Guidelines for Culturally-Responsive School Boards
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Cover photo: View of
Uganik Bay, Kodiak Island Alaska. Photo by Corrie Elmes.
Assembly of Alaska Native Educators
February 4, 2002
Published by the Alaska Native Knowledge Network
Also available in downloadable PDF
These guidelines are sponsored by:
The following guidelines address issues related to the
role of school boards (including local school/community committees and advisory
boards) in overseeing
the provision of a culturally responsive and supportive educational environment
for the students in their care. The guidelines are organized around various
leadership roles related to the management of formal education systems, including
those of board members, administrators, communities, professional educators
and statewide policymakers. Special attention is given to the educational
for the integration of traditional values and decision-making processes in
schools throughout Alaska. The guidance offered in the following pages is
encourage schools to strive to be reflections of their communities by incorporating
and building upon the rich cultural traditions and knowledge of the people
to the area. It is hoped that these guidelines will help to more fully engage
communities (including cultural sub-communities in urban areas) in the social,
emotional, intellectual and spiritual development of Alaskas youth.
Native educators from throughout the state contributed to the development
of these guidelines through a series of workshops and meetings associated with
the Alaska Rural Systemic Initiative. Representatives of the Native educator
organizations listed on the cover participated in the meetings and ratified
the final document. The purpose of these guidelines is to offer assistance to
educational personnel and others who are seeking to incorporate the Alaska Standards
for Culturally-Responsive Schools, along with all the associated guidelines,
in their work. Using these guidelines will expand the knowledge base and range
of insights and expertise available to help communities nurture healthy, confident,
responsible and well-rounded young adults through a more decentralized and culturally-responsive
Throughout this document Elders are accorded a central
role as the primary source of cultural knowledge. It should be understood
that the identification
of "Elders" as culture-bearers is not simply a matter of chronological
age, but a function of the respect accorded to individuals in each community
who exemplify the values and life-ways of the local culture and who possess
the wisdom and willingness to pass their knowledge on to future generations.
Respected Elders serve as the philosophers, professors and visionaries of a
cultural community and, as such, they are the beacons and calming agents that
guide the people who look up to them. In addition, many aspects of cultural
knowledge can be learned from other members of a community who have not yet
been recognized as Elders, but seek to practice and teach local lifeways in
Along with these guidelines are a set of general recommendations aimed at stipulating
the kind of initiatives that need to be taken to achieve the goals for which
they are intended. State and federal agencies, universities, professional associations,
school districts and Native communities should review their policies, programs
and practices and adopt these guidelines and recommendations to strengthen their
cultural responsiveness. In so doing, the educational development of students
throughout Alaska will be enriched and the future well-being of the communities
being served will be enhanced.
Support for implementation of these guidelines can be obtained from the regional
Native educator associations, the member tribal colleges of the Consortium for
Alaska Native Higher Education and the staff of the Alaska Rural Systemic Initiative.
Further information on issues related to the implementation of these guidelines,
as well as additional copies may be obtained from the Alaska Native Knowledge
Network, University of Alaska Fairbanks, PO Box 756730, Fairbanks, AK 99775-6730
Guidelines for Culturally-Responsive
School Board Members
School district board members are responsible
for providing guidance and oversight to insure that district policies and practices
nurture the cultural well-being of the students and reflect the long-term interests
of the communities being served.
School district board members will develop a more culturallyresponsive educational
system through the following actions:
- Adopt the Alaska Standards for Culturally-Responsive Schools as a matter
of school district policy and use them for guidance in all matters related
to educational policy, management and practice in the school district. Implement
a regular review process to determine the extent to which the cultural standards
are reflected in the district and school programs.
- Always assume a positive and proactive role as advocate for the educational
interests of the broader community/region being served (not just special interests)
and consider the long-term implications of individual issues and concerns
- Consult with as many constituents as possible on a regular basis and seek
out all points of view before forming an opinion and taking a position on
significant educational issues.
- When acting in an official capacity as a school board member, always place
the educational needs of the students and communities over private interests
or personal gain.
- Seek out guidance and assistance from Elders for incorporating traditional
values and ways of knowing in passing on cultural knowledge to younger generations.
Appoint an Elder-advisor to serve with the school board and implement an Elders-in-Residence
program in the schools to involve Elders in all aspects of the educational
- Serve as a role model and mentor for cultural learning by practicing and
reinforcing traditional values and behaviors in the everyday life of the community.
- Encourage and support ongoing two-way interaction between school and community
and volunteer to assist in the educational programs as a model for all parents
to gain firsthand understanding of what students are learning. Issue a timely
and understandable annual report on student performance that is distributed
to and discussed with all parents.
- Acquire and practice the knowledge and skills needed to be an effective
parent and implement programs that assist new parents in their role as caregivers
and the first teachers of their children.
- Be an active participant in school board affairs, including helping formulate
the board meeting agenda; preparing for and attending all meetings; reviewing
minutes, budgets and other pertinent documents; keeping well informed on current
issues; seeking advice and training in areas of weakness and maintaining regular
contact with the communities and schools being represented.
- Prepare board meeting agenda so that the primary focus of discussion in
every meeting is on the educational programs in the district, with everything
else justified on that basis.
- When conducting school board business, interact and speak with consideration,
care and courtesy, respecting differences of opinion and refraining from personal
attacks and name-calling. Serve as a model of respect for cultural and individual
- Implement strategic planning activities that make use of traditional forms
of communication and provide ample opportunity for discussion to insure maximum
participation of all community members in the formation of school district
mission, goals and strategies. Make sure all administrators understand and
are in agreement with the school board on the long-range educational goals
of the district.
- Whenever possible, delegate decision-making responsibility to the local
school/community committees and seek their input in all actions that may impact
their sites, including interviewing candidates for local positions. Provide
detailed reports back to each school and community following official meetings
and actions. Check to make sure board actions have been properly interpreted
by the administrators.
- Recognize the role of the superintendent as the person responsible for the
day-to-day administration of the policies established by the school district
board and select a person for that role whose views and goals are compatible
with those of the board, so as to minimize potential conflict between the
policymaking and administration/implementation functions. Establish annual
performance goals for the superintendent and evaluate his/her performance
- When selecting new personnel, give first preference to eligible local candidates
who are knowledgeable about the surrounding area and have a lifelong commitment
to the region. Provide ample professional development opportunities for such
personnel to continue to expand their capacity to provide leadership and support
in the schools and district.
- Establish a career ladder program for school district
employees as a way to "grow your own" staff and thus maintain
continuity and accrue cumulative insight in the development and implementation
of educational programs.
- Rotate school board meetings in all the communities served by the district
and provide ample opportunity for public input through informal work sessions
prior to each meeting and public comment periods during each meeting. Meet
in community facilities as well as in the school and showcase student work
and acknowledge good teachers whenever possible. Invite the schools to make
a presentation to the board (with students, parents and teachers involved)
on some positive aspect of their educational program.
- Coordinate educational programs and services with other local and regional
entities as much as possible to insure best use of available resources.
- Participate in statewide and regional forums to maintain a current understanding
of educational issues and to insure your district is well represented in decision-making
arenas that impact the communities and schools you serve. Choose the best
qualified persons to represent the district in such events and sponsor local
forums to provide regular reports back to the communities on what you have
learned and the actions taken at meetings.
- Encourage broad community participation in school board meetings, including
recruiting others to seek election to the board. Appoint a student as an ex-officio
member of the board to bring a student voice to the deliberations. School
board terms should be scheduled on a staggered basis to maintain a level of
program continuity. Board membership should be viewed as a community service,
not as a career or as a source of income.
- Provide educational facilities that are designed to blend into the community,
that are culturally welcoming and comfortable for students and parents to
use, and that contribute to the health and well-being of the community.
Guidelines for Culturally-Responsive
Local School/Community Committees
Local school/community committees provide the
foundation on which the social, emotional, intellectual and spiritual well-being
of future generations rests.
Local school committee members will promote a more culturally-responsive schooling
environment through the following actions:
- Make use of the Alaska Standards for Culturally-Responsive Schools and the
Guidelines for Nurturing Culturally-Healthy Youth for effective guidance in
all matters related to education in the school and community (both documents
are available free from the Alaska Native Knowledge Network.)
- Encourage all members of the community to take an active role in the education
and cultural upbringing of local children and youth, at home and in school.
- Organize regular meetings with parents, grandparents and teachers in the
community to explore ways for schools to incorporate traditional values and
ways of knowing in the educational programs/practices, and for parents to
provide a nurturing family and home environment.
- Provide an annual open house/workshop (with food) for parents, perhaps at
each grade level, on how they can help their child be successful at what they
will be learning during the year, and seeking their ideas on the aspirations
they have for their child.
- Encourage parents to regularly accompany their child through part or all
of a school day to gain an understanding of what they are doing in school.
- Encourage all children and their families to become actively involved in
cultural activities and learn the traditional values and language of the community.
- Assist in the implementation of a cultural orientation program for new teachers
and establish an adopt-a-teacher program linking a local family and Elders
with each teacher in the local school.
- Assist teachers in understanding the importance of integrating
local knowledge and ways of knowing into the curriculum and help them gain
access to related
resources that enhance all learning and links academic subject matter to
students lives, not just as another subject added on as an extracurricular
activity at the end of the day.
- Review the Guidelines for Strengthening Indigenous Languages and take appropriate
actions to insure compliance with Alaska Senate Bill 103 requiring the establishment
of a local Language Advisory Committee for each school with fifty percent
or greater Native enrollment to make recommendations regarding the future
of the heritage language in their community.
- Serve as a positive role model and mentor for parents and children in your
community by practicing and reinforcing traditional values and cultural behaviors.
- Take an active role in all district-level educational activities and provide
input to the district school board on educational issues of concern to your
school and community, including the selection and performance of local school
- Provide encouragement and support for community members (students, aides,
teachers) who show an interest in pursuing a career in education.
- Maintain ongoing two-way communication with the school district board, including
regular reports of local community meetings and representation at all district-level
- Assist local administrators in planning staff development activities, including
curriculum development workshops and community/cultural orientation programs.
- Adopt policies and practices that provide opportunities for community members
to actively participate in the review of local instructional programs.
Guidelines for Culturally-Responsive
School District Administrators
Culturally-responsive school district administrators
provide support for school board members and district staff in integrating cultural
considerations in all aspects of the educational system.
School district administrators will support culturally-responsive school boards
through the following actions:
- Make use of the Alaska Standards for Culturally-Responsive Schools for
guidance in all matters related to educational policy and practice in the
school district. Implement a regular review process to determine the extent
to which the cultural standards are used in the district and school programs.
- Support curricular and instructional strategies that connect the formal
school curriculum to the cultural and physical world in which the students
- Support student participation in subsistence activities with parents, Elders
and other members of the community by providing avenues for students to earn
credit while learning the knowledge and ways of knowing associated with those
- Be actively involved in local activities and organizations that contribute
to the quality of life in your community/district and encourage all school
district staff to do the same.
- Respect what the Elders have to offer by including them as significant advisors
and contributors to the educational system, including in the district office.
- Facilitate broad-based parent and community involvement in all aspects of
education in your school district, including planning, policy-making and educational
- Implement a decentralized decision-making structure that allows the educational
system to evolve in response to the conditions in the communities being served.
Adopt a position of openness and receptivity to alternative perspectives and
support attitudes and approaches that allow actions to be taken at the most
local level possible.
- Always be a good role model as an educational leader in your community/district.
- Use the Guidelines for Nurturing Culturally-Healthy
Youth and the Alaska Association of School Boards assets-building program
to work with individuals,
schools and community groups to promote positive expectations for the communitys
- Recruit and employ local staff who are knowledgeable about the cultural
heritage and language traditions of the surrounding area and have a lifelong
commitment to the region. Provide ample professional development opportunities
for such personnel to continue to expand their capacity to provide leadership
and support in the schools and district. Encourage new teachers to learn from
those who are well grounded in the local community and culture.
- When developing evaluation criteria for school personnel, make allowances
for the range of teaching practices that are necessary to meet student needs
in culturally diverse situations, including those reflected by teachers utilizing
Native ways of knowing.
- Arrange for school district sponsorship of regular cultural orientation
programs (minimum of one week, based on the Yaaveskaaniyaraq model) for new
staff, including participation in a local cultural immersion camp in collaboration
with local community organizations.
- Use the Guidelines for Strengthening Indigenous Languages to insure compliance
with Alaska Senate Bill 103 requiring the establishment of a local Language
Advisory Committee for each school with fifty percent or greater Native enrollment
to make recommendations regarding the future of the heritage language in their
- Attend local and regional agency/organization meetings/conferences and provide
reports on school district activities as a way to help coordinate educational
and related service activities.
Guidelines for Culturally-Responsive
Communities, Tribes and Native Organizations
Culturally-responsive school boards must rely
on the communities they serve to provide a healthy and supportive environment
that reinforces the values and behaviors its members wish to instill in their
Communities will assist a culturally-responsive school board through the following
- Support the selection of school board and local school/community committee
members who recognize that the children of the community are its future and
will work to ensure that every child grows up secure in who they are and confident
in their ability to make their own way in the world. Once selected, hold them
accountable for the responsibilities they have assumed.
- Use the Guidelines for Nurturing Culturally-Healthy Youth to strengthen
the parenting roles as reflected in traditional kinship structures by adopting
child-rearing as a collective responsibility, and make sure all community
members know their kinship roles and responsibilities.
- Sponsor and participate in regular parent/youth talking circles in the community.
- Promote healthy community activities and supportive organizations by involving
youth as board members and participants in all functions, meetings, workshops,
and events related to community well-being.
- Organize local and regional planning meetings that lead to a consensus on
strategies for consistent support of young people from all the sectors of
the community that impact their lives (home, school, Elders, church, community
organizations, cultural events, media etc.)
- Be a good role model for and engage youth in all aspects of community life,
including involvement in youth-run organizations and councils and participation
in Native corporation and tribally-sponsored activities.
- Participate in and contribute to all aspects of the educational system serving
your community, including taking an active role in regional and local school
- Provide encouragement and support for community members (students, aides,
teachers) who show an interest in pursuing a career in education.
- Sponsor a cultural orientation program for new school staff and include
them in community activities and events. Implement an adopt-a-teacher program
linking new staff to a family and Elders in the community.
- Incorporate the cultural standards for communities and parents into daily
life, as outlined in the Alaska Standards for Culturally-Responsive Schools.
- k. Foster the incorporation of traditional knowledge,
values and beliefs in all aspects of community life and institutional practices
and assist Elders
in their participation as the local culture bearers.
- Include the local school in all community development plans so that educational
program and facilities are compatible with the long-term aspirations of the
- Convene an annual community- or region-wide planning meeting of all local
and regional social service, health, economic, cultural and educational programs
to coordinate services for mutual support and benefit to the communities.
- Develop a comprehensive tribal education policy that addresses the role
of language, culture and community in the education of local youth, and implement
the policy through strong partnership arrangements with the schools.
Guidelines for Culturally-Responsive
Principals and Teachers
Educators are responsible for providing a supportive
learning environment that reinforces the cultural well-being of the students
in their care in a manner consistent with school board policy.
Educators (teachers, principals, aides, counselors, etc.) will support a culturally-responsive
school board through the following actions:
- Align all subject matter with the Alaska Standards for Culturally-Responsive
Schools and develop curriculum models that are based on the local cultural
and environmental experiences of the students.
- Provide accurate information regarding all aspects of school performance
to assist the school board in its deliberations on district policies and practices.
Utilize multiple indicators in any assessment of student abilities or teacher/school
- Adopt curricular and instructional strategies that make effective use of
the cultural and natural world in which the students are situated to enrich
and give meaning to what is being taught. Instruction in the local language
in the early grades should be made available as a first option for instruction.
- Make effective use of local expertise, especially Elders, as co-teachers
whenever local cultural knowledge is being addressed in the curriculum. Include
all staff in school planning meetings (i.e., teachers, aides, cooks, janitors,
student assistants, etc.) Provide support in the curriculum for students to
participate in subsistence activities with community members as a part of
the school program.
- Take steps to recognize and validate all aspects of the knowledge students
bring with them and assist them in their ongoing quest for personal and cultural
affirmation. Avoid limiting the curriculum to any single measure of success.
- Develop the observation and listening skills necessary to acquire an in-depth
understanding of the knowledge system indigenous to the local community and
apply that understanding in teaching practice.
- When evaluating teaching personnel, make allowances for the range of teaching
practices that are necessary to meet student needs and learning styles in
culturally diverse situations, including those reflected by teachers utilizing
Native ways of knowing. Encourage new teachers to learn from those who are
well grounded in the local community and culture.
- Visit the students homes and learn about the parents aspirations for
their children as well as their expectations for you. Provide a supportive
environment for parent participation in all aspects of their childrens
education, including that which takes place during subsistence activities.
Adjust the school schedule to accommodate local cultural activities and events.
- Carefully review all curriculum resource materials with appropriate local
experts and/or curriculum committees to insure cultural accuracy and appropriateness,
and assist students in making similar critical judgments themselves.
- Make every effort to utilize locally-relevant curriculum materials with
which students can readily identify, including materials prepared by Alaska
- Participate in community events and activities, including local tribal and
municipal government meetings, to acquire the insights and relationships needed
to develop appropriate motivation and discipline practices in the school.
Guidelines for Schools Serving
Schools must be fully engaged with the life
of the communities they serve so as to provide consistency of expectations with
those of a culturally-responsive school board.
Schools will contribute to school board implementation of a culturally-responsive
education through the following actions:
- Promote the incorporation of the Alaska Standards for Culturally-Responsive
Schools in all aspects of the school curriculum, while demonstrating their
applicability in providing multiple avenues to meet the State Content Standards.
- Establish an easily accessible repository of culturally-appropriate resource
materials and a reliable process for the daily involvement of knowledgeable
expertise, including respected Elders, from the community.
- Provide developmentally-appropriate curricula that take into account the
cultural variability of the social, emotional, intellectual and spiritual
needs of each child and community, especially during the critical period of
identity formation that takes place during the adolescent years.
- Utilize the natural environment of the community to move educational activities
beyond the classroom as a way of fostering place-based education and deepening
the learning experiences of students.
- Support the implementation of an Elders-in-Residence program in the school
and classroom and teach respect for Elders at all times. Use the Guidelines
for Respecting Cultural Knowledge to assist in incorporating Elders into the
school setting in ways that are natural and beneficial for all concerned.
- Provide an in-depth cultural orientation program for all new teachers and
administrators in collaboration with the local community.
- Make use of locally-produced resource materials (reports, videos, maps,
books, tribal documents, etc.) in all subject areas and work in close collaboration
with local agencies to enrich the curriculum beyond the scope of commercially
- Utilize Elders and Native teachers from the local community to acquire a
comprehensive understanding of all aspects of the local, regional and statewide
context in which the students live, particularly as it relates to the well-being
and survival of the local culture.
- Provide community access to and use of school facilities for cultural events
and educational activities. The school should be viewed as an extension of
the community, for use at the local school/community committees discretion.
- Encourage and support school staff in activities celebrating the local culture,
heritage and environment (e.g., photo gallery of Elders in school hallway,
local art/craft work displays, traditional demonstrations and historical displays,
Elders birthday celebrations, or culturally-appropriate bulletin board displays).
Guidelines for State Policymakers
and Educational Agencies
State policymakers and educational agencies
should provide a supportive policy, program and funding environment that promotes
local standards and initiatives in the application of culturally-responsive
State policymakers and educational agencies will nurture a more culturally-responsive
educational system through the following actions:
- Review all state policies, programs and funding structures
as they relate to the Alaska Standards for Culturally-Responsive Schools,
for Nurturing Culturally-Healthy Youth and the Guidelines for Preparing Culturally-Responsive
Teachers for Alaskas Schools and revise them as necessary to conform
with these standards and guidelines.
- Extend opportunities for local communities to exercise increased self-determination
in the implementation of educational programs for their children (e.g., charter
schools, schools-within-schools and tribal schools linked to tribal colleges).
- Work with local communities to adopt educational policies and practices
oriented toward the integration of traditional knowledge, ways of knowing
and world views into educational systems in culturally appropriate ways
- Work with schools to provide a supportive and affirming cultural climate
for all students and seek to retain students in a culturally-healthy environment
as much as possible, without being subjected to racial and cultural prejudice
- Provide an equitable and supportive funding environment for schools that
insures every student an opportunity to grow up to be a healthy, capable and
responsible adult, recognizing that equitable does not necessarily mean the
- Provide multiple avenues and opportunities for students
to demonstrate and apply what they have learned to become effective adults
and contributing members
of society. In all policy deliberations, adopt the adage, "One size does
not fit all students".
- Provide incentives to schools, districts and communities to develop support
systems committed to the preparation of local indigenous teachers and administrators.
- Extend the definition and use of the generic "standards" to
include locally-developed, contextually-appropriate and culturally-based
Guidelines for the General Public
All citizens must assume greater responsibility
for nurturing the diverse traditions by which each child grows to become a culturally-healthy
human being and selecting school board members who are willing to exercise that
Members of the general public can help nurture a culturally-responsive education
system through the following actions:
- Treat children and youth from all backgrounds with honor,
dignity and respect and involve them in the activities of everyday life
to the maximum extent
possiblethis is how they learn to become contributing adults.
- Encourage and support Native peoples efforts to
apply their own child-rearing and parenting practices in the upbringing
of their children.
- Recognize that all forms of success in school and in life depend first and
foremost on developing a strong sense of personal and cultural identity, and
that the formative adolescent years are the most critical for defining who
we are in relation to others.
- Celebrate that which we all share in common as members of a national society,
as well as all the differences that make each of us unique and serve as the
basis for the local and personal identities which enrich our lives and communities.
- Contribute to and participate respectfully in local cultural events to gain
a better understanding of the range of cultural traditions that coexist in
- Provide opportunities for young parents and children to interact regularly
with Elders and other experienced adults.
- Make room in all community events for multiple cultural traditions to be
- Use popular media to promote positive role models for young people to emulate
and to pass on the traditional teachings.
- Ensure that school boards exercise their responsibility to provide educational
opportunities for all children to achieve their full potential in ways that
are culturally appropriate and personally affirming.
The following recommendations are offered to
support the effective implementation of the guidelines for culturally-responsive
- The First Alaskans Institute should assist in the formation of an Alaska
Native School Board Association or a Native caucus within the Alaska Association
of School Boards with the capacity to provide training and assistance for
school board members to assume greater responsibility in shaping the agenda
and direction for their district and fostering more culturally-responsive
educational systems to serve the needs of Alaska.
- The Alaska Association of School Boards should incorporate the above guidelines
into its school board training program and provide a supportive environment
for their implementation, as well as an assessment system to determine the
extent to which they are reflected in school and district operations.
- The Alaska Parent Teacher Association should assist its members in implementing
the above guidelines and promote strategies aimed at fostering a strong two-way
relationship between parents and teachers.
- The Department of Education and Early Development should incorporate the
Alaska Standards for Culturally-Responsive Schools and associated guidelines
into its school accreditation review criteria.
- The Department of Education and Early Development should provide incentives
for school districts to incorporate cultural orientation programs into the
annual district inservice schedule, including the provision for new teachers
to spend several days in a cultural immersion camp.
- Urban school boards should reflect the cultural makeup of the community
they serve and encourage candidates representing major cultural groups to
seek election to the board. Working groups appointed by the board and administration
should also include a balanced representation of all major cultural viewpoints.
- School districts should sponsor opportunities for students to participate
regularly in cultural immersion camps with parents, Elders and teachers sharing
subsistence activities during each season of the year.
- As regional tribal colleges are established, they should provide a support
structure for the implementation of these guidelines in each of their respective
- School boards should seek to re-establish the traditional education role
of uncles, aunts, Elders and other members of the families and communities
and explore ways to incorporate those roles, along with those of the parents,
into the educational process.
- The guidelines outlined above should be incorporated in university educational
leadership courses and made an integral part of all professional preparation
and cultural orientation programs.
- An annotated bibliography of resource materials that address issues associated
with these guidelines will be maintained on the Alaska Native Knowledge Network
web site (www.ankn.uaf.edu).
Resources for Culturally Responsive
Alaska Native Knowledge Network http://www.ankn.uaf.edu
"Sharing Our Pathways" Newsletter http://ankn.uaf.edu/sop
Alaska Native Curriculum and Teacher Development Project http://www.alaskool.org
Alaska Standards for Culturally Responsive Schools http://ankn.uaf.edu/standards
Guidelines for Nurturing Culturally Healthy Youth http://ankn.uaf.edu/standards/youth.html
Guidelines for Respecting Cultural Knowledge http://ankn.uaf.edu/standards/knowledge.html
Alaska Federation of Natives Research Guidelines http://ankn.uaf.edu/afnguide.html
Principles for the Conduct of Research in the Arctic http://ankn.uaf.edu/conduct.html
Cultural and Intellectual Property Rights, ANKN http://ankn.uaf.edu/rights.html
Alaska Federation of Natives http://www.nativefederation.org/flash.html
First Alaskans Institute http://www.firstalaskans.org
Alaska Department of Education and Early Development http://www.eed.state.ak.us/home.html
Association of Alaska School Boards http://www.aasb.org
Alaska Parent Teacher Association http://www.akpta.org
Principles & Guidelines for the Protection of the
Heritage of Indigenous Peoples http://ankn.uaf.edu/protect.html
The Mataatua Declaration on Cultural and Intellectual Property Rights of
Indigenous Peoples http://ankn.uaf.edu/mataatua.html
Coolongatta Statement on Indigenous Rights in Education http://www.wipcehawaii.org/coolongatta.htm
Books & Articles
Alaska Natives Commission (1994). Alaska Natives Commission Final Report.
Anchorage, AK: Alaska Federation of Natives (http://www.alaskool.org).
Barnhardt, R. (1977). Administrative Influences in Alaskan Native Education.
In R. Barnhardt (Ed.), Cross-Cultural Issues in Alaskan Education (pp. 57-63).
Fairbanks, AK: Center for Cross-Cultural Studies, UAF.
Barnhardt, R. (1994). Administration Across Cultures.
In Education and Development: Lessons From the Third World, V. DOyley,
A. Blount and R. Barnhardt, eds. Toronto: Detselig Publishers (http://www.ankn.uaf.edu).
Battiste, M. and J. Y. Henderson (2000). Protecting Indigenous Knowledge
and Heritage: A Global Challenge. Saskatoon, Purich Publishing Ltd.
Brush, S. B., & Stabinsky, D. (1996). Valuing Local
Knowledge: Indigenous People and Intellectual Property Rights. Covelo,
CA: Island Press.
Ellerby, J. H. (2001). Working with Aboriginal Elders: An Introductory Handbook
for Institution-Based and Health Care Professionals Based on the Teachings
of Aboriginal Elders and Cultural Teachers. Winnipeg, Manitoba: Native Studies
Press, University of Manitoba.
Harrison, Barbara and R. Barnhardt (1993). Developing Tribal Education Strategies.
In Discourse: The Austrailian Journal of Educational Studies, October, 1993
Hill, Frank (1999). Rural Alaska School Districts: Who is in control? In
Sharing Our Pathways, Vol. 4, Issue 5 (http://ankn.uaf.edu/sop).
Hill, Frank, A.O. Kawagley and R. Barnhardt (2000). Cultural Standards and
Test Scores. In Sharing Our Pathways, Vol. 5, Issue 4 (http://ankn.uaf.edu/sop).
Kushman, Jim and R. Barnhardt (2001). "Reforming Education From the
Inside-Out in Rural Alaska: A Study of Community Engagement and Systemic Reform".
Journal of Research in Rural Education, Vol. 17, No. 1 (http://ankn.uaf.edu/reform/studyindex.html).
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