberian indigenous
population, including materials of 10 ethnographic expeditions to places of compact
residing of indigenous population of Siberia were used. The length of general
period of research is 29 years.
As a result of ethnographic
expeditions and literary researches the richest ethnographic material has been collected
and generalized, the pedagogical analysis of traditional
games and competitions has been lead. Including traditional games and competitions,
spent during ritual and religious practices. Besides it was written down according
to indigenous population more than 200 traditional games and competitions which
are published in two monographs, two manuals and methodical recommendations (Krasilnikov,
The preliminary analysis of own and literary researches
has allowed to construct the model of original system of physical
of Siberian indigenous population
by means of traditional games and competitions (Pict. 1).
Pict. 1. Model of the
original system of physical training of Siberian indigenous population
by means of traditional games and competitions
In the picture
we can see the purposefulness of all original system of physical
training to a highest level of model – to an ideal of the perfect person.
At the same time Siberian indigenous populations have a national ideal which
can not coincide with hypothetical (theoretical) or scientifically-proved ideal.
The national ideal of the perfect person was formed during many centuries from
generation to generation, that is well reflected in ethno-pedagogical researches,
records, bylinas, legends, religious practices etc. He may be a national hero
from epic legends.
So, for example, in Chukchis’, Koryaks’,
we can find an epic hero (bogatyr) who constantly trains, shoots from a bow,
throw a spear, practices in running and carries huge weights. If the hero does
not reach perfection in these exercises or throws it, he is doomed to death
There are bases to consider, that revealing of
outstanding qualities of the
soldier-hunter occurred at public assemblies of Chukchi, "young men
permanently practiced in shooting, and at each public assembly there were
when the winner
received the prize which has been hung up about the purpose”. The legend "Viyutku-predvoditel
(leader)" tells us, how after the general doctrines were arranged special
games: runners competed in run, fighters - in struggle, in rising of weights,
and spearmen in a throwing of spears on the target (Bogoras, 1899). In such
examples the ideal of the person to which should be imitated is becoming
For disclosing the maintenance of model it is necessary
to show genesis of traditional games and competitions: stages
of its formation; national "schools" of
training and education by means of traditional games and competitions;
ethno pedagogical potential and mechanisms of traditional games
system formation; the programme of training, education and education by
means of traditional
games and competitions. Now we shall consider in more details all levels
of the model construction.
Preliminary researches have shown, that a general
(red) line through all structure, or maintenance of the model
pass the basic functions of traditional
competitions (it is designated by vertical arrows):
- education of the
person, including religious;
- physical development and physical preparation;
- formation of rising generation;
- development of military and applied practices and skills.
of the special literature specifies presence of four stages of
traditional game becoming and development of.
It is necessary
to allocate the 1st stage – the initial stage (the period
from the Stone Age till arrival of Russian people to Siberia in the beginning
of XVII century).
Archeological finds, heroic legends and bylinas,
pictures of cave people, and also notes of travellers, scientists-ethnographers
and even exiled
us that at this time among indigenous population of Siberia the system
of traditional games and competitions with a view of physical training,
training (mainly to crafts such as hunting, reindeer breeding, fishery)
of children, teenagers, youth and adult population was widely applied.
in conditions of primitive-communal, patrimonial system. But it is necessary
to mention, that with arrival of Russian it has disappeared a necessity
of military actions inside the indigenous population of Siberia because
leaders (voevody) have been stopping of different collisions between various
Siberian ethnos. Physical training was reoriented on preparation for crafts,
conducting housekeeping. But traditional games and competitions remained
popular among Siberian indigenous population. There are such well known
scientists and travellers who have written about it: Veniaminov, 1840;
Zuev, 1947; Krivoshapkin,
1863; Finsh and Brem, 1882; Shrenk, 1903 and other.
At 2nd stage – transitive
stage (the period from XVII century to construction of the socialist
state RSFSR, later the USSR).
This stage is connected with settling
of Siberia, extraction of minerals,
collectivization. After October revolution indigenous population of Siberia
has been incorporated
in collective farms. The state has borrowed in education of rising generation.
The programme of physical training for national schools of the North
has been created (Gurevich, Kagan, 1935). The articles and methodical
on traditional games of indigenous population of the North have been
published (Menovshikov, 1959; Leontiev, 1960; Rainson-Pravdin, 1944).
children the most part of a season have been torn off from parents and
native homes. It has led to interruption of centuries-old traditions
in the field
of original physical training and to attempts to impose the European
system of physical
training for indigenous population.
3rd stage – present stage of
development (from 50-60 years of XX century till nowadays) is characterized
in its initial part by transition to the "European" school
programmes of physical training and oblivion of national systems of
physical training. All this, undoubtedly, has affected on calisthenics,
development of the indigenous population of Siberia. In so-called "perestroika
time " (the
end 80th, 90th of XX century) in connection with disintegration of
the USSR and creation of the Russian Federation, the indigenous population
of Siberia have
got an opportunity for revival of national physical training traditions.
Systematic researches of ethno pedagogic of physical training have
started; new programmes
for physical training for national schools, boarding schools, sports
clubs, and sports schools of national kinds of sports have been created.
it occurred in Khanty-Mansiysk, Yamalo-Nenetsk autonomous regions,
4th stage - stage of "future" connected
with conditions of scientific and technical revolution, urbanization,
of ecology. In this time
(from present time up to 40-50 years of XXI century) we see the necessity
of creation and arrangement of reserves with a view of preservation
native culture, but at the higher level. The most important is obligatory
preservation and development in training and education of rising
generation if Siberian indigenous
population of such traditional games and competitions as races on
reindeer and dog teams, races on a deer, equestrian sport, throwing
of a lasso
on a polecat,
jumps through sledge, shooting from the bows, throwing of an axe,
run with a staff, pulling of a stick, etc. Modifications are
on "burans", automobile rallies (with special wheels in
difficult to traverse taiga places and even tundra). It is possible
kinds of sports of indigenous population of Siberia in the international
competitions (the World championships, Asian and Olympic Games).
first level of model which was examined on an example of the analysis
of traditional games and competitions allows defining the
of indigenous population, to show periodicity of such development,
necessity of deeper analysis of formation of their physical training.
The system of traditional games and competitions
of indigenous population of Siberia contains rich ethno pedagogical
of the native
population of this region for many centuries which have been
described by various scientists has reported till the contemporary
the philosophical reasoning
and approaches on lives, religious and communal views for a life
of the nationalities
occupying the North of Russia.
We consider that the main achievement
of the Siberian ethnos is invaluable experience of preservation
of health and a survival
of people in
extreme climatic conditions.
From the given positions it is possible to analyze ethno pedagogical
potential of becoming and development of traditional Siberian
The religious-philosophical doctrine or popular
wisdom which is passing from father to son lays in a basis of
any game. The
leader of a
tribe (the elder and wiser men) formed the general direction
of all activity of a
clan, a community, family or concrete person. For example, a
worship for the god formed
the fear, and through it – becoming of uniform discipline
and obedience of all members of a tribe or a clan.
struggle against elements, protection against attacks of hostile
nationalities, illnesses and hunger, various epidemics
of Siberian everyday life. So, successful ability to live and
struggle with adversities are possible only in conditions of
to the elder,
the collective help of each concrete person. At the same time,
traditional games and competitions always were the main means,
forms and methods
of training and
Our researches have shown that traditional games
and competitions accompanied the indigenous population of Siberia
during all life
(from a birth
to death). So, for example, at Surgut Khanty have had games and
competitions during "the
Bear holiday"; Evenky have had competitions in struggle,
games in a ball and splinters during funeral ritual (Krasilnikov,
2002, Lebedev, 1977). The Chukchi
have had reindeer races as a part of ritual on a Fire sacrifice
holiday and run holiday’s occasions (on the last, besides,
they have had a competition in speed and the winner was considered
the most endurance). For seasonal ceremonies
of seaside Chukchi it was most typical to run for the speed and
throw up on a walrus skin. Koryaki during winter holidays also
practiced reindeer races, struggle,
and throw up on a walrus skin (Antropov, 1957).
allow proving that the direction of religious-philosophical doctrines
forms and organizes only those games and competitions
which are necessary at each concrete stage of development of
indigenous population of Siberia with
the purpose of education of the devout and obedient person. At
same time, all other parts of education, physical development
and readiness are submitted
to ritual and religious sections.
For example, fear of the god
of water leads up to human victims. When Khunt, casually having
got in water, he does not try to
be rescued at all though
he can easily make it because his traditional clothes do not
become wet within 2 or 4 hours. Khunt is afraid of water and
because it is god’s willing (Krasilnikov, 2002).
people’s games connected with shaman are constructed with
The other basis of formation of system of
traditional games and competitions is folklore (basically the
heroic epos, legends,
and fairy tales).
For example, the folklore of northeast nationalities of Siberia
brightly draws an image
of an ideal Bogatyr (russian Hercules). In Chukchi, Koryak, Ukageer
Itelmen legends a bogatyr all time trains, shoots from the bow,
throw a spear, practises
in run, carries huge weights. If the warrior does not reach perfection
in it or throws exercises it is doomed to destruction (Bogoras,
The hero of Itelmen legends only defends by the
bow from arrows; highly jumping up, when himself starts to shoot,
he "couples" attacking – punches
one arrow at once a two persons (Antropov, 1957).
allocate an ideal image of the hero-warrior in Ukageer folklore.
He possesses the big physical strength so
he can one
can battle to the
whole group of enemies, defend, catching the arrows directed
to it or jumping up so
high, that arrows cannot pierce it: "On Lamut heads jumping
(he) battled" (Antropov,
The epos transferred from generation to generation
is the main potential of origin, occurrence and development of
the Northern indigenous
The following level of the model allows seeing
national schools of physical training. The analysis of references,
in the North
of Siberia allow to allocate following kinds of schools: "maternal", "family", "communal", "patrimonial" (Krasilnikov,
The maternal school" covered children in the age
of from a birth till 5-6 years. In this period in education mother
exclusively was engaged. She made toys
for games, learned children to game rules with it.
In the age
of 6-7 years there was a separating of children. In education
of boys the father started to learn, and the mother
taught the girls.
allocated by us as a "Family school". The father made
for sons hunting and fishing equipment (bow, arrows, skis, boats
and etc). Girls received from
mothers’ accessories to sewing clothes, boots etc. Parents
arranged with children games and the competitions connected with
hunting activity at boys and
housekeeping at girls. Boys started to take on hunting, fishing,
to involve pasturing of deers, livestock. Girls started to join
in economic activities. Except for
industrial purposes, traditional games and competitions promoted
development of the vital physical qualities, training to impellent
skills, and also education
of moral, collectivism, spirituality.
At training in “communal” and "patrimonial” schools teenagers
were trained in skills of collective hunting and military science.
the management in the military training was spent not only by
family, but also by the clan. The oldest warriors became instructors
of young men. In the legend "Vijtuku-
the Leader" Eskimos have been preparing for a military campaign,
men and young men had got specialized training preparation under
the supervision of their
leader Vijutku and his two brothers (Bogoraz, 1899).
in olden time during competitions on holiday’s warriors
of various settlements attentively studied force and ways of
struggle with each other to
make use of the extracted experience in case of occurrence of
the real war. (Antropov, 1957).
Similar games and competitions
were at Ukageer natives. On interpatrimonial assemblies "time
was spending in competitions and games”. Warriors of various
patrimonial groups were supposed to competition, at the same
time some of games also have
had military character (Antropov, 1957).
The role of the old
generation in military preparation is traced in many legends
of Siberian indigenous population (Krasilnikov,
All original people of Siberia have harmonious
system (schools) of education of rising generation by means of
competitions. At all variety they bore in themselves the concentrated,
in heavy for existence climatic conditions which is constantly
transferred to the rising generation.
The considered ethno pedagogical
potential allows passing to the higher level of the model, connected
with disclosing of pedagogical
of various physical exercises of people of the North in which
the orientation of all system to a national ideal of the person
overcoming severe climatic
and geographical difficulties of region is lying.
population of Siberia use the traditional games and competitions
in which the emphasis is done for its role and functions
teaching, influence on physical development and readiness, and
also applied value of
exercises for a life of people) as the main means of physical
development of the person.
Origin and formation of physical exercise
starts with experience of people and necessity of movement or
game for an ultimate goal
to practice and applied value for the future life.
At the same
time, the complete movements in games are broken into components
and parts consist of the bringing exercises,
or whole impellent action also. In this connection traditional
games and competitions
can be classified on: bringing games, preparatory games, complete games or
For example, the throwing of a lasso on deer
horns is the important professional skill. And the given impellent
certificate is taken
in used games to
As an example of shown above structure of traditional
games and competitions the game with a throwing of a lasso on
can be specified.
Bringing games are games with children in throwing of the truncated
lasso on socks
of sledge, on branches of trees, on the little stakes specially
the ground, on suspended on a cord block, etc. It is possible
to consider as preparatory
games – games with a throwing of an adult lasso on a trochee,
on range, on accuracy of a landing, on the sitting or costing
person, on running players.
And complete games or games-competitions are throwing of a lasso
on a trochee in competitive conditions (who will make exact throws
more), a throwing of a
lasso on players ("deers") running on a play platform.
It is possible to carry to preparatory
throwing of snowballs in the aim, throws of rings on branch of
tree or a stick, pulling
of a stick
hands sitting on the ground, run, walking (Krasilnikov, 2002).
It is possible to trace origin and formation of complete movement
when the reindeer
breeder catches from herd by exact throw of a loop of a lasso
on horns of a deer.
The pedagogical mechanism of occurrence and
formation of impellent actions is connected with logic sequence
(necessity) of mastering
by that or
skill which has passed check by centuries-old experience of a
life of northern people. Since early years, with the help of
got the unstable dynamic stereotype to performance of concrete
games promote the further exercise (numerous recurrence), at
the same time at the child or young men in complex interaction
the nervously-muscular device are formed some steady dynamic
impellent stereotypes which provide stability of game actions.
sequence of use of
various games allows forming of complete impellent action
further complete impellent actions are fixed directly in games-competitions on various holidays, for example, "who will more quickly
catch a deer by means of a lasso" and in military operations.
dosage of loading in preparatory games easily steals up both
for children, and for adults due to duration of game, quantity
of rest. The emotional background is supported due to use of
competitive activity of children or adults.
The programme on physical
training for preschool establishments should contain the
traditional games connected with national
as board games
with dolls, with stones, threads, duck noses, deer bones, whirligig,
a top etc.
Pict.2. Game by duck noses.
In the further in process
of growth it is possible to train children to their outdoor games: "hide-and-seek", "catching",
running, throwing of rings, etc.
Pict. 3. Game with a throwing
it is necessary to include such specific games
and competitions as "the
throwing of a lasso on a trochee ", "jumps through
of a stick", "races by boats", "shooting
from bow in aim ", "shooting
from bow on range", “Gorodki” and so on (Pict.4)
in variety part of the programme at secondary schools.
Besides in outside of school hours we can recommend
to cultivate sports sections with national kinds of sports.
higher educational institutions it is also possible to fill in
variety a part of state standard with national kinds of
games-competitions, northern multiathlon (Pict.5).
Pict.5. A throwing
of a lasso on a trochee.
In the presented work the model and the
conceptual positions reflecting the process of becoming and formation
of system of
games and competitions
indigenous population of Siberians are formulated. The physical
culture of people of Siberia contains an unique and invaluable
of a survival
climatic conditions of the North of Siberia, and also the opportunity
to live in harmony with the nature and once again specifies that
is in preservation of cultural variety, the careful attitude
to the nature and ecology as a whole.
Carried out researches
allow us to look at the nearest future for 40-50 years to consider
the influence of various factors
of Russia, and together with it at formation of a cultural heritage
of people. During the present period there is a gradual urbanization,
it the assimilation of Siberian nationalities with Russian nation.
Indigenous population of Siberia gradually loses their national
culture, and the
oil, gas and chemical industry masters all new and new territories.
is necessary to develop the general direction of preservation
and development of national physical training which will allow
avoiding mistakes of last
In the nearest future in connection with an exhaustion
of stocks of hydrocarbons and occurrence of alternative energy
northern territories will
become zones of natural reserves in which will live radical peoples.
In such zones
ecological craft and the reindeer breeding necessary for ability
will be developed. Mainstream of ability to live is reindeer
breeding, manufacture of ecologically pure food raw material
(deer, fishes) and also a local craft,
manufacturing of skins of deers, manufacturing of souvenirs and
various national clothes. Through regions will pass tourist routes,
and also extreme-tourism routes,
making a profit for local residents. The image of northern inhabitants
will change into educated person with a mobile phone and the
We consider that traditional games and competitions
can be that link between culture of the past, the present and
of indigenous population of Siberian region, but also of other
people which aspire
find a way out
of an increasing urbanization, industrialization and infringement
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Pict.1. The model of original physical education
of Siberian indigenous population by traditional games
Pict.2. Game by duck noses.
Pict. 3. Game with a throwing of rings
Pict.5. Game with a throwing of a lasso on a trochee.
The greatest value for contemporary process of
physical training is represented with a social phenomenon of
and competitions, and its major role in preservation of an
ethnic originality, the mechanism of transfer of cultural wealth
to the new generations which have been saved up by national
pedagogic within thousands years.
At indigenous population
of the North effectively operating system of traditional games
and competitions has been generated
in the past.
Many researchers of Northern culture have written
about it. The system was and is unique and irreplaceable mean,
and form of physical preparation for labour (basically to crafts:
to reindeer breeding, hunting and fishering). The given system
was formed within many centuries, has passed "approbation" in
the hardest for a life climatic and life conditions and constant
Theoretical thesis about presence of system
of traditional games and competitions prove to be true by
lead field ethno
pedagogical researches in 1990-2004, when have been investigated
more than hundred settlements (yurtas), chums (in places
of compact residing of indigenous population) with a view of
of ethnic features of system of physical training of Northern
indigenous population. During studying of traditional physical
training of radical northerners are revealed and classified
something about one hundred games and competitions, history
of its occurrence and development, original receptions and
methods of its effective using.
Krasilnikov Valery Pavlovich
Russia, 623704. Berezovsky, Sverdlovsk region.
Tolbukhin Street, 2, sq. 3.
620051. Ekaterinburg, Letter box 308.
Ph ++7(343) 3348212
I am at present the Dean of the Faculty
of Physical Training at the Russian State Vocational Pedagogical
Russia). I have a senior lecturer's degree and want to gain
support for 2 monographs and a training aid that I have written
on the culture of indigenous population of Siberia.
Games and competitions in traditional physical upbringing of
Khanty" 115 pages;
Games and competitions in instructional process of finno-ugorski
and samodiski nations" 86 pages;
Ethno-pedagogical bases of the traditional physical upbringing
of indigenous population of Siberia" 165 pages.
materials put in the data content of works, are written down
by me in the places of the compact habitation of the aborigines
of Siberia (in chumy, yurts, sites, places of arranging of
popular games and competitions).
As a result of carried
out work (from 1990 to 2005) it was described of more than
traditional games and competitions
of indigenous population of Siberia, was studied out special
literature in the largest Russian libraries, museums and so
on. Indigenous population of Siberia suffers calamity in connection
with invasion powerful ethnos, petroleum production and forests
felling. They lose places of traditional trades and its unique
culture. Traditional games and competitions of Siberia were
the main facility of upbringing of young generations, of their
all-round development, of career education and opportunity
to survive in the extreme climatic conditions of Siberia. The
publishing of my abstract will help to show peculiarities of
indigenous population of Siberia. All my works, mentioned above
are deigned by medal of Yanusha Korchaka and diploma of 1st
degree by competition commission "Pedagogical innovations'-2005" in