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Native Pathways to Education
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The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act Teacher's Guide



map of ANCSA regions

Compiled by Alaska Native Education F.N.S.B.S.D.

Funds provided by Indian Education Act 1972, Washington D.C.






Produced By
Title IV/A - Indian Education Act Program
of the
Fairbanks North Star Borough School District
P.O. Box 1250
Fairbanks, Alaska 99707

This material has been compiled in part from:

Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act of 1971;
Anchorage School District

Alaska Native Land Claims, Teacher's Guide,
Alaska Native Foundation

Teaching Ideas for Alaska Native Claims Act Multi-Materials Kit,
Learning Tree, AMU Press


Copies can be ordered from: Alaska Native Education,
P.O. Box 1250, Fairbanks, Alaska 99707, Telephone No. 452-2000 ext. 242.

Funded by Indian Education Act of 1971.

U.S. GOVERNMENT - Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act of 1971


Introduction: The Alaska Land Question

When Alaska became part of the United States in 1867, there was no provision in the law for private ownership in the new territory, except for the private individual property holders who had obtained written title to the land under the Russians. "Uncivilized" tribes (which included all but the acculturated Natives who had accepted the Russian Orthodox religion) were to be treated like Indians in the lower United States, which meant they had claim to their ancestral lands but no citizenship rights. "Civilized" tribes were to be given the rights and citizenship of other Americans. In practice, however, the United States government and new residents to the territory treated all Alaska Natives as "uncivilized" tribes.

The Organic Act of 1884 allowed non-Natives to own mining sites, as long as they were not in areas of use or occupation by Natives. Subsequent laws (after the turn of the century) allowed for Alaska Natives to obtain restricted title to some ancestral lands. (One example of the restrictions placed on the title was that the Native owners did not have the right to sell the land without permission of the federal government.) Various other laws allowed non-Natives to homestead large areas of land, provided they surveyed and worked it.

By the time of statehood (1959) most of the land in Alaska was claimed by the federal government, with a small amount centered around the cities being owned by individuals, almost all of whom were non-Natives. Yet, the rights of Alaska Natives to their ancestral lands had been acknowledged in a number of legal documents from the time of the purchase. The message in all the documents was that Alaska Natives own their own land, but that it is up to future generations to decide how they would get title to it. Exactly which lands were the ancestral lands had not been addressed until the 1900’s when, bit by bit, Natives began to lay claim to portions of the land in the state.

Then, because of a growing non-Native population in Alaska, the discovery of a vast oil field on the North Slope, and increasing demands for that oil in the lower 48, the question of "who owns Alaska" became a national issue in 1971.


As you begin this unit on the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act in your class you should:

1) Think creatively and encourage your students to do the same. ANCSA is unique worldwide both for its magnitude and for the use of corporate structure for management of the lands and monies paid. Studying ANCSA in the classroom provides an opportunity to explore hypothetical designs and situations, and to develop skills in problem solving.

2) Stimulate your students' academic sophistication. These issues are difficult. Corporation structure is abstract to many adults; much less secondary students. Encourage the students to grasp the relevance and sophistication of the subject matter.

3) Not become intimidated because you are not an expert on ANCSA. Begin by reading the background information provided and continue to learn as you explore the topic with your students. Throughout the semester, address the current issues on ANCSA as they appear in the paper. Encourage students to share personal experiences relating to corporations, business and management with the class and relate them to your study of ANCSA.

map of ANCSA regions


Unit: Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act

Activity: Predicting

1. Read the statements below and take a guess at the answer before studying the unit.

2. If you think the answer is yes, then write yes in the BEFORE column. If you think the answer is no, then write no in the BEFORE column.

3. After studying the unit, you may change the answers by writing the new response in the AFTER Column i£ the answer is different from your prediction.








1. All Alaska Natives are of the same ethnic origin.





2. Alaskan Athabascan Indians are of the same language family as the Navajos and Apaches.





3. The United States Federal Government has always treated American Indians uniquely.





4. American Indians have been citizens of the United States since George Washington's time.





5. The United States acquired Alaska from England after the Revolutionary War.





6. The 1880 discovery of gold in Juneau caused the formation of civil government in Alaska.





7. Alaska's political status under United States rule can be divided into four (4) periods: possession district, territory and state.





8. Three industries which have effected Alaska are hunting fishing and tourism.





9. The Alaska Native Land Claims Movement reached its peak in the late1960's and early 1970's.





10. The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA) was signed into law by President Richard Nixon.





11. The Alaska National Interest Lands Conversation Act (ANILCA), also known as D-2, is a direct result of ANCSA.



An Eastern Worldview:
American Indian/Alaskan Native
A Western Worldview:
European Immigrants/Settlers in U.S.


Group Emphasis


Individual Emphasis

Present and Past Orientation

Future Orientation

Time: Always With Us

Time- Use Every Minute





Harmony with Nature

Conquest Over Nature









Listening Skills learned first

Verbal Skills learned first

Religion: A Way of Life

Religion: Segment of Life

Should appear modest

Should put one's best foot forward



Use of land

Ownership of land

As a part of Nature, they cannot own any other part of it, though sole rights of use

As the most important things on earth for whom all Nature was made, it is theirs to do with as they see they may have fit


Adapted from Drug Abuse Prevention is Everybody's Business, Pub. by MCRC, l977, pg. 9.

Desired Student Outcome: Students will gain historical point of view on racial discrimination.

Strategies: Read this account aloud or listen to the tape.

(Available at Alaska Native Education library)

This is a personal account by an American colonist who was alive 200 years ago. It describes how some early settlers regarded Indians.


-Hugh Henry Brackenridge


With the narrative enclosed, I subjoin some observations with regard to the animals, vulgarly called Indians. It is not my intention to write any labored essay; for at so great a distance from the city, and so long unaccustomed to write, I have scarcely resolution to put pen to paper. Having an opportunity to know something of the character of this race of men, from the deeds they penetrate daily round me, I think proper to say something on the subject. Indeed, several years ago, and before I left your city, I had thought different from some others with respect to the right of soil, and the propriety of forming treaties and making peace with them.

In the United States Magazine in the year 1777, I published a dissertation denying them to have a right in the soil. I perceive a writer in your very elegant and useful paper, has taken up the same subject, under the signature of "Caractacus," and unanswerably shown, that their claim to the extensive countries of America, is wild and inadmissible. I will take the liberty in this place, to pursue this subject a little.

On what is their claim founded?-Occupancy. A wild Indian with his skin painted red, and a feather through his nose, has set his foot on the broad continent of North and South America; a second wild Indian with his ears cut in ringlets, or his nose slit like a swine or a malefactor, also sets his foot on the same extensive tract of soil. Let the first Indian make a talk to his a brother, and bid him take his foot off the continent, for he being first upon it, had occupied the whole, to kill buffaloes, and tall elks with long horns. This claim in the reasoning of some men would be just, and the second savage ought to depart in his canoe, and seek a continent where no prior occupant claimed the soil. Is this claim of occupancy of a very early date? When Noah's three sons, Shem, Ham, and Japhet, went out to the three quarters of the old world, Ham to Africa, Shem to Asia, Japhet to Europe, did each claim a quarter of the world for his residence? Suppose Ham to have spent his time fishing or gathering oysters in the Red Sea, never once stretching his leg in a long walk to see his vast dominions, from the mouth of the Nile, across the mountains of Ethiopia and the river Niger to the Cape of Good Hope, where the Hottentots, a cleanly people, now stay; or supposing him, like a Scots peddler, to have traveled over many thousand leagues of that country; would this give him a right to the soil? In the opinion of some men it would establish an exclusive right. Let a man in more modern times take a journey or voyage like Patrick Kennedy and others to the heads of the Mississippi or Missouri rivers, would he gain a right ever- after to exclude all persons from drinking the waters of these streams? Might not a second Adam make a talk to them and say, is the whole of this water necessary to allay your thirst, and may I also drink of it?

The whole of this earth was given to man, and all descendants of Adam have a right to share it equally. There is no right of primogeniture in the laws of nature and or nations. There is reason that a tall man, such as the chaplain in the American army we call the High Priest, should have a large spot of ground to stretch himself upon; or that a man with a big belly, like a goodly alderman of London, should have a larger garden to produce beans and cabbage for his appetite, but that an agile, nimble runner, like an Indian called the Big Cat, at Fort Pitt, should have more than his neighbors, because he has traveled a great space, I can see no reason.

I have conversed with some persons and found their mistakes on this subject, to arise form a view of claims by individuals in a state of society, from holding a greater proportion of the soil than others; but this is according to the laws to which they have consented; an individual holding one acre, cannot encroach on him who has a thousand, because he is bound by the law which secures property in an unequal manner. this is the municipal law of the state under which he lives. The member of a distant society is not excluded by the laws from a right to the soil. He claims under the general law of nature, which gives a right, equally to all, to so much of the soil as is necessary for subsistence. Should a German from the closely populated country of the Rhine, come into Pennsylvania, more thinly peopled, he would be justifiable in demanding a settlement, though his personal force would not be sufficient to effect it. It may be said that the cultivation or melioration of the earth, gives a property in it. No-if an individual has engrossed more than is necessary to produce grain for him to live upon, his useless gardens, fields and pleasure walks, may be seized upon by the person who, not finding convenient ground elsewhere, choose to till them for his support.

It is a usual way of destroying an opinion by pursuing it to its consequence. In the present case we may say, that if the visiting one acre of ground could give a right to it, the visiting of a million would give a right on the same principle; and thus a few surly ill nature men, might in the earlier ages have excluded half the human race from a settlement, or should any have fixed themselves on a territory, visited before they had set a foot on it, they must be considered invaders of the right of others.

It is said that an individual, building a house or fabricating a machine has an exclusive right to it, and why not those improve the earth? I would say, should man build houses on a greater part of the soil, than falls to his share, I would, in a state of nature, take away a proportion of the soil and the houses from him, but a machine or any work of art, does not lessen the means of subsistence to the human race, which an extensive occupation of the soil does.

Claims founded on the first discovery of soil are futile. When gold, jewels, manufactures, or any work of men's hands is lost, the finder is entitled to some reward, chat is, he has some claims on the thing found, for a share of it.

When by industry or the exercise of genius, something unusual is invented in medicine or in other matters, the author doubtless has a claim to an exclusive profit by it, but who will say the soil is lost, or that any one can found a claim by discovering it. The earth with its woods and rivers still exist, and the only advantage I would allow to any individual for having cast his eye first on any particular part of it, is the privilege of making the first choice of situation. I would think the man a fool and unjust, who would exclude me from drinking the waters of the Mississippi river, because he had first seen it. He would be equally so who would exclude me from settling in the country west of the Ohio, because in chasing a buffalo he had been first over it.

The idea of an exclusive right to the soil in the natives had its origin in the policy of the first discoverers, the kings of Europe. Should they deny the right of the natives from their first treading on the continent, they would take away the right of discovery in themselves, by sailing on the coast. As the vestige of the moccasin in one case gave a right, so the cruise in the other was the foundation of a claim.

Those who under these kings, derived grants were led to countenance the idea, for otherwise why should kings grant or they hold extensive tracts of country. Men become enslaved to an opinion that has been long entertained. Hence it is that many wise and good men will talk of the right of savages to immense tracts or soil.

What use do these ring, streaked, spotted and speckled cattle make of the soil? Do they till it? Revelation said to man, "Thou shalt till the ground." This alone is human life. It is favorable to population, to science, to the information of a human mind in the worship of God. Warburton has well said, that before you can make an Indian a christian you must teach him agriculture and reduce him to a civilized life. To live by tilling is more humano, by hunting is more bestiarum. I would as soon admit a right in the buffalo to grant lands, as in Killbuck, the Big Cat, the Big Dog, or any or the ragged wretches that are called chiefs and sachems. 'What. would you think or going to a big lick or place where the beasts collect to lick saline nitrous earth and water, and addressing yourself to a great buffalo to grant you 'land? It is true he could not make the mark or the stone or the mountain reindeer, but he could set his cloven foot to the instrument like the great Ottomon, the father of the Turks, when he put his signature to an instrument, he put his large hand and spreading fingers in the ink and set his mark to the parchment. To see how far the folly of some would go, I had once a thought of supplicating some of the great elks or buffaloes that run through the woods, to make me a grant of a hundred thousand acres of land and prove he had brushed the weeds with this tail, and run fifty miles.

I wonder if Congress or the different States would recognize the claim? I am so far from thinking the Indians have a right to the soil, that not having made a better use of it for many hundred years, I conceive they have forfeited all pretense to claim, and ought to be driven from it.

With regard to forming treaties or making peace with this race, there are many ideas:

They have the shapes of men and may be of the human species, but certainly in their present state they approach nearer the character of Devils; take and Indian, is there any faith in him? Can you bind him by favors? Can you trust his word or confide in his promise? When he makes war upon you, when he takes you prisoner and has you in his power will he spare you? In this he departs from the law of nature, by which, according to baron Montesquieu and every other man who thinks on the subject, it is unjustifiable to take away the life of him who submits; the conqueror in doing otherwise becomes a murderer, who ought to be put to death. On this principle are not the whole Indian nations murderers?

Many of them may not have had an opportunity of putting prisoners to death, but the sentiment which they entertain leads them invariably to this when they have it in their power or judge it expedient; these principles constitute them murderers, and they ought to be prevented from carrying them into execution, as we would prevent a common homocide, who should be mad enough to conceive himself justifiable in killing men.

The tortures which they exercise on the bodies of their prisoners justify extermination. Gelo of Syria made war on the Carthaginians because they oftentimes burnt human victims, and made peace with them on conditions they could cease from this unnatural and cruel practice, If we could have any faith in the promises they make we could suffer them to live, provided they would only make war amongst themselves, and abandon their hiding or lurking on the pathways of our citizens, emigrating unarmed and defenceless inhabitants; and murdering men, women and children in defenceless situation; and on their ceasing in the meantime to raise arms no more among the American Citizens.

1. What is Mr. Brackenridge' opinion of natives?

2. What does he think of their claim to the land?

3. How does he think claim should be established?

4. Do you agree with him?

5. How would his land claim theory be regarded by environmentalists (the Sierra Club), for instance?



Desired Student Outcome: Students will look at early American history from the Indian point of view.

Strategies: Read this speech aloud or listen to tape.

In Boston, when an Indian, Frank James, was chosen to be orator at a celebration of the 350th year after the landing of the Pilgrims, he was prepared to deliver this speech.
-Frank James
I speak to you as a Man - Wampanoag Man. I am a proud man, proud of my ancestry, my accomplishments won by strict parental direction - ("You must succeed - your face is a different color in this small Cape Cod community.") I am a product of poverty and discrimination, from these two social and economic diseases. I, and my brothers and sisters have painfully overcome, and to an extent earned the respect of our community. We are Indians first - but we are termed "good citizens." Sometimes we are arrogant, but only because society has pressured us to be so.

It is with mixed emotions that I stand here to share my thoughts. This is a time of celebration for you - celebrating an anniversary of a beginning for the white man in American. A time of looking back - of reflection. It is with heavy heart that I look back upon what happened to my people.

Even before the Pilgrims landed here it was common practice for explorers to capture Indians, take them to Europe and sell them as slaves for 20 shillings apiece. The Pilgrims had hardly explored the shores of Cape Cod four days before they had robbed the graves of my ancestors, and stolen their corn, wheat and beans. Mourt’s Relation describes a searching party of 16 men - he goes on to say that this party took as much of the Indian’s winter provisions as they were able to carry.

Massasoit, the great Sachem of the Wampanoags, knew these facts, yet he and his people welcomed and befriended the settlers of the Plymouth Plantation. Perhaps he did this because his tribe had been depleted by an epidemic. Or his knowledge of the harsh oncoming winter was the reason for this peaceful acceptance of these acts. This action by Massasoit was probably our greatest mistake. We, the Wampanoags, welcomed you the white man with open arms, little knowing that it was the beginning of an end; that before 50 years were to pass, the Wampanoags would not longer be a tribe.

What happened in those short 50 years? What has happened in the last 300 years? History gives us facts and information - often contradictory. There were battles, there were atrocities, there were broken promises - and most of these centered around land ownership. Among ourselves we understood that there were boundaries - but never before had we had to deal with fences and stonewalls; with the white man's need to prove his worth by the amount of land that he owned. Only 10 years later, when the Puritans came, they treated the Wampanoag with even less kindness in converting the soul or the so-called savages. Although they were harsh to members of their own society, the Indian was pressed between stone slabs and hanged as quickly as any other "witch."

And so down through the years there is record after record of Indian lands being taken, and in token reservations set up for him upon which to live. The Indian, having been stripped of his power, could but only stand by and watch - while the white man took his land and used it for his personal gain. This the Indian couldn't understand, for to him, land was for survival, to farm, to hunt, to be enjoyed. It wasn't to be abused. We see incident after incident where the white sought to tame the savage and convert him to the Christian ways of life. The early settlers led the Indian to believe that if he didn’t behave, they would dig up the ground and unleash the great epidemic again.

The white man used the Indians nautical skills and abilities. they let him be only a seaman - but never a captain. Time and time again, in the white man’s society, we the Indians have been termed, "Low man on the Totem Pole".

Has the Wampanoag really disappeared? There is still an aura of mystery. We know there was an epidemic that took many Indian lives - some Wampanoags moved west and joined the Cherokees and Cheyenne. They were forced to move. Some even went north to Canada! Many Wampanoags put aside their Indian heritage and accepted the white man's ways for their own survival. There are some Wampanoags who do not wish it known they are Indian for social and economic reasons.

What happened to those Wampanoags who chose to remain and lived among the early settlers? What kind of existence did they lead as civilized people? True, living was not as complex as life is today - but they dealt with the confusion and the change. Honesty, trust, concern, pride, and politics wove themselves in and out of their daily living. Hence he was termed crafty, cunning, rapacious and dirty.

History wants us to believe that the Indian was a savage, illiterate uncivilized animal. A history that was written by an organized, disciplined people, to expose us as an unorganized and undisciplined entity. Two distinctly different cultures met. One thought they must control life - the other believed life was to be enjoyed, because nature decreed it. Let us remember, the Indian is and was just as human as the white man. The Indian feels pain, gets hurt and becomes defensive, has dreams, bears tragedy and failure, suffers from loneliness, needs to cry as well as laugh. He too, is often misunderstood.

The white man in the presence of the Indian is still mystified by his uncanny ability to make him feel uncomfortable. This may be that the image that the white man created of the Indian - "his savageness" - has boomeranged and it isn’t mystery, it is fear, fear of the Indian’s temperament.

High on a hill, overlooking the famed Plymouth Rock stands the statue of our great sachem, Massasoit. Massasoit has stood there many years in silence. We the descendants of this great Sachem have been a silent people. The necessity of making a living in this materialistic society of the white man has caused us to be silent. Today, I and many of my people are choosing to face the truth. We are Indians.

Although time has drained dour culture, and our language is almost extinct, we the Wampanoags still walk the lands of Massachusetts. We may be fragmented, we may be confused. Many years have passed since we have been a people together. Our lands were invaded. We fought as hard to keep our land as you the white did to take our land away from us. We were conquered, we became the American Prisoners of War in many cases, and wards of the United States Government, until only recently.

Our spirit refuses to die. Yesterday we walked the woodland paths and sandy trails. Today we must walk the macadem highways and roads. We are uniting. We’re standing not in our wigwams but in our concrete tent. We stand tall and proud and before too many moons pass we’ll right the wrongs we have allowed to happen to us.

We forfeited our country. Our lands have fallen into the hands of the aggressor. We have allowed the white man to keep us on our knees. What has happened cannot be changed, but today we work toward a more humane America, a more Indian America where man and nature once again are important, where the Indian values of honor, truth and brotherhood prevail.

You the white man are celebrating an anniversary. We the Wampanoags will help you celebrate in the concept of a beginning. It was the beginning of a new life for the Pilgrims. Now 350 years later is a beginning of a new determination for the original American - the American Indian.

There are some factors involved concerning the Wampanoags and other Indians across this vast nation. We now have 350 years of experience living amongst the white man. We can now speak his language. We can now think as the white man thinks. We can now compete with him for the top jobs. We’re being heard; we are now being listened to. The important point is that along with these necessities of everyday living, we still have the spirit, we still have a unique culture, we still have the will and most important of all, the determination, to remain as Indians. We are determined and our presence here this evening is living testimony that this is only a beginning of the American Indian, particularly the Wampanoag, to regain the position in this country that is rightfully ours.


1. How does his view of the cultural contact differ from that of Mr. Brackenridge?

2. How does the history of the Wampanoag Tribe differ from that of the Alaska native groups?

3. In what way are their histories similar?

Copy of Lincoln Totem Pole 


Content Area: Social Studies - United States Government

Unit: Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act

Time on Unit: Approximately 10 days

Major Objectives:

Students will be able . .
  1. To gain insight into the historical basis for a land claims in Alaska.
  2. To know major features of ANCSA.
  3. To become familiar with the thirteen (13) regional corporation village corporations, and non-profits and learn how they are interrelated.
  4. To gain insight into-the implications of the act as it relates to the native and non-native population of Alaska.
  5. To understand the possible future implications of the Act.
  6. To become aware of Alaska native leaders and their present roles.


Key Vocabulary:

aboriginal claims
tax exempt



Lesson 1.


Aboriginal Claims


Claims made by the first people to live in an area.




An official paper, written statement relied upon to prove something.


Legal Title


A document showing official ownership of property.




A document that states a contract, agreement, transfer of property, etc.




The people who inherit property after a person dies.




Something given to a person or passed into the possession of another, a legacy.




A way of measuring land. There are 640 acres in a square mile. An acre can be any shape. A square acre would measure just under 209 feet long each side.




The infringement upon, taking over of native lands by the government.

Lesson 2.


Dawes 1887 Act/General Allotment Act


Divided reservations into 80 and 160 acre tracts to be owned by individual Indians. After each eligible native received lands the surplus was put up for sale by the government. Indian holdings were reduced from 156 million acres to 78 million acres by 1900.




The merging of the native population into the non-natives resulting in loss of cultural identity.




A formal agreement between the U.S. government and ratified by Congress.


Treaty of Cession


1867 - Russian America sold to the U.S. Native people were considered "uncivilized native tribes" who would be excluded from citizenship. Uncivilized natives were considered on same basis in lower 48 states.


Organic Act


1884 - Certain lands, in use by natives were recognized as belonging to those natives and were not allowed to be claimed by non-natives.


Native Allotment Act


1906 - First Congressional Act which allowed natives to obtain title to land, provided for conveyance of 160 acres of public domain to natives. Did not recognize aboriginal title.


Alaska Native Brotherhood


The first native organization in the state founded to seek citizenship for natives.


Citizenship Act


1924 - U.S. Congress granted U.S. citizenship to all Natives which had not already become citizens under the Dawes Act.


Native Townsite Act


1926 - Villages were surveyed into lots, blocks sheets and individual lots conveyed to native adults - provided for "restricted" title. The land could not be sold or leased without approval of the Secretary of the Interior.


Statehood Act


1958 - The state's land, obtained through this act could not include land which should belong to the natives.

Lesson 3.




The end of something. Some native people rights felt that ANCSA would terminate the special relationship between natives and the federal government.




To blend into an already established pattern - as in the Alaska natives into non-native lifestyle.


Project Chariot


U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's Nuclear device which was to be set off at Cape Thompson - to create a harbor for shipment of minerals. Began the first organized efforts of the 1960's to preserve ancient land rights.

Lesson 4.


Alaska Land Claim Task Force


A task force established under state sponsorship chaired by William Hensley to develop a proposal f settlement of the land claims. The task force delivered its report in January 1968 and it was introduced by Senator Ernest Gruening.




An act, statement, legal decision, case that may serve as an example, reason or justification for a later one.


Land Freeze


Imposed by Interior Secretary Udall in 1966 to stop transfer of lands claimed by natives until Congress could act upon the claims.

Lesson 5.




To talk with government representatives to try to make laws which will help a certain group of people.




Payment for something lost.




Alaska Federation of Natives. First meeting was held October 19 1966. Organized group of Alaska Natives for the land freeze on federal lands until land claims issues were solved, and the recommendation to Congress of the Land Claims Act.




A sum of money allotted through official action by Congress for a specific use.


Articles of Incorporation


A written agreement describing the purposes and conditions of the association of persons in a joint enterprise.




To set aside, to give out, as in lands and monies allocated by the Land Claims Settlement Act.




Lesson 6,7.




A Certificate authorizing one person to vote for another.




Listing of people who belong to the Native Corp. or Village Corp.


Legal Title


A document showing official ownership of property.


Regional Corporations


Organizations formed according to state laws which represent the different native regions of Alaska.




Person who owns stock, or shares in the corporation.




Payments to stockholders from the company's profits.




The equal portions which a company's stock is divided.




A law passed by legislature and set forth in a formal document.




Not yielding a return, arm of the regional corporations designed for social services and educational purposes.




Money received by individuals and village corporations as their share of compensation for land claims extinguished which is not subject to income taxes.




To meet requirements for something.

Lesson 9.




To plan one's own future, to be responsible for one's own destiny.


Lesson 1

Teaching Objectives:

Learner Outcome:

  1. Property ownership situation in the U.S. for native and non-natives prior to ANCSA.
  2. Understanding of stimuli leading toward settling land claims in Alaska in 1950's and 60's.
  1. Students will gain historical point of view on racial discrimination and rights of ownership.

TIME REQUIRED: Approximately 1 class period


  1. Predicting Sheet for Unit - This could be used to introduce the entire unit.
  2. Discuss how one becomes an "owner" of something. Have students brainstorm a list on the board including ideas such as: claim, inherit, buy, earn, steal, barter, sell, etc.
  3. Relate this discussion to the "theory of finders-keepers"/ conditions of ownership. How can one claim something? Have student skim and discuss list of Land Ownership Attitudes (Day l Readings)
  4. Do the enrichment activity provided "Indians and Europeans". (Included in teacher's guide)
  5. Read aloud, or have taped the personal accounts of Hugh Henry Brackenridge and Frank James. Discuss in class. (Included in teacher's guide)

VOCABULARY: Aboriginal claims, document, title, deed, heirs, inheritance, encroachment

READING ASSIGNMENT: Have students read, "A Request for a Right to Hold a Claim, 1902 (Day 1 Readings). Direct students to write a paragraph with their reaction to the letter.

ADDITIONAL MATERIALS FOR LESSON: "Land Ownership Attitudes", "The Animals, Vulgarly Called Indians", Our Beginnings, An Indian's View"


Divide the class into two groups.


Group I is to assume the position of being European settlers in the Americas. The group is to make up what kind of attitude representing the 13 colonies government, settler-farmer or missionary, etc. they wish to hold toward the American Indians. Have adopted that attitude, the group is to decide on one of the following courses of action regarding the treatment of American Indians and provide reasons for the choice.

  1. Don't do anything -- just let the settlers gradually outnumber the Indians and gradually take over.
  2. Kill off the Indians.
  3. Put the Indians on reservations.
  4. Encourage Indian assimilation into the dominate society.
  5. Encourage Indians to keep their identity and cultural heritage and work within the larger society.

(Adapted from the teacher's guide AS IT HAPPENED: A HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES, Charles Sellers, ed., New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1975)


Group II is to assume the position of a community of American Indians. It is to decide (a) how it would like to relate to the European settlers migrating into the Americas and (b) why it chose that method.

After Group I and II have made their decisions (15 minutes) the class can come together and each group report to the entire group what it decided and why those particular choices were made.

Discussion should focus on the kinds of attitudes, beliefs and problems held by both settlers and Indians toward each other that contributed to the kinds of choices made by each group. Discuss also why European settlers could continue to move onto Indian lands.



Lesson 2

Teaching Objectives:

Learner Outcome:

  1. There were many events in U.S. history which led eventually to a native claims settlement.
  2. All the native groups of Alaska contributed to winning the settlement.
  1. Students will have an understanding of the historical foundation which led to ANCSA and complete a timeline depicting major events in Alaska history.

TIME REQUIRED: Approximately 1 class period


  1. Review reading and writing assignments from Lesson 1 and discuss.
  2. Review Alaska Native Language Map; identify native groups.
  3. The timeline could be started with-students and then researched by students and completed the next day. Possibly place a timeline on the board with a few important events as a start.
  4. Have the students research additional events in Alaska history and add to the timeline.

VOCABULARY: Assimilation, treaty, Treaty of Cession, Organic Act, Native Allotment Act, Alaska Native Brotherhood, Citizenship Act, Native Townsite Act, Statehood Act

READING ASSIGNMENT: Read Tribal Sovereignty: Indian Tribes in U.S. History and Natives were second-class citizens after U.S. purchase of Alaska.

ADDITIONAL MATERIALS FOR LESSON: Timeline, Alaska Native Language Map



Lesson 3


Teaching Objectives:

Learner Outcome:

  1. The U.S. Government practiced an assimilation policy in regards to Native Alaskans.
  2. An act was needed to compensate Native Alaskans for land lost.
  1. Students will describe how the benefits of citizenship affect an individual's ability to work within our government system
  2. Students will understand and react to the U.S. Government' assimilation policy of the mid-1800's.

TIME REQUIRED: Approximately 1 class period


  1. Complete timeline.
  2. From reading assignment:
  3. Discuss the Menominee Termination Case. Discuss its legality, morality, fairness.
  4. Discuss the Dawes Act (General Allotment Act) of 1887. How did it attempt to assimilate the American Indians further into mainstream society?
  5. Read the Frank St. Clair case study in class. Have the students list the benefits of citizenship and problems that lack of citizenship may bring to you.
  6. Discussion: Did Frank St. Clair's citizenship status have a bearing on his court case? Why or why not? If not, what did cause his problems?
  7. Discussion: What do you think the ultimate solution to the St. Clair case should be?

VOCABULARY: termination, mainstream, assimilation, Dawes Act, Organic Act.

READING ASSIGNMENT: Read the The Land Claims Struggle (Vol. 4, AMU Press) and Legal Precedents to ANCSA



Frank St. Clair Case

Frank St. Clair was a Tlingit Indian from Hoonah and Glacier Bay, Alaska. In the Tlingit culture, a family had two main homes: a winter home in the village and a spring, summer and fall home at fishcamp. St. Clair's fishcamp was at Glacier Bay. His family had built a summer house, a smokehouse, and a food cache near a fish stream there, and had used that fishcamp throughout his entire life.

In May 1906, the Native Allotment Act was passed. It allowed the Secretary of the Department of the Interior to allot up to 150 acres of nonmineral land to any Alaska Native who applied, provided that he was the head of a family or 21 years old, and was the occupant of the land.

In 1909, the Tongass National Forest in Southeastern Alaska was expanded to include the St. Clair fishcamp. However, the prior rights of residents of the expanded area still existed; the proclamation expanding the forest did not wipe out traditional Native ownership.

In 1915, St. Clair filed, under the Native Allotment Act, for the 160 acres surrounding his summer fish and berrying camp. In his application, he said that his family had used the land for generations and that he still used it.

It took the government five years to take any action on St. Clair's application. Three times, in 1920, 1924, and 1927, investigators went to the land to see if there was any evidence of occupancy on it. There was: the house, cache, and smokehouse were there, and each time showed that they had been used recently.

Still, the Forest Service recommended that the allotment be reduced from 160 acres to 9.38 acres, since that was all the land that seemed, to the ranger, to be in use.

This included the land around the house only and did not include the smokehouse, the cache or food and water source (the fish creek). In 1929, 14 years after St. Clair’s application, the Department of the Interior reviewed the Forest Service’s recommendation. the decision of the Department was that, under the law, there was no reason to reduce St. Clair’s allotment. First, the Native Allotment Act did not require continuous, year-round occupation of the land. Second, it did not require that all the land claimed be "improved" by buildings or agriculture, as had the Homestead Act of 1898. (Southeastern Alaska is not, of course, suitable farmland anyway). Third, the Act did not require that St. Clair prove that Glacier Bay was his only home. And finally, no one ever asked St. Clair how he used his land; they simply assumed that, since they didn’t see evidence of any use besides as a fishcamp, that he didn’t use it for anything else.

The next year the Department of the Interior looked at the decision again. Since the Native Allotment Act stated that "up to 160 acres" could be allotted at "the discretion of the Secretary of the Interior," the Department felt it had the power to decide how much land it would convey to St. Clair. The allotment was again reduced to 9.36 acres. The decision reads:

In view of the fact that it has been nine years or more since the applicant filed his application for the allotment, and has not cleared or cultivated any portion of the land or made other improvements tending to show that he intended to make his permanent home thereon, and since the evidence indicates that he has used and intends to use the land as a fishing site it appears that 10 acres are sufficient for his purpose. Accordingly, a survey, embracing the land upon which the house is located and about 600 feet of water front, with a total net area of 9.36 acres, was made.



Lesson 4 

Teaching Objectives:

Learner Outcome:

  1. There were many legal steps taken before finalization of the act.
  1. Students will complete a worksheet demonstrating the understanding of the legal steps which preceded ANCSA.

TIME REQUIRED: Approximately 1 class period


1. Discuss reading assignment; view video-tape.

2. Do Worksheet I in class with students, possibly in groups.

3. Discuss answers (Key in teacher's guide)


VOCABULARY: Alaska Land Claims Task Force, "land freeze," precedents

READING ASSIGNMENT: Political Pressure, Good Timing Favored Claims



Lesson 5

Teaching Objectives:

Learner Outcome:

  1. Review of legal precedents for ANCSA.
  2. Understanding of components of a successful political action.
  3. Understanding of how ANCSA fits in with those components.
  4. Understanding of difficulties facing Alaska Natives in the 1900's as they began to work on achieving their goal of title to the land.
  1. Students will participate in project concerning land ownership which will increase their understanding of successful political actions.

TIME REQUIRED: Approximately 1 class period

  1. Divide class into groups of about 5 students each. Each group will need the student readings, Realities of the 1960's. Each group's goal is to decide how it will go about getting clear title to its ancestral lands.
  2. The goal of the simulation activity is divided into 6 tasks. Tell the students they will have only 5 minutes for each subtask. Time the group work and signal every 5 minutes that the groups should move on to the next task. The tasks are detailed in the following pages.
  3. At the end of the work session, get reports from each group. Judge the group solutions for effectiveness in obtaining the land.
  4. As an option to activities 1-3, read Alaska Native Land Claims pp 138-144 and do Worksheet II.

VOCABULARY: Lobby, compensation, A.F.N., appropriation bill, articles of incorporation, allocated

READING ASSIGNMENT: Have students read Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, Vol. 5. In addition, have them identify a native person who was active in the political arena of the 1960's from the Fairbanks area. How was this person involved?

ADDITIONAL MATERIALS FOR LESSON: Student Group Assignment, Worksheet I





Listed below are the major laws and court cases which showed that the United States governmental system believed that Alaska Natives should be compensated for the lands they lost. Briefly tell what each says in terms of native land ownership:

A. Treaty of Cession (1867)

B. Organic Act (1884)

C. Native Allotment Act (1906)

D. Native Townsite Act (1926)

E. Tlingit/Haida court settlement (1959)

F. Statehood Act (1959)


Briefly describe the following conflicts which indicated a land dispute in Alaska:

A. Project Chariot

B. Barrow duck hunting incident

C. Minto Flats land selection

D. Rampart Dam






Alaska is purchased from Russia by the United States. Treaty of Cession provides that "uncivilized Native tribes" to be subject to such laws and regulations as the United States may from time to time adopt in regards to aboriginal tribes of that country."




Governance of Alaska by the Army, then by the Collector of Customs, then by the Navy.




Beginning of salmon industry; first canneries established.




First important gold discovery in Alaska (Juneau).




The Organic Act makes Alaska a District with appointed governor and other officers; protection for lands used and occupied by Natives promised.




Native Allotment Act provides first opportunity for Natives to obtain land under restricted title.




Alaska becomes a territory with two-house legislatures; capital at Juneau.




Alaska Native Brotherhood is founded in Sitka.




Citizenship Act extends citizenship to all Alaska Natives who had not become citizens earlier.




First Native --William L. Paul-- elected to territorial legislature.




Native Townsite Act provides opportunity for Natives to obtain restricted deeds to village lots.




Provisions of Indian Reorganization Act extended to Alaska permitting establishment of reservations for Native groups.




Congress approves the Statehood Act; right to Native lands is disclaimed; State to choose 103 million acres.




Court of Claims rules that Indian title of Tlingits and Haidas was not extinguished and they were entitled to compensation for lands taken from them by the United States.






Jimmy Carter elected President.





Camp David Agreements.




Alaska Oil Pipeline opened.


Ronald Reagan elected President




Alaska Native Interest Lands, concerned with subsistence rights.









Alaska voters uphold Subsistence Laws

$962.5 ANCSA moneys paid to Corps Settlement was $375.00 per person entitled, Corporation received the balance.





Some lands granted in ANCSA yet to be transferred.






Civil Rights Act.




Good Friday Quake hits Alaska.





Eskimo land claims filed on

North Slope.

Statewide conference leads to organization of Alaska Federation of Natives (AFN).





Fairbanks flooded.

Native protests and claims to land reach 380 million acres.


Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated.




Oil pumped from well at Prudhoe.

Final judgment on Tlingit/Haida case established Native Claims basis. $7.5 million awarded.


Nixon becomes President.

U.S. Astronauts land on the moon




Formal land freeze in Alaska/Native rights need to be defined.

State of Alaska vs. Udall holds Secretary of Interior needs to define Native possessory rights first, pre State selection.





North slope oil lease auction.

Tlingit/Haida claims money is released by U.S.


Bilingual Education grants.




Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act.


Indian Education funds for special Indian Education needs.





Vietnam War ends in a cease fire.





Education Amendment Act Elementary and Secondary Education.

Nixon resigns Presidency after

Watergate scandal.





Self-determination and Education


Provides for the assumption of

management of BIA by Indian Tribes based on contract.








SEATO formed.

NATO formed.




AF OF L & CIO became one union.

Rosa Parks and Martin Luther King, Jr. begin the new Civil Rights movement.




Alaska elected delegation to constitutional convention.





Alaska constitutional convention meets at U of A. Constitution adopted and Native rights noted.

Alaska sends two "Senators" and one "Representative" to Washington D.C. under Tennessee plan.


Sputnik I launched.








Alaskan and Hawaiian Statehood passed. Native rights noted.

Public Law 280 extending State legal jurisdiction over Indian country extends to Alaska.


Fidel Castro seizes control of Cuba.




Pulp mill at Sitka opened.

Tlingit & Haida held to have occupied much of southeast at time Cession in Tlingit/Haida case.

Alaska and Hawaii became States.


John F. Kennedy President.




AMU opened in Anchorage.





Iñupiat Paitot met to discuss protection of aboriginal rights.





U.S. Supreme Court held Alaska may

regulate fish traps not in Indian reserves.

Tundra Times established.


John F. Kennedy assassinated.

Lyndon B. Johnson assumed Presidency.




Rampart Dam planned, would flood

large area. Protested by Stevens Village and other Yukon River villages.





Yalta Conference

Charter for U.N. completed.


New York State law passed on anti-discrimination in employment.


Franklin O. Roosevelt died.

Harry S. Truman President.

Germany surrenders.


Atomic bomb on Hiroshima and


Japan surrenders




Frank Peratrovich, Sr. and Andrew Hope, Sr. elected to Territorial Legislature.





Alaska Delegate E.L. (Bob) Bartlett

introduced next Statehood bills.


Indian Claims Comm. Act to allow claims pre 1946.

Philippines proclaimed a Republic.




Alcan open to family travel.



National Security Act created

Department of Defense.




Tongass Forest timber sold, notwith- standing Indian claims.


Declaration of Human Rights in UN.

Arizona becomes the last state to

recognize Indian citizenship.




Peratrovich is Senate President.

Percy Ipalook of Wales and William

Beltz of Nome elected.


Navaho - Hopi Rehabilitation Act.

Korean War began.




House approves Hawaiian and Alaska Statehood, but fails in Senate.


Dwight D. Eisenhower President.




First Alaska modern oil well at Eureka.

First Alaska plywood operation in Juneau.

First big pulp mill in Ketchikan.


Brown vs. Board of Education ends

segregated schools.








Social Security Act.

Ethiopia invaded by Fascist Italy.




Tlingit & Haida case went to court (Congress enacted legislation to permit the suit).


Johnson O’Malley Act amended to allow state contracting.

Germany remilitarized the Rhineland.

King George V died, King Edward

VIII abdicated in favor of George


Francisco Franco began revolt

against Spanish government.





Japanese aggression, began against China in 1931, resumes again.




Reindeer Act stipulated reindeer industry was to be Native owned.

New Dealer Ernest Gruening appointed Governor of Alaska and finds the forts’ guns pointing landward rather than seaward.


Hitler demanded Sudetenland.

Hitler invaded Austria.

Hitler invaded Poland and World

War II starts.








Ft. Richardson established.

Construction began on Elmendorf



Land Lease Act.

Pearl Harbor bombed and U.S. enters war.








Alaska Territorial Legislature increases to 16 Senators and 24 Representatives.

Evaluation of the Aleutians





Delegate Anthony J. Dimond introduced a bill for Statehood.





Alaska Juneau-Douglas mine closes.





Germany surrendered.

Treaty of Versailles.

League of Nations.




19th Amendment passed with suffrage for women.




Anchorage organized city



Snyder Act authorized BIA for welfare and education of Indians.








Territorial College and Schools of

Mines opened.





President Hardy came to drive the

last spike for the Alaska railroad.


Indians recognized as citizens with full rights by federal government.




Native William Paul won political



First liquid fuel rocket demon-stration.





Lucky Lindy flew the Atlantic.





President Herbert Hoover.

First all-talking movie.

Stock market crashed and Great

Depression began.




Southeast mapped aerially by Navy.





Frank St. Clair case reconsidered.


Japan invaded Manchuria.





RFC established.





Franklin O. Roosevelt became President.

U.S.S.R. recognized by U.S.




Navy surveyed Aleutians.


Adolph Hitler became Fuehrer and

Chancellor of Germany.

Wheeler Howard act on Indian self-

government. JOM act.





IRA reversed breaking up of tribes.


Wagner Act against unfair Labor practices.




Territorial College of Schools of Mines becomes "University of Alaska."





Roald Amundsen reached South Pole.




Wickersham sought a legislature for Alaska and it passed the House.

Copper River and N. Western Railroad served Kennecott.





Second Organic Act extended federal laws and constitution to Alaska and provided for a system of government.

Mt. Katmai exploded, forming the Valley of 10,000 Smokes.

Alaska Native Brotherhood began in Sitka.


Woodrow Wilson President.

Department of Labor established.

16th amendment on income tax.

Federal Reserve System established.




First Territorial Legislature met and passed basic laws for Alaska.

First auto over Richardson Trail.


Panama Canal opened.

Archduke Ferdinand and wife assassinated. World War I began.




Survey begins for Alaska Railroad.

Anchorage began as a construction camp for the railroad.


Lusitania sunk. Arctic whaling essentially over.




Alaska Legislature enfranchised Native Indians and Eskimos.

First documented Tanana Chiefs Conference in Fairbanks with Judge Wickersham.

1912 Organic Act modified to allow Alaska to provide its own school system.

Small oil refinery at Katalla until 1933.

Alaska Native Sisterhood founded.





James Wickersham introduced first bill for Alaska statehood.


U.S. entered WW I

Russian Revolution





Romanovs killed.

"Spanish Flu" kills 20 million world-wide.




Grant colleges of Alaska Agriculture School and School of Mines.





Teddy Roosevelt President.

Platt Amendment on Cuba.




First International Arbitration at Hague.




Tanana gold rush


First auto trip across U.S.




Jurists decide Canada/Alaska boundary.


First successful flight of a heavier than air propelled plan.




First Alaska public school at Fairbanks.


New York subway opened.




Tanana railroad for Fairbanks miners built.

Nelson Act helped establish schools outside of cities and created the "Alaska fund" to help finance them.


San Francisco earthquake.




Alaska Native Allotment Act.

Wilford Hogalt is first governor to live in Juneau.

Alaska Delegation bill but no power to vote.

Gold in Iditarod and Flat.





Tongass National Forest established.

U.S. withdrawal of coal fields.

Navy established wireless system in Alaska.


M. Hanson and Peary reached North Pole.




Wickersham elected delegate to Congress.

Guggenheim began railroad into Copper River Basin area.

First cold storage in Alaska at Ketchikan.

Third District for Alaska became 3rd and 4th district.


B.S.A. formed.








Interstate commerce commission.




Dawes Act - Granted land to individual Indians if they leave tribe; U.S. government got the rest.





Canadian/Alaska boundary dispute with a Dall & Dawson survey for each side

Jesse Lee home established.


How the Other Half Lives by Jacob Ries.

Wounded Knee Massacre of unarmed Indian men, women, and children. Last Cavalry "fight" with the Indians.




Pelagic sealing threatened Pribilof seals.





First oil claims staked in Cook Inlet.

Annette Island Reserve established for Metlakatla Indian Community.





Dr. Jackson introduced Siberian reindeer to Alaska.


Queen Liliuokolani is overthrown in Hawaii.








Gold near Circle City.


Marconi sent first wireless from Britain.




Bonanza Creek is discovered by George Carmac.

Dawson City founded.


Radium discovered by Marie and Pierre Curie.

Open door policy in China.

Spanish/American war.

U.S. annexed Hawaii.




Skagway was Alaska city with Klondike field access.

Nome gold rush began.





Felix Pedro and Frank Costa discovered gold at Fairbanks.


Gold Standard Act.




James Wickersham appointed U.S. District Judge.

Civil code for Alaska with three judicial districts.









Troops withdrawn from Alaska

First civilian government chosen by Indian and Whites together. Wrote laws and agreed. School at Wrangell had a board home.





School in Sitka become Sheldon Jackson Jr. College later (Miss Fanny Kellogg and Rev. John Brady).

Cannery built near St. Michael.

First commercial salmon canneries at Sitka and Klawock.


F.W. Woolworth opened 5¢ and 10¢ store.




First stamp mill at Sitka to get gold from quartz.

U.S.S. Alaska sent to Sitka for protection.





Alaska under Collector of Customs and Sr. Naval Officer.


Pendleton Act on Federal civil service.




Lt. Frederick Schwatka explored upper Yukon.


Cassiar Bar field found.




Organic Act - made Alaska a Civil and Judicial District.

Extended mining laws; appropriated $15,000 for Indian children’s school in Alaska, and recognized Indian rights.

John H. Kinkead tool charge at Sitka.

First Bristol Bay cannery built.





Moravian mission at Bethel.

Reindeer introduction suggested (Dr. Townsend).

Copper River and Tanana Valley explored.


Geronimo surrendered for the last time.




Gold on Seward River and Forty-mile river.






Treaty of Cession




Russia sold Alaska to United States.

Pribilof Islands mad a special reservation of government to lease.

Alaska under military rule in Department of Alaska

Custom Act extended commerce and custom laws to Alaska.


Ulysses Grant is President.

Transcontinental railroad completed. Irish and Chinese were primary builders.

Women’s suffrage in Wyoming.

$1 million to educate Indians.

John D. Rockefeller formed Standard Oil of Ohio.




Sitka Times, first newspaper in AK.

Hudson Bay gave up Ft. Yukon when it discovered it’s in U.S. territory.





Congress ended negotiations of treaties between U.S. and Indian tribes.





Gold discovered near Sitka.

Gold discovered near Cassiar, B.C.





Gold rush to Cassiar, B.C. and re-establishment of Army post at Ft. Wrangel.

First white across Chilkoot Pass (George Halt).





General Howard recommended Alaska to be a county of Washington territory. Anti-military in Alaska. Felt it corrupted Indians and started problems.


5 Nations of the Sioux under Sitting Bull try to save the sacred Black Hills. Battle of Little Big Horn.




Gold discovered south of Juneau in Windham Bay.


Nez Perce and Chief Joseph reason for military leaving Alaska. Joseph and people captured about 40 miles from Canada.




Presbyterian mission established in Wrangel, then Sitka. First U.S. church mission after purchase. First school established at Wrangel after purchase. Next at Sitka.


You are a group of Alaska Natives from all over the state, but you all live in Anchorage, Juneau, or Fairbanks at the present time. YOUR GOAL:

Your goal is to obtain clear title to your ancestral lands. This goal has been broken down into six (6) tasks, the student reading ("realities of the 1960's") will give you background information to help you decide your future actions. Your group will have only 5 minutes to discuss each task. The teacher will signal when your 5 minutes are up. Move on to the next task then, even if you haven't reached agreement on the last item. You will be asked to present your decisions to the rest of the class.


1. How will you go about organizing and uniting all the Native groups which you represent, plus some others which are not represented in your group and may be living out of state?

2. How will you get money to travel to meetings with Natives in other parts of the state?

3. Brainstorm some methods for getting title and choose the most effective ones. Some examples are:

a. civil disobedience
b. demonstrations
c. letters to Congressmen
d. sue the government for lands taken by the U.S. Forest Service and other agencies.
e. appeal to the United Nations
f. get press coverage for your cause
g. work to get legislation passed giving you title
h. work to have reservations established
i. elect Natives to Federal and State legislature

4. Will you pursue your goal at the state or national level?

5. Which political branch or branches will you utilize?

6. Will any non-Native groups be willing to work with you for your mutual interests? Which ones?

A. TREATY OF CESSION (1867) divided Natives into "civilized and uncivilized" tribes. Civilized Natives were to have the rights of non-Natives. However, no one but the federal government was given the right to own land. The "uncivilized" tribes were to be considered on the same basis as the Indians in the contiguous United States.

B. LEGAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN U.S. GOVERNMENT AND AMERICAN INDIANS IN GENERAL: Since the earliest treaties the U.S. Government had dealt with Indians as sovereign nations, not as part of the American society. The fact that treaties had been made showed that the government believed the Indians had some rights to the land which must be bought. The formation of reservations itself was a trade of desirable land for undesirable land. In addition to forcing Indians to live on lands not originally their own, and in compensation for taking away the ancestral lands and the freedom of lifestyle, the government agreed to provide medical, social, and educational services to Indians forever.

C. ORGANIC ACT (1884) did not allow Natives to obtain title to their lands, but was important in showing that the government considered some lands owned by Natives. It said:

"Indians or other persons in said district shall not be disturbed in the possession of any lands actually in their use or occupation or now claimed by them but the terms under which such persons may acquire title to such lands is reserved for future legislation by Congress."

D. INDIVIDUAL LAND OWNERSHIP: Natives could own land on an individual basis through two federal laws, but both provided only "restricted" title. The land could not be sold or leased with the approval of the Secretary of the Interior. The two laws, the Native Allotment Act of 1906 and the Native Townsite Act of 1926, are described below:

1. "The Native Allotment Act of 1906 provided for conveyance of 160 acres of public domain to adult Natives. any single tract could be selected as long as the ground did not include mineral deposits. A few allotments were issued in southeastern Alaska, but most Native did not even know that such allotments could be obtained.

Under the second act, the Native Townsite Act of 1926, villages were to be surveyed into lots, blocks, and streets, and individual lots conveyed to Native adults.

Neither the Allotment Act or the Townsite Act were effective in protecting lands used and occupied by Natives. Allotments were fine for farmers, but not for hunters and fishermen. And what protection for a large foodgathering territory was to be afforded by a small lot in the village?"

Arnold, ANCSA 1976

E. RESERVATIONS: Some land was in trust ownership in the form of reservations. There were twenty-three (23) at the time, Metlakatla, Venetie and Arctic Village were the largest. But this was not full ownership since the land could not be sold, leased or developed except through approval or the federal government.

F. TLINGIT/HAIDA COURT SETTLEMENT (1959) showed that the federal government agreed that there was a basis to aboriginal claim to the land and .hat compensation was due when the land had been taken.

G. STATEHOOD ACT (1958) : 103 million acres of land were given to the State provided they were not lands "the right or tile to which may be held by Eskimos, Indians or Aleuts."


A. In traditional days, the Native groups had not been organized as tribes with chiefs. Although the situation differed from group to group, in general the political unit was the large, or extended family or clan. Each family unit had a leader. These family units still operated to some extent in 1960, but they were not organized into a single whole, and numbered in the thousands.

B. Alaska Native Brotherhood (ANB) had been founded in 1912. It had a large membership, but was based in Southeastern Alaska, with most members being Tlingit or Haida. Nonnatives were also eligible for membership. Its original purpose was to counteract social injustices such as lack of education and racial segregation and prejudice.

C. IRA Councils existed in more than seventy (70) Alaskan villages. They were set up as a result of the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934. These were the tribal organizations recognized by the federal government, though not by the state government.

D. In the early 1960's, a number of local social organizations began, also primarily to deal with social issues; Inupiat Paitot, Cook Inlet Native Association, etc.


A. Rivaliers in previous eras, war and feuding were common. The unit which stuck together in times of dispute was usually the large (extended) family. In general, whereever boundaries existed between cultures, there was intermittent warfare. Some examples are:
  1. Unangan (Aleutian Island Aleuts) vs. Koniags (Kodiak Islanders)
  2. Tlingits vs. Haidas
  3. Tlingits vs. Eyaks
  4. Kutchin Athabascans vs. Inupiat Eskimos
  5. Athabascan bands vs. other Athabascan bands
  6. Tlingit clans vs. other Tlingit clans
  7. Inupiat villages vs. other Inupiat villages
  8. Koyukon Athabascans vs. Inupiat Eskimos
  9. Ingalik Athabascans vs. Yupik Eskimos
  10. Eastern Unangan (Aleuts) vs. Western Unangan
  11. Yupik villages vs. other Yupik villages

B. Friendly (mutually beneficial) relationships included:

1. Trade - extensive trade criss-crossed the state. Examples of groups which traded with each other were Tlingits and Athabascans, Athabascans and Eskimos, Tlingits and Eyaks, Tlingits and Chugach Eskimos (Sugpiaqs). Trade routes themselves were sometimes considered property of the group through whose territory they passed, and those owner groups acted as middlemen in trade between two other groups, thus earning a percentage of the profit. A notable example was the Chilkoot Pass, owned by Chilkat Tlingits.

2. Intermarriage, especially along borders.

3. Multi-lingualism, especially among Athabascans, who often were the ones to learn the language of their trading partners from another culture.

4. Consensus regarding territorial boundaries: Although there were disputes over territory, the groups knew where the boundaries existed, and disputes sometimes arose when one group wanted land in another's territory.


A. Traditionally, Alaska Native groups did not have a single chief; they had different leaders for different tasks, recognizing that no one individual was the best qualified in all areas of life. In general, though, there was usually a head of the family who conferred with the other leading family members in making important decisions.

B. By 1960, most traditional leaders had turned to nonNative specialists (lawyers, teachers, etc.) to handle matters in the political area. The traditional elders had, in some cases, only a small amount of schooling, and were more comfortable in their native language rather than English.

C. Some Alaska Natives provided role models for the younger generations: William Paul, Sr., William Beltz, Frank Peratrovich, Sr., Andrew Hope, Frank G. Johnson, Percy Ipalook, Francis Degnan, and James Wells, all members of the Territorial legislature. Still, they were a small minority and did not yield a large amount of power within the legislature.

D. The younger generation had been through government operated high schools and colleges away from home, learning to some extent to work within the system. They attended school at the age when they would previously have been learning to be valuable adult members of their native societies, so this information was not passed on to them.

E. The younger generation of natives went to all-Indian boarding schools, establishing many friendships with natives from other parts of Alaska and the lower 48, friendships which would never have existed in the old days.

F. As the younger generation of natives returned home, they began to take leadership roles in the various organizations (CINA, FNA, ECT). They also began to take over many interactions between villages and the government bureaucracy. Elders were often not consulted in the transactions.


A, Boat - the BIA owned North Star was the main mode of contact between western and northern coastal villages and the outside world in 1960. It came once a year, during the summer, to bring supplies.

B. Following World War II, the Alcan Highway assured access to parts of Alaska which had previously been fairly isolated.

C. The major airlines in Alaska were Reeve Aleutian, Wien, and Alaska. Airfares were high and schedules infrequent (once a week at most, to most Alaskan villages and towns).


A. No telephone services existed in the rural areas of the state. Voice communication was general through radio, with one two-way radio in each village, usually in the teacher's home or the school.

B. There was no television in rural Alaska. Some villages received radio transmission from city stations, while others did not.

C. Television in the major cities of Alaska was taped-delay by 1960, with both locally produced shows and network shows.

D. All but one newspaper were locally oriented. Urban papers were not particularly concerned with native affairs. The Alaska Sportsman magazine had a statewide distribution, but came out monthly, and was oriented toward non-native hunting and fishing interests. The only state-wide paper, founded in 1962 in residents to Project Chariot at Point Hope was Tundra Times.


A. Civil rights - The Civil Rights Act was passed in 1964, heralding a new era of raised consciousness regarding race relations, equal opportunities, and equal rights among the nations' minorities.

B. Kennedy, then Johnson, proposed massive social programs aimed in equalizing the economic and social benefits in the country.

C. Despite political action at this time, the political and economic power in the country were held largely by white males.

D. American Indians in the Lower 48 were becoming organized on a local basis to fight local inequities.

E. Vietnam War opponents were becoming vocal, berating not only the war, but the military establishment in general.


A. Oil had been discovered in the Swanson River near Kenai. Alaska was in a state of flux; it had been considered a resource poor state in the early 1960's, but its potential was beginning to be realized. Still, it was largely undeveloped potential at this point. The state received much of its money from federal revenue sharing, obtained partially as a result of the large federal land holdings within the states' boundaries.

B. Most of the wealth of Alaska was in the hands of nonnatives in the cities of Alaska.

C. President Johnson's Office of Economic Opportunity established offices in the larger towns of Alaska in an effort to stimulate native-run economic activities. Through these offices, people from all over the state were urged to meet and coordinate their work. This allowed for Native leaders to interact with each other and allowed for discussions of what they believed to be the heart of their economic well-being - the land.



Read pages 138-144 in Arnold's ALASKA NATIVE LAND CLAIMS. Answer the following questions. This may be done with one or two other students or as a class, but each student must have his own paper. Put answers on another sheet of paper.

1. Refer to your U.S. Government book if you need a review of the following effective political actions. Then give two (2) examples which show how the AFN was effective in each category.

A. organizing skillfully

B. focusing participation

C. sustaining participation

D. fitting activities to resources

E. building coalitions

F. compromising or trading favors

2. Explain the influence of three individuals or groups you felt were the most important in the passage of ANCSA.

3. Why was it Alaska Natives, rather than the State of Alaska, which was the prime mover in effecting a land settlement?

4. What factors beyond native control helped pass ANCSA?

5. In summary, what in your opinion, was the key to success in this case?


Lesson 6

Teaching Objectives:

Learner Outcome:

  1. The ANCSA is the only legislation of its kind.
  2. Like the U.S. Constitution it is a guideline that must be followed for future development.
  3. It provides the opportunity for self-determination by the Alaska Natives.
  4. It provides compensation for land lost.
  1. Students will be able to discuss major provisions of the Land Claims Act and complete worksheet.

TIME REQUIRED: Approximately 1 class period


1. Begin a lecture on the terms of ANCSA. Review pages 3-5(Vol.5, AMU Press). The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act: An Introduction which the students were assigned to read . Use overheads provided to illustrate the lecture.

2. Distribute writing topics sheet (Daily Readings 6). Explain that each student will hand in a paper in which two of the topics are discussed. Refer to specific resource materials available. At your discretion, you may permit students to work together in groups of two or three. This project may also be done in the form of oral reports, debates, interviews, etc.

VOCABULARY: Enrollment corporation, stockholder, register, dividend, shares, statute, non-profit, tax exempt, eligible, proxy, legal title, heir

READING ASSIGNMENT: Have students skim through Vol. 6 & 7 -AMU Press The Money Settlement and The Land Settlement. Begin project report.

ADDITIONAL MATERIALS FOR LESSON: Overheads (1-8) The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act: An Introduction; overhead lecture outline, Writing Topics list.


1. Overhead #1 shows names and locations of the twelve (12) regional corporations. The thirteenth corporation has no land and is made up of Alaska Natives living outside the State of Alaska.

2. Using the overheads, begin with the land settlement. Show overheads #2, #3 and #4 which are self-explanatory. While showing overhead #4, explain that the village corporations are to distribute land to residents, giving individuals clear title.

Read or re-phrase page 10 in Kretzinger's book (reproduced below).

"Whatever their size, villages in southeastern Alaska would be limited to a single township (23,040 acres), a limitation justified in the act by the earlier cash award of the Tlingit-Haida settlement. Limiting elements in the table of entitlements shown earlier are village selections made from national forests or wildlife refuges, lands chosen by the State but not yet owned by it, and Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 4. In such areas, selections would be limited to three townships (69,120 acres), and other township entitlements, if any would have to be made elsewhere.

The village corporations would own only the surface of lands they selected. Their ownership would not include the minerals below the ground. The rights to the minerals -- the subsurface estate -- would belong to regional corporations. This would be true for all 22 million (22,000,000) acres selected, except for village selections made in Petroleum Reserve No. 4, or in wildlife refuges.


3. Return to overhead #3. Explain the rationale behind allowing six (6) regional corporations to share in the land selections:

A. Southeastern Alaska was excluded because the Tlingit-Haida settlement had compensated for lands lost.

B. The other six (6) corporations which receive land (NANA, Doyon, Cook Inlet, Chugach, Arctic Slope, and Ahtna) all have small populations although traditional land use was extensive. Under the per capita formula for villages getting land, those corporations would receive little land because of the small population of those villages. Yet, the environmental conditions in each of those regions require large land areas to subsist.

C. The other five (5) regional corporations in Alaska have large enough populations so that sufficient land is conveyed to the villages through the per capital formula.

4. Still using overhead #3, explain the 3.7 million acres for 7 villages on revoked reserves: Arctic Village, Elim, Gambell, Klukwan, Savoonga, Tetlin, and Venetie were former reserves which were revoked by ANCSA. However, each voted to take title to its reserve which meant that both surface and subsurface rights are owned by the villages. Individuals enrolled in these villages did not receive a part of the money settlement.

5. Overhead #3 shows two million (2,000,000) acres for special purposes.

A. Those include four non-native cities which have a substantial native population, but cannot be considered "native villages".

B. The two million (2,000,000) acres also include cemeteries and historic sites.

C. It also includes native allotments which were filed for before the passage of the Act.

6. So far the land settlement information has been for surface rights only. Subsurface rights are owned, not by village corporations, but by regional corporations. Show overhead #5.

Note the disparity in amount of subsurface lands the different corporations have. This is made up for by a requirement that each regional corporation share its profits from subsurface resources with all the other regional corporations.

7. Begin the money settlement portion of the lecture. Review the rationale for a money settlement: the compensation for all the lands which Alaska Natives gave up to the federal and state governments. Read or rephrase pages 12 and 13 of Kretzinger's book (reproduced below).

Discuss: Why would regional and village corporations need money? Remind students that by law, they are to be profitmaking, not social service corporations.


"Payment for claims which were given up was to come from two places -- the federal government and possible mineral sales from state and federal lands. The act created the Alaska Native Fund in the U.S. Treasury and said that $462,500,000 would be paid into it over an ll-year period. It also provided for the payment of $500,000,000 into the Fund from the sale of minerals from federal and state lands in Alaska.


"Payments from the Alaska Native Fund would be made only to regional corporations. They, in turn, would retain part of the funds and pay out part to individual natives and village corporations.

 The amount of money each regional corporation would receive was to be based upon its share of enrolled natives to the total number enrolled. During the first five (5) years, at least 10% of the claims money and other income received by a regional corporation was to be given directly to individuals -- its stockholders -- and at least 45% of such money was to be given to village corporations within its boundaries. The amount received by each village corporation was to be based upon its ratio of stockholders to the total number of stockholders in the region.

 Natives enrolled to regional corporations but not to villages would receive their share directly, which meant that their payments would be larger than if they were also enrolled to villages. They would not be granted land by village corporations, however, or otherwise benefit from activities these corporations might carry out."

8. Show Overhead #6 and #7 which are self-explanatory.

9. Show Overhead #8. The Settlement Fees were paid directly to individual shareholders, and amounted to $375.00 per person. The rest of the money went into the regional, and sometimes village corporations. Show Overhead #ll. Note that the Alaska Native Fund reached its $962.5 million limit in 1981. After its last payment in April 1982, the only money distributed to shareholders is dividends earned by the corporations. If the corporations do not make profits, shareholders will not receive dividends.

10. The final topic to consider is deadlines established by ANCSA, These include:

A. In 1991 stock becomes "alienable"; i.e., shareholders may sell their stock to anyone, native or non-native.

B. Twenty years after it has been conveyed, land becomes taxable. Originally this was to happen in 1991, but when it became evident that legal title was taking so long to be concluded on the land, an amendment to the act (ANILCA, December 1980) allowed the extension of twenty years beyond the date of conveyance. This means that within any given corporation, the taxation situation will be varied and complicated, as different lands had been delayed for different amounts of time. Discuss with students why the lands were not made taxable immediately.

C. Natives born after December 18, 1971 do not receive any benefits of ANCSA unless they inherit stock.



Choose two of the following topics. For each topic, research materials are available in the classroom. Read through those materials, then write a short report. Each report should contain:

A. A statement or definition of the facts or situation

B. A statement of the ramifications of the situation (e.g. whom does if affect? Why has it become a problem? What are future problems which the founders of ANCSA did not foresee?, etc.)

C. A statement of your opinion or prediction regarding the situation?


Why is 1991 an important date? Why are native corporations and shareholders worried about it?


Were regional and village corporations good structures to have the money settlement flow through? What are the pros and cons of the corporation structure? How well do corporations fit in with traditional native political structures?


Can and should native regional corporations be responsible for the social welfare of their shareholders?


What will happen to Alaska Native children born after 1971? Are they covered under ANCSA?


Does the United States still have a trust responsibility to Alaska Natives in the areas of education, social and medical benefits?


How far has ANCSA come in being implemented? Why is it taking so long? When will it be fully implemented?


Choose one native regional corporation and detail its economic situation as of 1981. Include a statement of its goals and how well it is meeting them.

Overhead #1


There were 12 associations in Alaska which became the basis of the regional corporations after the passage of the Native Claims Settlement Act. These original associations were:
Arctic Slope Native Association,
Bering Straits Native Association,
Northwest Alaska Native Association,
Association of Village Council Presidents,
Tanana Chiefs' Conference,
Cook Inlet Native Association,
Bristol Bay Native Association,
Aleut League,
Chugach Native Association,
Tlingit-Haida Central Council,
Kodiak Area Native Association,
Copper River Native Association.

map of ANCSA regions

All eligible Natives enrolling, to these regions would become stockholders in the corporations formed in them, except for members of reserves revoked by the act which voted to accept full ownership of their former reserves.

Source: The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act: An Introduction, revised by Thomas Kretzinger. AMU Press 1976


Overhead #2


SUMMARY: In the Alaska Native Claims Settlement, Natives will receive 43.7 million acres of land, about 11% of the land in the state.

graph of other private lands 


Overhead # 3

Those lands to be owned by Alaska Natives are divided in this way:

203 village corporations

6 villages on revoked reserves

6 Regional corporations

Special purposes

village corp. graph


Overhead #4
0f the 40 million (40,000,000) acre settlement, 22 million (22,000,000) acres were to be selected by villages.

As with the money distribution, the number of acres to which a village was entitled was to be decided by enrollment. With some exceptions, which are explained later, this is the way it was done.




25 through 99
100 through 199
200 through 399
400 through 599
600 or more



What Is A Township?

A township is normally 6 miles square, with 36 sections of one square mile each.

A square piece of land 208 feet on a side would be an acre.township

Best copy available

Source: The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act: An Introduction,
revised by Thomas Kretzinger, AMU Press. 1976.

projected ownership status

*Subject to change upon formation of the 13th regional corporation.

**Based upon "Land Distribution" chart, "Alaska Native Management Report," March 31, 1975.

Twelve regional corporations will hold title to the subsurface estate of each special city, Alaska Native groups, cemeteries and historic sites. Title to the subsurface estate of allotments will be held the federal government.

Source: Alaska Native Land Claims

by Robert D. Arnold, Alaska Native Foundation, 1976.

Overhead #6

sources of cash
Source: Alaska Native Land Claims
by Robert D. Arnold, Alaska Native Foundation, 1976.

Overhead #7

two classes of stockholders
Source: Alaska Native Land Claims
by Robert D. Arnold, Alaska Native Foundation, 1976.

first five years

mandatory distribution of cash


Lesson 7

Teaching Objectives:

Learner Outcome:

  1. Under the act, eligible natives can enroll in one of 13 regional corporations.
  2. The regional corporations exists to make money, but have formed non-profit arms.
  3. Eligible villages can form corporations, both profit and non-profit.
  4. Some 40 million acres of land included in the settlement.
  1. Students will understand the reasons for the creation of village and regional corporations.
  2. Students will learn the qualifications to qualify as a member of a village

TIME REQUIRED: Approximately 1 class period



1. If needed, continue with overhead lecture on ANCSA.

2. Have students complete blank corporation map. A copy of the table and map are included.

3. Short discussion of what a corporation is - pros and cons of corporation structure/refer to controls and responsibilities of regional business corporation.

4. Students should research how members determined which corporation to join.

5. Skim through Settlement Act Organization, Vol. 8, AMU Press, and discuss.

VOCABULARY: enrollment corporation, stockholder, register, dividend, shares, statute, non-profit, tax exempt, eligible, proxy, legal title, heir

READING ASSIGNMENT: Read "Natives get cash, but little land in the first decade", "Three Profiles". Work on project. 

ADDITIONAL MATERIALS FOR LESSON: Settlement Act Organizations, Vol. 8, Blank corporation maps, controls and responsibilities of regional business corporations.

ENRICHMENT ACTIVITIES: Students might be asked to find newspaper articles about business corporations to share in class. A comparison might be made as to size, purposes, similarities, differences, etc. in the various corporations as they appear in the articles. Or the class might make a list of the business corporations in the community and their means for producing income and profit.

From a phone book, students might make a list of five business corporations (or two, depending upon the size of the community) which have "Inc." included in the title. Brief attention might be given to the difference between a business corporation, a single proprietor business or a partnership.


Characteristics of a regular business corporation which apply to regional (and village) business corporations:


1. receive and invest monies

2. earn a profit

3. distribute dividends to stockholder

4. maintain a list of stockholders

5. issue stock

6. keep stockholders informed


1. state commerce laws

2. articles of incorporation

3. by-laws

4. accounting procedures

5. Securities Exchange Commission

6. Internal Revenue Service requirements

Characteristics of regional business corporations as required by Alaska Native Land Claims Settlement Act, December 18, 1971:


1. receive and invest monies from the Alaska Native Fund

2. distribute portions of the Alaska Native Fund to village business corporations and at-large stockholders

3. share 70% of profits from mineral and timber resources with the 12 regional corporations

4. manage regional-owned lands

5. maintain subsurface rights to land within the region (except the revoked reserve lands)

6. review village land selections and transactions (10 years)

7. approve village business corporation budgets (5 years)


1. articles of incorporation and by-laws to be approved by the Secretary of the Interior

2. annual audit of accounts given to Secretary of Interior and Interior and Insular Affairs committees of both houses of Congress

3. operating funds for the business corporation come from Congress based on regional enrollment

4. stockholders are to be 1/4 Alaska Native who are enrolled

5. stock may not be sold or assigned for twenty years (1991)

6. only the shareholders have voting rights in the corporation (20 years)

Thumbnail Profiles of the 13 Native Regional Corporations




ANCSA Entitlement (Land)


ANCSA Entitlement (Money)




Number of Shareholders


Number of Villages


Net Worth (1980)


Net Profit/Loss (1979)


Net Profit/Loss (1980)




1.7 million acres


$13.3 million


Maintenance of pipeline, investments



$7 million







$40.1 million


Money Market Funds, Freight, Fishing



$13.7 million

-$2.7 million





4.6 million acres


$46.5 million


Oil field service, construction



$24.3 million


(7/79 - 1?)

$1.1 million (7/79 - 1/81)?




2.9 million acres


$79.5 million


Natural resource development, real estate



$4.6 million

-$3.6 million

-$2 million




2.2 million acres

2.9 million subsurface


$67.0 million


Hotel, Banking, Drilling, Food Process, Mineral Ex.



$34.1 million

$1.9 million (4/79 - 4/80)


(4/79 - 4/81)




5.9 million acres


$165.00 million


Sheraton Anch., Settlers Bay, Calista Fisheries



$57.8 million

-$4.2 million

-$7.3 million (???)




1 million acres


$24.0 million


Timber, fisheries



$8.0 million

-$618,541 (???)

-$1.5 million




1.2 million acres

surface & subsurface rights, 1.3 million subsc.


$77.2 million


Nat. resource devel., real estate, const. drilling


6 (?) villages

2 certif. grpa

1 hist. village

$46.1 million

$3.4 million

$5.7 million




9 million acres (surface & subsfc. rights) 3.5 mil. acres (subsfc. only)


$112.3 million


Securities, Real Est., Banking, Oil, Construction



$54.1 million

$1.03 million





1 million acres


$41.3 million


Timber, oil, fisheries



$15.5 million

-$2.3 million (7/79 - 7/80)?





2.3 million acres


$59.9 million


Oil field service, construction, hotels, ???



$44.0 million






280,000 acres


$196.9 million


Sealaska Timber, Ak. Brick Co., banking, seafoods, oil & gas



$198.9 million

$575,000 (? month figure)

$5.94 million






$45.6 million






-$3.7 million

$6.8 million (? month figure)

SOURCES: Alaska Pacific Bancorporation, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Native regional corporations

Source: Anchorage Daily News













1,890 38,663


1,067 19,300










1. Enrollment as of June 30, 1979, but subject to further adjustment. Myron Igtanloc, Enrollment Office, BIA.

2. Native people may enroll, for land claims settlement purposes, in the region in which they reside or in the region of origin. Natives in the "lower 48" are enrolled in region of origin or in the "Thirteenth Regional Corp."

3. Excludes residents of six villages in four former reserves as follows:

Bering Straits



Arctic Village


424 1,086


147 428

4. The purpose of enrollment is to identify Natives eligible to share in the settlement. To qualify a Native must be 1/4 or more Native, A U.S. citizen, and born on or before Dec. 18, 1971 and still living on that date. Anyone born after that date does not share in the settlement.

map of ANCSA regions
Click on image for a larger version.

Native Corporation Boundaries

map of ANCSA regions
Source: Anchorage Daily News


Lesson 8

Teaching Objectives:

Learner Outcome:

  1. The main responsibility of the corporation is to be financially successful.
  2. Many ANCSA corporations provide leadership in shaping the important lasting values educational and employment opportunities of their shareholders.
  1. Students will demonstrate understanding of the major provisions of ANCSA by completing a quiz.
  2. Through discussion students will begin to realize the importance of ANCSA for all Alaska residents.

TIME REQUIRED: Approximately 1 class period.



1. Review

A. Distribute Worksheet III - "What the ANCSA Act Says". As a pop quiz, have students fill it in, based on their memories of the past two (2) days discussions.

B. Without having them turn it in, go over the quiz orally and have them fill in the proper answers.

2. Review Doyon Annual Report with the class and discuss it.

3. Show the slide show "ANCSA 1981: A Snapshot of Today", or the Dave Case videotape (Alaska Native Education Office). Students might be asked to take notes on the slide show. The notes can be a basis for discussion following the presentation.

4. Work on project.


READING ASSIGNMENT: Work on writing project, study for final exam.

ADDITIONAL MATERIALS FOR LESSONS: "What ANCSA Says" quiz, slide presentation and videotape available from Alaska Native Education Office.



A. True and False. Place a T beside the statement if it is true and an F beside the statement if it is all or partially false.

___1. Region boundaries of 12 Native associations were the basis for boundaries of the regional corporations.

___2. A stockholder in a regional corporation is free to sell his shares of stock at any time.

___3. Regional business corporations authorized by the land claims act receive all their money from private companies or individuals.

___4. Under provisions of the act the regional corporation would own the subsurface rights only to lands selected by the regional corporation.

___5. The regional corporation receives its land claims settlement monies only from congressional appropriation.

___6. A major responsibility of the village corporation is the selection and management of lands, according to the settlement act.

___7. The village business corporation is given the direct power by the act to make laws governing the community.

B. Multiple choice. Place a check mark beside the correct phrase which completes the statement.

1. The settlement act provides land selection by Alaska Natives that total about
___a. 40 million acres.

___b. 60 million acres.

___c. 10 million acres.

2. The number of acres which a village could select from the approximately 22 million acres was determined by

___a. land area covered by the village.

___b. village enrollment.

___c. equal division of the land among the eligible villages.

3. The number of acres which a regional corporation could select from approximately 16 million acres was determined by

___a. enrollment of Alaska Natives to the region.

___b. region land area size and proportionate Alaska Native enrollment to the region.

___c. regional land area size only.

4. The subsurface rights to minerals in village selected lands (with the exception of revoked reserves) belong to

___a. the regional corporation.

___b. the village corporation.

___c. both a and b.

___d. neither a nor b.

5. The total amount of money to be paid Alaska Natives as compensation for lands lost was

___a. $462.5 million.

___b. $962.5 million.

___c. $1.0 billion

6. Distribution of the Alaska Native Fund to the regional corporations was to be determined by

___a. the number of villages in the region.

___b. the proportion of land encompassed by the region in relation to the total amount of land in Alaska.

___c. The proportionate number of Alaska Natives enrolled to the specific region in relation to the total Native enrollment.

7. All monies from the Alaska Native Fund were to be distributed to Alaska Natives through

___a. the Alaska State government treasury.

___b. a U.S. government check to each individual.

___c. organizations called corporations.

8. The amount of money distributed by the regional profit corporation to an eligible village of a region is based on

___a. the proportion of Alaska Natives of the region who are enrolled to the village.

___b. Joint Federal-State Land Use Planning Commission decision.

___c. equal distribution of money to all eligible villages.

9. The region corporation stockholder at large receives a different amount of direct cash when compared with other enrolled regional corporation stockholders because:

___a. he is not a member of a village corporation or a former revoked reserve.

___b. he lives outside the boundaries of Alaska and belongs to a village corporation.

___c. he is not a member of a village corporation but does belong to a regional corporation.

___d. he is not of legal age (18).

10. Villages that chose to acquire their reserve lands (excluding Metlakatla) that had been revoked by the settlement act were eligible to:

___a. receive money benefits from the Alaska Native Fund.

___b. acquire title to only the surface lands.

___c. acquire title to surface and subsurface estate.

*This worksheet is composed of questions on pp. 58, 59, 62, 63, and 78 of the Workbook to Accompany Alaska Native Land Claims Textbook by Lydia L. Hays (ANF) 1976. 



A. True and False. Place a T beside the statement if it is true and an F beside the statement if it is all or partially false.

_T 1. Region boundaries of 12 Native associations were the basis for boundaries of the regional corporations.

_F 2. A stockholder in a regional corporation is free to sell his shares of stock at any time.

_F_3. Regional business corporations authorized by the land claims act receive all their money from private companies or individuals.

_F_4. Under provisions of the act the regional corporation would own the subsurface rights only to lands selected by the regional corporation.

_F_5. The regional corporation receives its land claims settlement monies only from congressional appropriation.

_T_6. A major responsibility of the village corporation is the selection and management of lands, according to the settlement act.

_F_7. The village business corporation is given the direct power by the act to make laws governing the community.

B. Multiple choice. Place a check mark beside the correct phrase which completes the statement.

1. The settlement act provides land selection by Alaska Natives that total about
_X_a. 40 million acres.

___b. 60 million acres.

___c. 10 million acres.

2. The number of acres which a village could select from the approximately 22 million acres was determined by

___a. land area covered by the village.

_X_b. village enrollment.

___c. equal division of the land among the eligible villages.

3. The number of acres which a regional corporation could select from approximately 16 million acres was determined by

___a. enrollment of Alaska Natives to the region.

_X_b. region land area size and proportionate Alaska Native enrollment to the region.

___c. regional land area size only.

4. The subsurface rights to minerals in village selected lands (with the exception of revoked reserves) belong to

_X_a. the regional corporation.

___b. the village corporation.

___c. both a and b.

___d. neither a nor b.

5. The total amount of money to be paid Alaska Natives as compensation for lands lost was

___a. $462.5 million.

_X_b. $962.5 million.

___c. $1.0 billion

6. Distribution of the Alaska Native Fund to the regional corporations was to be determined by

___a. the number of villages in the region.

___b. the proportion of land encompassed by the region in relation to the total amount of land in Alaska.

_X_c. The proportionate number of Alaska Natives enrolled to the specific region in relation to the total Native enrollment.

7. All monies from the Alaska Native Fund were to be distributed to Alaska Natives through

___a. the Alaska State government treasury.

___b. a U.S. government check to each individual.

_X_c. organizations called corporations.

8. The amount of money distributed by the regional profit corporation to an eligible village of a region is based on

_X_a. the proportion of Alaska Natives of the region who are enrolled to the village.

___b. Joint Federal-State Land Use Planning Commission decision.

___c. equal distribution of money to all eligible villages.

9. The region corporation stockholder at large receives a different amount of direct cash when compared with other enrolled regional corporation stockholders because:

___a. he is not a member of a village corporation or a former revoked reserve.

___b. he lives outside the boundaries of Alaska and belongs to a village corporation.

_X_c. he is not a member of a village corporation but does belong to a regional corporation.

___d. he is not of legal age (18).

10. Villages that chose to acquire their reserve lands (excluding Metlakatla) that had been revoked by the settlement act were eligible to:

___a. receive money benefits from the Alaska Native Fund.

___b. acquire title to only the surface lands.

_X_c. acquire title to surface and subsurface estate.

*This worksheet is composed of questions on pp. 58, 59, 62, 63, and 78 of the Workbook to Accompany Alaska Native Land Claims Textbook by Lydia L. Hays (ANF) 1976.  


Lesson 9

Teaching Objectives:

Learner Outcome:

  1. The Alaska Native Land Claims Settlement Act will reach into the lives of all Alaskans, both native and non-native.
  2. Those people affected by the settlement are those who will shape the future of the state.
  3. Self-determination is an important concept inherent in the Native Claims Settlement Act.
  1. Through critical analysis and discussion, students will realize the importance of self-determination.
  2. Students will understand the significance of the issues and concerns surrounding 1991.
  3. Students will review for final examination.


1. Read the quotes on the following pages with the students. If time permits, have the students write a paragraph explaining self-determination.

2. Use one of the video-tapes (included with teaching materials) "Trail to Break", "Early Days Ago", or "On Our Own" as a review.

3. Review for final examination

VOCABULARY: self-determination

READING ASSIGNMENT: Day 9 Readings, Quotes from pp 3-5, Vol. 9, Shaping the Future, AMU Press. Complete projects, review for final examination.



Lesson 9

Taken from: Vol. 9
Shaping the Future, AMU Press

Part I: Shaping The Future

In any society people must face important decisions about their future.
Who am l?
How am I going to live my life?
Where will I live?
What kind of work will I do?
Will I live alone?
Will I marry?
Should I go to college?
Should I get extra training after high school?
What will my world be like?

How should one answer such questions? Each person will answer differently, depending upon personal values. With this book you will have a chance to discuss your values and think about them. Then you can use that knowledge about yourself to answer important questions about your future and the future of Alaska.

Roger Lang said, "The outlook is fabulous. You can be anything you want to be."

Part II: Shaping The Future-Self-Determination

In 1976 Emil Notti was president of AFN. He spoke before a committee in Washington, D.C. He said that the government had failed to meet the needs of Natives in Alaska.
I point these things out because there is a strong feeling among the Native people in Alaska and they want to have control of their own destiny. And if there are going to be mistakes made, we want to make them, not let the bad decisions be made in Juneau, or even farther away, in Washington, D.C. I stand here before you to state in the strongest terms possible that the representatives here today.... do not want paternal guidance from Washington, D.C.

In December 1971, Nick Begich was Alaska’s representative to Congress. He forecast that the claims act would let " .... the social economic, and cultural choices of Alaskan Natives.... be made as independently .... as possible."

At the same time Senator Mike Gravel said:

This will not insure dramatic improvements in their way of life, but it will give the Native people on opportunity to build and create on their own, with their own leadership, in their own way for the first time not dictated to by non-Native bureaucracy thousands of miles away.

In the Anchorage Daily Times April 25, 1975, Native leader Roger Lang declared:

"An Alaskan native will someday be the president of the state Chamber of Commerce." That prediction came yesterday from Roger Lang, Alaska Federation of Natives President, in his address here on the future of the people who are to be the state's largest landowners.

"Natives will and are now being thought of differently than five and even three years ago, " he said to the Anchorage Republican luncheon group. "Alaskan Natives are coming into their own as a viable economic power."

To back his predictions, Land said recent native development has been snowballing.

"Some 200 profit-making native corporate entities have come into being since the signing of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act in 1971, " he said. "Two hundred and sixty-eight million dollars in contract work on projects around Alaska are now being handled by natives."

Hotels "as good as any in Fairbanks and Anchorage" are being completed in such places as Kotzebue and Barrow, he said. Projects from new apartments in Bethel to a timber management group to supervise southeaster wood resources are among additional ventures he said are changing the Alaska natives’ position in the state’s economic and social circles.

"Most important " said Lang "are not these things but the reinstitution in the pride of being an Alaska native. "

Until now, we .... never thought ourselves owners of the land. We were its guests, and we fed at the table of the sea. These were our hosts, and we treated them with respect. Now we have won ownership of a portion of our ancestral lands. We accept them willingly, but not without a sense of awe and reverence.

-- l 974 Koniag Inc. Annual Report

All the quotations are by people who want Native people to plan their own future. To plan one’s own future is call self-determination. Before you read on, stop now and write a paragraph. Explain in you own words what self-determination means to Alaska Natives.

Did you include some of the following ideas in your paragraph?

Self-determination means that enrolled Native Alaskans own land.

Native Alaskans can decide what to do with their land.

Self-determination means that enrolled Native Alaskans get settlement money.

Native Alaskans can decide what to do with the money they receive.

Self-determination means that, in most cases, the government cannot tell Alaska Natives how to use their money or land.


Lesson 10

Teaching Objectives:

Learner Outcome:

  1. Review of original objectives
  1. Students will have a better understanding of ANCSA as demonstrated by reaching the six (6) course objectives stated at the beginning of the course.

TIME REQUIRED: Approximately 1 class period



1. Discuss any last minute questions.

2. Administer post-test to students.

3. Collect written papers or begin oral reports in class.







1. Inform the students that they are to become involved in a class experiment, and it is hoped that all students will be willing to participate. Ask each student to contribute an amount of money (not to exceed 50 cents) to a general fund (ask a student to record the amount given by each of the students in order that the money can be returned after the experiment.) After the money is collected and held for safe-keeping by an appointed student the class is told: As a class you are to decide upon one student who is to receive the Fund and to put it to the best use possible for the good of the entire class. The class makes its selection. (Optional: The selected person may decide what to do with the money and report to the class. The class might express an opinion on the suggested action; if the class was displeased with the choice, the students might select someone else.) Class discussion should center on what characteristics or behavior patterns were considered when the students were told to select someone to act upon their behalf with their money. These personal qualities might be listed on the chalkboard (perhaps refer right to the several persons who might have been considered to use the Fund) -- such as trustworthiness, honesty, etc. Additional qualities of leadership might be included in the list. (Note: Be sure to return the change to each student immediately after completing the exercise.)

2. Select two or three known leaders in the community. Write their names on the chalkboard. Under each name write those qualities that contribute to that person's recognition as a community leader. A second step might be to number those characteristics from the most important to the least important. Discussion might center on those qualities, particularly on those which would be important for corporation leadership.

3. The class might create a mural (magic markers or poster paints) which illustrates those qualities of leadership that can contribute to the effective leadership by the staff of a business corporation.

4. A speaker from one of the Native business corporations might explain to the class those qualities that are looked for in hiring corporation staff the characteristic desired in members of the board of directors. Expectations for responsible stockholders might be discussed with the students.

5. Students in pairs might be assigned the task of writing a brief report that explains the extent to which Alaska Native business corporations formed as a result of the settlement act are uniuqe organizations from the common business corporation. (15 minutes) in the total class setting discuss the ideas as they are reported from each team.

Ask each of the students to write an interpretation to the following quotation: "Take our land, take our life." Ask them to consider the statement in relation to the preservation of land rights for the Alaska-Natives (15 minutes) Share the ideas in the class; use this exercise as a bridge into reviewing the concept of aboriginal rights. Compare one area of Alaska to another in the way in which land and resources were traditionally used. Compare land use in Alaska with that of the ContinentalUnited States. Review instances in Alaskan history where the aboriginal rights have been protected by Congressional statement. These illustrations might be highlighted on a timeline drawn on poster paper or on the chalkboard. With the class might be considered two questions: (1) What provisions were there in the Statehood Act for the Alaska Natives' land rights to be protected? (2) What was the federal government's position toward the land rights of the Alaska Natives?

1. With the class a diagram of a basic business corporation structure might be studied to observe the lines of responsibilities among the various positions within the corporation. (See the sample corporation structure diagram in the teacher guide) Discuss the relationship between the various segments of the corporation. As a class, a specific business corporation structure of a local business corporation, Northern Commercial Company, First National Bank etc. might be briefly studied.

2. The Native regional corporations, unlike most corporations, have unalienable stock until 1991; that is, no one may sell his stock until that time. Discuss the reasoning behind this provision. Discuss what might happen after 1991 if people sold stock. To whom might they sell it? (Their grandchildren who did not get any under the original act because they were born too late, for instance; non-Natives; other big business, etc.)

3. This activity may span several class sessions. Establish from one to three corporations in your classroom. You might name them after the Native regional corporations. Decide on the following for each corporation:

a. officers to officiate at the meeting

b. define goals from among the following:

(1) provide jobs for shareholders

(2) make money (maximize profits)

(3) social welfare for shareholders

(4) ensure the continuation of your culture

(5) promote Native-owned small businesses

(6) invest only in businesses which are in accord with Native values of subsistence, sharing, respect for the environment.

(7) etc.

c. Plan strategies to achieve these goals.

4. Regroup into the corporation or corporations formed the previous day. Distribute the letters from shareholders to selected students (members of the corporation). Have each in turn read his letter. Have the corporation deal with those issues.

5. As a class, discuss how each shareholder's letter reflects a real concern of shareholders in today's Native regional corporations. Discuss how the corporations dealt with these questions, given the goals previously established.

6. Have each student research one of the Native Regional corporations and do a report on it. You might allow students to work in groups of two or three. This might be a good time to call a shareholder/resource person from Doyon to speak in your classroom. 

ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES - Shareholders Letters

Villagetow, Alaska
December 17, 1982

Board of Directors

___________ Corporation

Dear Sirs:

I read in our annual report that you are investing in an oil well near our village. I guess that could make us a lot of money. but I wonder if you've stopped to consider the harm it might do to our hunting. As you know, the caribou herd has been decreasing lately. Proposed roads leading to the oil well will go right through their winter grounds. Also, the area where the oil well will be placed is prime trapping for us.

Muskrat and beaver live there and would surely be destroyed by a big oiloperation. Your "experts" tell us there will be no harm to the herd and animals. You never ask us; we are the real experts here and we oppose without consultation to our elders.

I thought our corporations were supposed to operate for the good of the people. How do you explain yourselves?



Disgruntled Shareholder II

ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES - Shareholders Letters

Big City, Alaska
December 17, 1982


Board of Directors

_______________ Corporation


Dear Sirs:

Why haven't I gotten any dividend checks from you? I voted for you because I thought you knew about making money. In the paper I read that our corporation is one of the most successful of the Regional corporations; and yet, I haven't gotten anything out of it. Why not? I assure you that I will not vote for you again and I have eleven children whose proxies I hold. If this situation doesn't change you will be out!


Disgruntled Shareholder I

ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES - Shareholders Letters

Anywhere, Alaska
December 17, 1982


Board of Directors

_______________ Corporation


Dear Sirs:

My whole family is writing this letter together because we are all in the same boat. Our education levels range from Gramma, with a 4th grade education, to me, with a college degree. And yet, not one of us can understand our annual report. How much money do we have? Who decides what to invest in? Just how does the corporation work, anyway? Why is your salary so high? And why do you have to sit up there in those fancy high-rise offices where no one can talk to you? When I call up to talk to one of you, I'm told you're "in conference".

I think you're losing touch with your shareholders, and my whole family agrees.



Disgruntled Shareholder VI-XII

ADDITIONAL ACTIVITIES - Shareholders Letters

Smalltown, Alaska
December 17, 1982


Board of Directors

______________ Corporation


Dear Sirs:

It's no secret that the top management in our corporation is mostly made up of non-Natives. I could understand the reason for this in the first years of the corporation; then there were very few Natives trained in the business world. But here it is, eleven years after ANCSA has passed, and we are in the same situation. I'll be graduating from high school this year and would like to work for the corporation; but I don't know much about business, what to invest in to make money, how to figure profit margin, or any of those things. I think our corporation should be training a person like me so that I, and others like me, can move into those positions now held by non-shareholders. You don't seem to have done anything about this, though. Let's get moving!


Disgruntled Shareholder V




Students will become involved in the regional corporation's use of funds


Obtain copies of the corporation minutes or invite corporation officers to the class to find out how the corporation has invested its money.

Are the investments ones that will yield a high percentage of return?

Are they low-risk or high risk investments?

Do they provide opportunities for Native businessmen?

Do they provide jobs for Natives?

Do they afford a chance for Native workers to train and upgrade their skills?

In your thinking, how important are the abovementioned criteria? What other questions would you ask in making a decision on an investment?




Students will become involved in the regional corporation's plans for development of natural resources.


Using references and asking people, find out what renewable and non-renewable resources are found in the Doyon region.

To what extent do you think these resources should be developed? What trade-offs must a community make in order to "develop"?

In small groups, make plans for wise development of the region's natural resources over a period of time.

Among the plans presented, select one or more that the class likes best. Calculate how much (what percentages) of profits the region would get to retain and how much would go to other corporations.



The Alaska Native Education Program maintains an extensive library including resource books, teacher guides, student books, maps, etc. These materials are available to the classroom teacher to supplement the study of Alaska in the classroom. We encourage teacher's use of these materials; and extend assistance in planning their use in the classroom. Following is a list of ANCSA related teacher materials now available through the Alaska Native Education library. Due to the current issues which ANCSA represents, our list of resources is constantly growing. Please contact the library for these materials or to ask questions related to the ANCSA course in your classroom.

1. Adult Literacy Lab; Anchorage. Land Claims Workbook. (1974) Brief historical/future overview, designed for correspondence.

2. Alaska Native Foundation. Alaska Natives and Alaska Native Corporations. (1977) Shore impact statement of ANCSA on the Native lifestyle (two small booklets)

3. Arnold, Robert; Hays, Lydia. Alaska Native Land Claims. (1976) Textbook, comprehensive and detailed analysis, 347 pp.

4. Bigjim, Frederick Seagayuk and Ito-Alder, James. Letters to Howard, An Interpretation of the Alaska Native Land Claims. AMU Press 1974. A collection of 24 letters on critical issues of the Alaska Native Land Claims to Howard Rock, editor of the Tundra Times. Hard bound book, 133 pp.

5. Educational Media Services. ANCSA: The Corporate Whale; The First Ten Years. (1981) A program of 5 cassette tapes covering ANCSA.

6. Ely, Guess and Rudd. Summary and Analysis of ANCSA (for Rural Cap).). (1972).

7. Fairbanks North Star Borough School District. ANCSA: 10 Years Later. (1981) A bound collection of newspaper articles published in the Fairbanks Daily News Miner.

8. French, Stewart. Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act. (1972) A general explanation of land claims. 17 pp.

9. Frey, Lucille. The Learning Tree, Teaching Ideas for the Alaska Claims Settlement Act. (1976) A collection of activities for classroom use to enhance the study of Land Claims, and the nature (???-Native) people of Alaska.

10. Hale, Mariclaire. ANCSA Educational Handbook. (1974) Short text dealing with fundamental legal concepts. 31 pp.

11. Hays, Lydia. Alaska Native Land Claims: Workbook and Teacher’s Guide. Prepared to accompany Arnold's text.

12. Hays, Lydia. "ANCSA 1981: A Snapshot of Today. " (1981) a slide presentation and narrative cassette (done by a Fairbanks high school student) updating current investments and economics of Native corporations.

13. Iditarod School District. "Land Claims Curriculum." An extensive course outline for one semester course, presented in 3-ring binder.

14. Jorgensen, Terry and Partnon, Patricia. U.S. History: 1987 - Present Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act Unit and Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act of 1971: A Portrait of a Successful Political Interest Group. Curriculum for ANCSA course 10th and 12th grade.

15. Kodiak Island Borough School District Curriculum. "ANCSA." (6 page outline)

16. League of Women Voters. Alaska's Land: Facts and Issues. (1974)

17. Lower Kuskokwim School District Curriculum. "ANCSA." Outline for interdisciplinary integration of vocational and historical concepts into existing classes.

18. Lower Yukon School District Curriculum. "ANCSA." Historical/political course outline based on Arnold text.

19. Lynch, Kathleen. ANCSA: A Study Guide. (1981) Historical presentation and in depth treatment on ANCSA related issues.

20. Mat-Su Borough School District Curriculum. Brief outline of course based on Arnold text.

21. McDearmon, Patt; Conn, Stephen; Barthel, Frank. Alaskan Natives and the Law. Written with the perspective of clarifying legal concepts.

22. Murphy, Nancy (Fairbanks North Star Borough School District). Natural Resources Management. (1981) In depth treatment of land management issues relating to the Settlement Act.

23. Napoleon, Harold. Politics and Alaska Natives. Short article regarding the influence of federal interests on the Settlement Act.

24. North Slope Borough School District Curriculum. "ANCSA." Outline for secondary course.

25. Teeluk, Martha. Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act. (1974) An explanation of general concepts. 22 pp.

26. Vick, Ann. Alaska Native Foundation. Native Village Corporations: Structure and Operations. An Instructors Guide for the Rural Secondary Curriculum.

27. Wiggins, Linda. Iditarod School District. "A course in Village Leadership." (1980) taught through legal orientation. 75 pp. (unbound).

28. Yukon-Koyukuk Curriculum. "ANCSA." Brief outline of secondary ANCSA course.





Andrew P. Angiak, Coordinator
Upward Bound Program
5th Floor, Gruening Building
University of Alaska
Fairbanks, AK 99701

David Case, Associate Professor
Native Studies/Political Science
University of Alaska #507, Gruening Building
Fairbanks, AK 99701

Dennis Demmert, Director
Alaska Native Programs
University of Alaska
#507, Gruening Building
Fairbanks, AK 99701

Mike Gaffney, Director
Alaska Native Studies
University of Alaska
Fairbanks, AK 99701

Paul Costello, President
Interior Village Association
127 1/2 Minnie St.
Fairbanks, AK 99701

Sam Demientieff, Chairman
Board of Director
Doyon Ltd.
201 1st Ave.
Fairbanks, AK 99701

Claude Demientieff, Jr., Executive Director
1514 Cushman St., Room 206
Fairbanks, AK 99701

Mike Irwin, Asst. to Vice President
Shareholder Relation and Corporation Development
Doyon Lmtd.
201 - 1st Ave.
Fairbanks, AK 99701

Alfred Ketzler, Sr., Director
Community and Natural Resource
Tanana Chief Conferences
201 - 1st Ave.
Fairbanks, AK. 99701

Georgianna Lincoln, Board Member
Doyon Lmtd.
201 - 1st Ave.
Fairbanks, AK 99701

Elizabeth Morris, Executive Director
Fairbanks Native Association
310 1st Ave.
Fairbanks, AK 99701

Morris Thompson, Vice President
Stockholder Relation and Corporate Development
Doyon Lmtd.
201 - 1st Avenue
Fairbanks, AK 99701


Ahtna, Incorporated
P. O. Box 823
Copper Center, Alaska 99573
phone 822-3476

515 D Street
Suite 202
Anchorage, Alaska 99501
phone 277-0316

Aleut Corporation
833 Gambell Street
Anchorage, Alaska 99501
phone 274-1506

Arctic Slope Regional Corporation
Box 566
Barrow, Alaska 99723
phone 852-6930

313 E Street
Anchorage, Alaska 99501
phone 276-1552

Bering Straits Native Corp., Inc.
P. O. Box 1008
Nome, Alaska 99762
phone 443-5252

Bristol Bay Native Corp., Inc.
P. O. Box 237
Dillingham, Alaska 99576
phone 842-3070

447 East Fifth Avenue
Anchorage, Alaska 99501
phone 277-9511

Chugach Native, Inc.
912 East 15th Street
Anchorage, Alaska 99501
phone 274-4558

Calista Corporation
516 Denali Street
Anchorage, Alaska 99501
phone 279-5516

Box 408
Bethel, Alaska 99559
phone 543-2191

Cook Inlet Region, Inc.
1211 West 27th Avenue
Anchorage, Alaska 99503
phone 274-8638

Doyon, Ltd.
Doyon Building - 1st & Hall
Fairbanks, Alaska 99701
phone 452-4755 or 452-5756

Koniag, Inc. Regional Native Corp.
Box 746
Kodiak, Alaska 99615
phone 486-4147

NANA Regional Corporation, Inc.
Box 49
Kotzebue, Alaska 99752
phone 442-3261

4706 Harding Drive
Anchorage, Alaska 99503
phone 279-5232

Sealaska Corporation
811 West 12th Street
Juneau, Alaska 99801
phone 586-1512


Aleut League
833 Gambell Street
Anchorage, Alaska 99501

Arctic Slope Native Association
P. O. Box 566
Barrow, Alaska 99723

Bristol Bay Native Association
P. O. Box 237
Dillingham, Alaska 99576

Cook Inlet Native Association
P. O. Box 515, 670 W. Fireweed Lane
Anchorage, Alaska 99510

Copper River Native Assn ., Inc .
Drawer G
Copper Center, Alaska 99573

Kawerak, Inc .
P. O. Box 505
Nome, Alaska 99762

Kodiak Area Native Association
P . O . Box 172
Kodiak, Alaska 99615

Maunelak, Inc.
P. O. Box 257
Kotzebue, Alaska 99752

North Pacific Rim Native Corporaticn
912 East 15th Avenue (Chugach)
Anchorage, Alaska 99501

Tanana Chiefs Conference
Doyon Building-1st & Hal1 Streets
Fairbanks, Alaska 99701

Tlingit-Haida Central Council
114 South Franklin Street
Juneau, Alaska 99801

Yupiktak Bista
P. O. Box 219
Bethel, Alaska 99559

Alaska Tribal Association
c/o Kenai Native Association, Inc.
Box 1210
Kenai, Alaska 99611

Alaska Native business corporations



Arctic Village



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Alaska Native Knowledge Network
University of Alaska Fairbanks
PO Box 756730
Fairbanks  AK 99775-6730
Phone (907) 474.1902
Fax (907) 474.1957
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Last modified February 7, 2007