abandon tl'eet abandon, get rid of abandon, desert, leave; throw away, dispose of, get rid of O-S-l-tl'eet~ (na act) for S to abandon, desert, leave O; for S to throw away, dispose of, get rid of O li-tl'eet Leer 1973: 08/245 Naltl'eet! Get rid of it! Naylatl'eet! You all get rid of it! Líl yoo ilatl'ítgik̲! Don't get rid of it! Líl yoo yilatl'ítgik̲! Don't you all get rid of it! altl'éet s/he is getting rid of it x̲walitl'eet I got rid of it awlitl'eet s/he got rid of it tlél x̲walatl'eet I didn't get rid of it tlél awultl'eet s/he didn't get rid of it agux̲latl'éet s/he will get rid of it tlél agux̲latl'eet s/he won't get rid of it (ch'a) anax̲latl'eet let him/her get rid of it analtl'ítch s/he gets rid of it (every time) tlél oonaltl'ítch s/he hasn't gotten rid of it yet tlél aadé oonax̲litl'eedi yé no way can s/he get rid of it oonax̲latl'eedín s/he would have gotten rid of it analtl'ítni if/when s/he gets rid of it yoo alitl'ítk s/he gets rid of it (regularly) Nilatl'ítni hél i toowú g̲aa kg̲watee. If you get rid of it, you'll regret it. Yeisú aawasháa tle wdudlitl'eet. He just got married then got divorced. Ax̲ shát x̲at wulitl'eet. My wife deserted me. [Story & Naish 1973:15] Dei x̲walitl'eet. I've already thrown it away. [Story & Naish 1973:228] Ax̲ taayí x̲oo x̲latl'éet. I'm weeding my garden. [Leer 1973: 08/245] abstain g̲aas (2) forbidden, superstitious, abstain superstitious; abstain, refrain from, keep from doing (usually for ceremonial or religious reasons, esp. of Lent) at S-l-g̲aas (ga state) for S to be superstitious; for S to abstain, refrain from, keep from doing (usually for ceremonial or religious reasons, esp. of Lent) li-g̲aas Líl at ilag̲aasík̲! Don't be superstitious! at x̲alig̲aas I'm superstitious at lig̲aas s/he is superstitious tlél at ux̲lag̲aas I'm not superstitious tlél at ulg̲aas s/he isn't superstitious kei at nalg̲aas s/he is becoming superstitious at wulig̲aas s/he became superstitious tlél at wulg̲aas s/he didn't become superstitious kei at gux̲lag̲aas s/he will be superstitious tlél kei at gux̲lag̲aas s/he won't be superstitious (ch'a) at gax̲lag̲aas (just) let him/her be superstitious tlél at goolg̲aasch s/he isn't superstitious yet tlél aadé at goox̲lig̲aasi yé no way can s/he be superstitious at goox̲lag̲aasín s/he would have been superstitious at galg̲aasní if/when s/he is superstitious Ch'a yeisú at dudlig̲aas. People are still superstitious. Áa at dudlig̲aas. People are superstitious of that place. At x̲alig̲aas. I abstain (from things such as eating meat). [Story & Naish 1973: 15] Wududlig̲aas. They are keeping from various foods and activities (in observance of Lent). [Story & Naish 1973: 15] forbidden, taboo li-g̲aas (ga state) for something to be forbidden, taboo, not allowed by custom li-g̲aas lig̲aas it's forbidden tlél ulg̲aas it's not forbidden galag̲aasní if/when its forbidden Íx̲t' ádi át awusheeyí lig̲aas. It's forbidden to touch the medicine man's things. [Story & Naish 1973: 96] accomplish dlaak̲ get, succeed, accomplish, defeat, win win, gain, get, obtain it; acquire it; succeed, accomplish it; defeat him/her/it O-ya-S-ø-dlaak̲~ (na event) for S to gain, get, obtain, acquire O; for S to succeed, accomplish O; for S to defeat, beat O ya-ya-dlaak̲ The prohibitive forms "Don't win it!" require context in order to make sense. An example would be this statement, said jokingly: Líl yoo yeedlák̲gik̲ - yakk̲wadláak̲! "Don't win it - I'm going to win it!" Yanadlaak̲! Win it! Yanaydlaak̲! You all win it! Líl yoo yeedlák̲gik̲! Don't win it! Líl yoo yaydlák̲gik̲! Don't you all win it! [does not occur] yax̲waadlaak̲ I won it ayaawadlaak̲ s/he won it tlél yax̲wadlaak̲ I didn't win it tlél ayawudlaak̲ s/he didn't win it yakk̲wadláak̲ I will win it ayakg̲wadláak̲ s/he will win it tlél yakk̲wadlaak̲ I won't win it tlél ayakg̲wadlaak̲ s/he won't win it yank̲adlaak̲ let me win it ayang̲adlaak̲ let him/her win it yanx̲adlák̲ch I win it (every time) ayanadlák̲ch s/he wins it (every time) tlél yoonx̲adlák̲ch I haven't won it yet tlél awunadlák̲ch s/he hasn't won it yet tlél aadé yoonk̲aadlaag̲i yé no way can I win it tlél aadé ayang̲waadlaag̲i yé no way can s/he win it yoonk̲adlaag̲ín I would have won it ayang̲wadlaag̲ín s/he would have won it yanx̲adlák̲ni if/when I win it ayanadlák̲ni if/when s/he wins it yoo yax̲aadlák̲k I win it (regularly) yoo ayaadlák̲k s/he wins it (regularly) address yoo address address as, call by certain relationship term and thus adopt that relationship You can replace yéi throughout the paradigm with a name or kinship term, as in: Léelk'w du yáx̲ x̲'ax̲alyoo. "I call her Grandma." (yéi) N yát~ x̲'a-S-d-l-yoo~ (Ø motion) for S to address, call N by certain relationship term and thus adopt that relationship x̲'a-dli-yoo Leer 1973: 03/81-82 Yéi du yát x̲'eelyú! Address him/her that way! Líl yéi du yáx̲ x̲'eelyook̲! Don't address him/her that way! [does not occur] yéi du yát x̲'ax̲wdliyóo I addressed him/her that way yéi du yát x̲'awdliyóo s/he addressed him/her that way tlél yéi du yát x̲'ax̲walyú I didn't address him/her that way tlél yéi du yát x̲'awulyú s/he didn't address him/her that way yéi du yaadé x̲'akg̲walyóo s/he will address him/her that way tlél yéi du yaadé x̲'akg̲walyoo s/he won't address him/her that way (ch'a) yéi du yát x̲'ag̲alyoo (just) let him/her address him/her that way yéi du yát x̲'eilyóowch s/he addresses him/her that way (every time) tlél yéi du yát x̲'eilyóowch s/he hasn't addressed him/her that way yet tlél aadé yéi du yát x̲'eix̲dliyoowu yé no way can s/he address him/her that way yéi du yát x̲'eig̲alyoowún s/he would have addressed him/her that way yéi du yát x̲'alyéini if/when s/he addresses him/her that way yéi du yáx̲ x̲'alyoo s/he addresses him/her that way (regularly) I yát x̲'ax̲wdliyóo ax̲ kéek' sákw, ax̲ kéek'x̲ inax̲sateet. I'm addressing you as my younger sister, so that you will become my younger sister. [Story & Naish 1973: 16] Du kéek' yóo áyá x̲'alyóo. He always addressed him (and treated him) as younger brother. [Story & Naish 1973: 16] Has du dachx̲án áyá yéi a yáx̲ has x̲'alyoo yá náak̲w. This is their grandchild, that's how they address it, this (giant) octopus. admire k̲'ei admire admire, think highly of, respect; treasure, value N yáa O-li-k̲'éi (ga state) for N to admire, think highly of, respect O; for N to treasure, value O k̲aa yáa + li-k̲'ei Leer 1973: f01/221 I yáa galak̲'éi! Admire him/her! Yee yáa galak̲'éi! You all admire him/her! Líl i yáa kei ulk̲'éiyich! Don't admire him/her! Líl yee yáa kei ulk̲'éiyich! Don't you all admire him/her! ax̲ yáa lik̲'éi I admire him/her du yáa lik̲'éi s/he admires him/her tlél ax̲ yáa ulk̲'é I don't admire him/her tlél du yáa ulk̲'é s/he doesn't admire him/her du yáa kei nalk̲'éin s/he is beginning to admire him/her du yáa wulik̲'éi s/he admired him/her tlél du yáa wulk̲'éi s/he didn't admire him/her du yáa kei gux̲lak̲'éi s/he is going to admire him/her tlél du yáa kei gux̲lak̲'éi s/he isn't going to admire him/her (ch'a) du yáa gax̲lak̲'éi (just) let him/her admire him/her du yáa galak̲'éich s/he admires him/her (every time) tlél du yáa goolak̲'éich s/he hasn't admired him/her yet tlél aadé du yáa goox̲lik̲'éiyi yé no way can s/he admire him/her du yáa goox̲lak̲'éiyin s/he would have admired him/her du yáa galak̲'éini if/when s/he admires him/her du yáa kei lak̲'éich s/he admires him/her (regularly) Ax̲ yáa lik̲'éi aadé at kayeey.aak̲w yé. I am pleased with the way you planned it. Du yáa x̲at lik̲'éi. She admires me. Ldakát yagiyee áwé ax̲ yáa lik̲'éi yéi wusgeedí. I admire her every time she does that. Du yáa galak̲'éini, yéi jiné a jeedé akg̲watée. If he thinks highly of him, he'll give him a job. Líl i yáa kei ulk̲'éiyich, tlél daatx̲ sá ustí. Don't admire him, he's nothing. I yáa galak̲'éi, aak'é at kookeidí áwé. Admire him, he's a good example. Hél has du yáa at ulk̲'é. They have no respect for anyone. L yáa at ulk̲'é déin ax̲ éet x̲'eiwatán. He spoke to me disrespectfully. advance ook (2) boil, tumble, advance, fill boil it O-S-l-.ook~ (ø event; CV́C Hort/Pot) for S to boil O (esp. water) li-.ook La.úk! Boil it! Yila.úk! You all boil it! Líl ila.úkx̲uk̲! Don't boil it! Líl yila.úkx̲uk̲! Don't you all boil it! [does not occur] x̲wali.úk I boiled it awli.úk s/he boiled it tlél x̲wala.ook I didn't boil it tlél awul.ook s/he didn't boil it kuk̲ala.óok I will boil it agux̲la.óok s/he will boil it tlél kuk̲ala.ook I won't boil it tlél agux̲la.ook s/he won't boil it ak̲la.úk let me boil it ax̲la.úk let him/her boil it x̲wala.úkch I boil it (every time) ool.úkch s/he boils it (every time) tlél x̲wala.úkch I haven't boiled it yet tlél ool.úkch s/he hasn't boiled it yet tlél aadé k̲wali.úgu yé no way can I boil it tlél aadé oox̲li.úgu yé no way can s/he boil it k̲wala.úgun I would have boiled it oox̲la.úgun s/he would have boiled it x̲ala.úkni if/when I boil it al.úkni if/when s/he boils it x̲ala.úkx̲ I boil it (regularly) al.úkx̲ s/he boils it (regularly) G̲agaan kei naxíxi áwé x̲wala.úkch wé káaxwei ax̲ léelk'u jeeyís. When the sun is coming up, I boil the coffee for my grandmother. Héen al.úkx̲ cháayoo sákw. She boils water for tea. boil d-l-.óok~ (ø event; CV́C Hort/Pot) for something to boil li-.ook [does not occur] yaa nal.úk it's starting to boil wudli.úk it's boiling; it boiled tlél wul.ook it's not boiling; it didn't boil gug̲wal.óok it will boil tlél gug̲wal.ook it won't boil g̲al.úk let it boil ul.úkch it boils (every time) tlél ul.úkch it hasn't boiled yet tlél aadé ux̲li.úgu yé no way can it boil ux̲la.úgun it would have boiled il.úkni if/when it boils il.úkx̲ it comes to a boil (regularly) advise jaaʰ instruct, show, advise instruct, show him/her; advise, cousel him/her O-shu-ka-S-ø-jaaʰ~ (ø act; CV́V Imp/Hort/Pot) for S to instruct, show O (by word); for S to advise, give advice to, counsel O shu-ka-ya-jaa Shukajáa! Instruct him/her! Shukayjáa! You all instruct him/her! Líl shukeejeix̲ík̲! Don't instruct him/her! Líl shukayjeix̲ík̲! Don't you all instruct him/her! ashukoojeis' s/he is instructing him/her tlél ashukoojeis' s/he isn't instructing him/her ashukaawajáa s/he instructed him/her tlél ashukawujá s/he didn't instruct him/her ashukakg̲wajáa s/he will instruct him/her tlél ashukakg̲wajaa s/he won't instruct him/her ashukag̲ajáa let him/her instruct him/her [does not occur] [does not occur] tlél aadé ashukg̲waajáayi yé no way can s/he instruct him/her ashukg̲wajáayin s/he would have instructed him/her ashukajéini if/when s/he instructs him/her ashukajeix̲ s/he instructs him/her (regularly) afraid x̲eitl' afraid, fear afraid of it, fear it P-x' a-ka-u-S-d-l-x̲éitl' (ga state) for S to be afraid of, fear P -x̲éetl' (An) A-x' + a-ka-dli-x̲éetl' Áa kageelx̲éitl' Be afraid of it! Áa kageeyilx̲éitl'! You all be afraid of it! Líl áa akeelx̲éitl'ik̲! Don't be afraid of it! Líl áa akayilx̲éitl'ik̲! Don't you all be afraid of it! áa akux̲dlix̲éitl' I'm afraid of it áa akwdlix̲éitl' s/he is afraid of it tlél áa akoox̲alx̲éitl' I'm not afraid of it tlél áa akoolx̲éitl' s/he isn't afraid of it áa akoolx̲éitl' nooch s/he's always afraid of it áa akux̲wdlix̲éitl' I was afraid of it áa akawdlix̲éitl' s/he was afraid of it tlél áa akx̲walx̲éitl' I wasn't afraid of it tlél áa akawulx̲éitl' s/he wasn't afraid of it áa kei akakg̲walx̲éitl' s/he will be afraid of it tlél áa kei akakg̲walx̲éitl' s/he won't be afraid of it [does not occur] [does not occur] [does not occur] áa akakg̲walx̲éidlin s/he would have been afraid of it áa akagoolx̲éitl'ni if s/he's afraid of it [does not occur] Sh k̲'uk̲walyeilín, du éex' k̲u.aa akux̲dlix̲éitl'. I would have lied but I'm afraid of him. age shaan age, old old O-d-shaan~ (ø event) for O to show signs of old age (esp. grey hair), for O to become old, age di-shaan Líl idashánx̲ik̲! Don't get old! Líl yee dashánx̲ik̲! Don't you all get old! [does not occur] yaa x̲at nadashán I'm getting old yaa indashán you're getting old yaa ndashán s/he's getting old yaa haa ndashán we're getting old yaa yee ndashán you all are getting old yaa (ha)s nadashán they are getting old yaa k̲undashán someone is getting old [does not occur] x̲at wudishán I am old iwdishán you are old wudishán s/he is old haa wdishán we are old yee wdishán you all are old has wudishán they are old k̲uwdishán people are old tlél x̲at wudashaan I'm not old tlél iwdashaan you aren't old tlél wudashaan s/he isn't old tlél haa wdashaan we aren't old tlél yee wdashaan you all aren't old tlél has wudashaan they aren't old tlél k̲uwdashaan nobody is old x̲at gux̲dasháan I will be old igux̲dasháan you will be old gux̲dasháan s/he will be old haa gux̲dasháan we will be old yee gux̲dasháan you all will be old has gux̲dasháan they will be old k̲ugux̲dasháan people will be old tlél x̲at gux̲dashaan I won't get old tlél igux̲dashaan you won't get old tlél gux̲dashaan s/he won't get old tlél haa gux̲dashaan we won't get old tlél yee gux̲dashaan you all won't get old tlél has gux̲dashaan they won't get old tlél k̲ugux̲dashaan nobody will get old x̲at g̲adashaan let me get old g̲adashaan let him/her get old haa x̲dashaan let us get old [does not occur] tlél x̲at udashánch I haven't gotten old yet tlél eedashánch you haven't gotten old yet tlél udashánch s/he hasn't gotten old yet tlél haa udashánch we haven't gotten old yet tlél yee udashánch you all haven't gotten old yet tlél has udashánch they haven't gotten old yet tlél k̲oodashánch nobody has gotten old yet tlél aadé ux̲dishaani yé no way can s/he get old ux̲dashaanín s/he would have gotten old dashánni if/when s/he gets old [does not occur] age s'eex spoil, rot, age spoil, age, rot l-s'eex~ (ø event) for animal matter to age, spoil to stage where still firm, but smelly li-s'eex [does not occur] yaa nals'íx it's aging wulis'íx it aged tlél wuls'eex it didn't age gux̲las'éex it will age tlél gux̲las'eex it won't age g̲als'eex let it age uls'íxch it ages (every time) tlél uls'íxch it hasn't aged yet tlél aadé ux̲lis'eexi yé no way can it age ux̲las'eexín it would have aged las'íxni if/when it ages las'íxx̲ it ages (regularly) amuse ook' play, amuse entertain, amuse oneself; play quietly (of children) k̲u-S-d-s-.ook' (na act) for S to entertain, amuse oneself; for S to play quietly k̲u-dzi-.ook' K̲unees.ook'! Play quietly, amuse yourself! K̲unayis.ook'! You all play quietly, amuse yourselves! Líl k̲ees.ook'úk̲ (i sée teen)! Don't play (with your dolls)! Líl k̲uyis.ook'úk̲ (yee sée teen)! Don't you all play (with your dolls)! k̲ux̲as.ook' I am playing quietly, amusing myself k̲us.ook' s/he is playing quietly, amusing himself/herself tlél k̲ux̲was.ook' I'm not playing quietly, amusing myself tlél k̲oos.ook' s/he isn't playing quietly, amusing himself/herself yaa k̲unas.úk' s/he is beginning to play quietly, amuse himself/herself k̲oowdzi.ook' s/he played quietly, amused himself/herself tlél k̲uwus.ook' s/he didn't play quietly, amuse himself/herself k̲ukg̲was.ook' s/he will play quietly, amuse himself/herself tlél k̲ukg̲was.ook' s/he won't play quietly, amuse himself/herself k̲ung̲as.ook' / k̲ung̲as.ook'ú let him/her play quietly, amuse himself/herself k̲unas.ook'ch s/he plays quietly, amuses himself/herself (every time) tlél k̲oonas.ook'ch s/he hasn't played quietly, amused himself/herself yet tlél aadé k̲oonax̲dzi.ook'u yé no way can s/he play quietly, amuse himself/herself k̲oong̲as.ook'ún s/he would have played quietly, amused himself/herself k̲unas.ook'ní if/when s/he plays quietly, amuses himself/herself yoo k̲udzi.ook'k s/he plays quietly, amuses himself/herself (regularly) Ch'a tlákw haat wugoodí du sée teen k̲us.uk' nooch. Every time she comes over she plays quietly with her dolls. Sée teen k̲unax̲toos.ook'. Let's play with dolls! [Story & Naish:1973:152] anchor yaa2 (5) carry, spread, anchor carry it on one's back; pack it on one's back O-S-ø-yaa~ (ga event) for S to carry O on back; for S to pack O ya-yaa In the progressive aspect, there is dialect variation between yaa anayáan and yaa anayéin and in the perfective habitual there is dialect variation between agayáach and agayéich. Gayá! Carry it on your back! Geeyá! You all carry it on your backs! Líl kei eeyéijik̲! Don't carry it on your back! Líl kei yiyéijik̲! Don't you all carry it on your backs! [does not occur] yaa nx̲ayáan / yaa nx̲ayéin I am carrying in on my back yaa anayáan / yaa anayéin he/she/it is carrying in on his/her/its back x̲waayaa I carried it on my back aawayaa he/she/it carried it on his/her/its back tlél x̲wayaa I didn't carry it on my back tlél awuyaa he/she/it didn't carry it on his/her/its back kei kk̲wayáa I will carry it on my back kei akg̲wayáa he/she/it will carry it on his/her/its back tlél kei kk̲wayaa I won't carry it on my back tlél kei akg̲wayaa he/she/it won't carry it on his/her/its back gak̲ayaa let me carry it on my back akg̲ayaa let him/her/it carry it on his/her/its back gax̲ayáach / gax̲ayéich I carry it on my back (every time) agayáach / agayéich he/she/it carries it on his/her/its back (every time) tlél gax̲wayáach / tlél gax̲wayéich I haven't carried it on my back yet tlél oogayáach / tlél oogayéich he/she/it hasn't carried it on his/her/its back yet tlél aadé akg̲waayaayi yé no way can he/she/it carry it on his/her/its back akg̲wayaayín he/she/it would have carried it on his/her/its back agayéini if/when he/she/it carries it on his/her/its back kei ayáach he/she/it carries it on his/her/its back (regularly) anchor it (boat) O-sha-S-s-yaa~ (na event) for S to anchor O (boat) sha-si-yaa Shanasyá! Anchor the boat! Shanaysayá! You all anchor the boat! Líl yoo sheesayéigik̲! Don't anchor the boat! Líl yoo shaysayéigik̲! Don't you all anchor the boat! [does not occur] shax̲wsiyaa I anchored the boat ashawsiyaa s/he anchored the boat tlél shax̲wsayaa I didn't anchor the boat tlél ashawusyaa s/he didn't anchor the boat shakk̲wasayáa I will anchor the boat ashagux̲sayáa s/he will anchor the boat tlél shakk̲wasayaa I won't anchor the boat tlél ashagux̲sayaa s/he won't anchor the boat shank̲asayaa let me anchor the boat ashanax̲sayaa let him/her anchor the boat shanax̲sayéich I anchor the boat (every time) ashanasyéich s/he anchors the boat (every time) tlél shanax̲wsayéich I haven't anchored the boat yet tlél ashunasyéich s/he hasn't anchored the boat yet tlél aadé shoonk̲asiyaayi yé no way can I anchor the boat tlél aadé ashunax̲wsiyaayi yé no way can s/he anchor the boat shoonk̲asayaayín I would have anchored the boat ashunax̲wsayaayín s/he would have anchored the boat shanax̲sayéini if/when I anchor the boat ashanasyéini if/when s/he anchors the boat yoo shax̲siyéik I anchor the boat (regularly) yoo ashasiyéik s/he anchors the boat (regularly) Du yaagú tlein ashunax̲wsayaayín k̲útx̲ k̲u.aa áwé k'eeljáa ayawditee. He would have anchored his big boat, but it was too stormy out. carry things on one's back; pack things at S-ø-yaa~ (ga event) for S to carry things on back; for S to pack things ya-yaa In the progressive aspect, there is dialect variation between yaa at nayáan and yaa at nayéin. At gayá! Carry things on your back! At geeyá! You all carry things on your back! Líl kei at eeyéijik̲! Don't carry things on your back! Líl kei at yeeyéijik̲! Don't you all carry things on your back! [does not occur] yaa at nax̲ayáan / yaa at nax̲ayéin I am carrying things on my back yaa at nayáan / yaa at nayéin he/she/it is carrying things on his/her/its back at x̲waayaa I carried things on my back at wooyaa he/she/it carried things on his/her/its back tlél at x̲wayaa I didn't carry things on my back tlél at wuyaa s/he didn't carry things on his/her/its back kei at kuk̲ayáa I will carry things on my back kei at gug̲ayáa he/she/it will carry things on his/her/its back tlél kei at kuk̲ayaa I won't carry things on my back tlél kei at gug̲ayaa s/he won't carry things on his/her/its back at gax̲ayáach I carry things on my back (every time) at gayáach he/she/it carries things on his/her/its back (every time) tlél at goox̲ayáach I haven't carried things on my back yet tlél at gooyáach s/he hasn't carried things on his/her/its back yet tlél aadé at kuk̲waayaayi yé no way can I carry things on my back tlél aadé at gug̲waayaayi yé no way can s/he carry things on his/her/its back at kuk̲wayaayín I would have carried things on my back at gug̲wayaayín s/he would have carried things on his/her/its back at gax̲ayéini if/when I carry things on my back at gayéini if/when s/he carries things on his/her/its back kei at x̲ayáach I carry things on my back (regularly) kei at yáach he/she/it carries things on his/her/its back (regularly) spread it out; unfold it P-x̲ O-ka-S-ø-yaa~ (g̲a motion) for S to spread out, unfold, lay out (singular) O along P A- + ka-ya-yaa Áx̲ kag̲ayá! Spread it out! Áx̲ kayg̲ayá! You all spread it out! Líl áx̲ kayiyaak̲! Don't spread it out! Líl áx̲ kayeeyyaak̲! Don't you all spread it out! [does not occur] áx̲ yei kanx̲ayéin I am spreading it out áx̲ yei akanayéin s/he's spreading it out áx̲ kax̲waayaa I spread it out áx̲ akaawayaa s/he spread it out tlél áx̲ kax̲wayaa I didn't spread it out tlél áx̲ akawuyaa s/he didn't spread it out áx̲ yei kakk̲wayáa I will spread it out áx̲ yei akakg̲wayáa s/he will spread it out tlél áx̲ yei kakk̲wayaa I won't spread it out tlél áx̲ yei akakg̲wayaa s/he won't spread it out áx̲ kag̲aak̲ayaa let me spread it out áx̲ akag̲aag̲ayaa let him/her spread it out áx̲ kak̲ayéich I spread it out (every time) áx̲ akag̲ayéich s/he spreads it out (every time) tlél áx̲ kook̲ayéich I haven't spread it out yet tlél áx̲ akg̲wayéich s/he hasn't spread it out yet tlél aadé áx̲ akoog̲aag̲aayaayi yé no way can s/he spread it out áx̲ akoog̲aag̲ayaayín s/he would have spread it out áx̲ akg̲ayéini if/when s/he spreads it out áx̲ yei akayéich s/he spreads it out (regularly) anchor (a boat) sha-S-d-s-yaa~ (na event) for S to anchor, lower anchor sha-si-yaa Shaneesyá! Anchor! Shanayisyá! You all anchor! Líl yoo sheesyéigik̲! Don't anchor! Líl yoo shayisyéigik̲! Don't you all anchor! [does not occur] shax̲wdziyaa I anchored shawdziyaa s/he anchored tlél shax̲wasyaa I didn't anchor tlél shawusyaa s/he didn't anchor shakk̲wasyáa I will anchor shakg̲wasyáa s/he will anchor tlél shakk̲wasyaa I won't anchor tlél shakg̲wasyaa s/he won't anchor shank̲asyaa let me anchor shang̲asyaa let him/her anchor shanx̲asyéich I anchor (every time) shanasyéich s/he anchors (every time) tlél shanx̲wasyéich I haven't anchored yet tlél shoonasyéich s/he hasn't anchored yet tlél aadé shoonk̲adziyaayi yé no way can I anchor tlél aadé shoonax̲dziyaayi yé no way can s/he anchor shoonk̲asyaayín I would have anchored shoong̲asyaayín s/he would have anchored shanx̲asyéini if/when I anchor shanasyéini if/when s/he anchors yoo shax̲dziyéik I anchor (regularly) yoo shadziyéik s/he anchors (regularly) angry oo1 (10) dress, pregnant, own, put, forgive, wear, give, live, use, angry, frustrate live (at a place) k̲u-S-ø-.oo~ (na state) for S to live, live at, dwell permanently k̲u-ya-.oo Leer 1973: 02/290-291 To specify where one lives, use: P-x' 'at P'. For example: Sheet'káx' k̲uya.óo. 'S/he lives in Sitka'. Note that áa and áx' are synonymous, both meaning 'there'. Often when occuring directly before the verb, the preferred form is áa. Áa k̲una.oo! Live there! Áa k̲unay.oo! You all live there! Líl áa k̲uyi.oowúk̲! Don't live there! Líl áa k̲uyeey.oowúk̲! Don't you all live there! áa k̲uya.óo / áa k̲uwa.óo s/he lives there tlél áa k̲oo.oo s/he doesn't live there áa k̲oowa.oo s/he lived there tlél áa k̲uwu.oo s/he didn't live there áa k̲ukg̲wa.óo s/he will live there tlél áa k̲ukg̲wa.oo s/he won't live there áa k̲ung̲a.oo let him/her live there áa k̲una.eich s/he lives there (every time) [does not occur] tlél aadé áa k̲oong̲aa.oowu yé no way can s/he live there áa k̲oong̲a.oowún s/he would have lived there áa k̲una.éini if/when s/he lives there [does not occur] put them, leave them there P-x' yéi O-S-ø-.oo (na event) for S to put, leave (plural) O at P A-x' + yéi + ya-.oo Leer 1973: 02/295 Áa yéi na.oo! Put them there! Áa yéi nay.oo! You all put them there! Líl áa yéi ee.eix̲ík̲! Don't put them there! Líl áa yéi yi.eix̲ík̲! Don't you all put them there! [does not occur] áa yéi aawa.oo s/he put them there tlél áa yéi awu.oo s/he didn't put them there áa yéi akg̲wa.oo s/he will put them there tlél áa yéi akg̲wa.oo s/he won't put them there áa yéi ang̲a.oo let him/her put them there áa yéi ana.eich s/he puts them there (every time) tlél áa yéi oona.eich s/he hasn't put them there yet tlél aadé áa yéi oong̲aa.oowu yé no way can s/he put them there áa yéi oong̲a.oowún s/he would have put them there áa yéi ana.einí if/when s/he puts them there pregnant, have a baby Note that atk'atsk'u "child" in the paradigm below can be replaced by yát or yátk' "child" to give the same meaning. Replacing either of these with atyátx'i "children" gives a slightly different meaning. Compare tlél atk'átsk'u oona.eich "she hasn't had the baby yet" with tlél atyátx'i oona.eich "she hasn't had any children yet". Note also the second person plural imperative form neey.oo. Both nay- and neey- are acceptable renderings of the combination of the conjugation prefix na- and the second person plural subject prefix yi-, although nay- seems more common. atk'átsk'u/yát(k') O-S-ø-.oo (na event) for S to have O (baby), be pregnant with O (baby) ya-.oo Leer 1973: 02/297, Leer 1973: 03/144 (Tsu) atk'átsk'u na.oo! Have (another) baby! (Tsu) atk'átsk'u neey.oo! You all have (another) baby! Líl atk'átsk'u yoo ee.eigík̲! Don't have a baby! Líl atk'átsk'u yoo yee.eigík̲! Don't you all have a baby! [does not occur] [does not occur; would use kei nanéek dei "she's starting to have (labor) pains"] atk'átsk'u x̲waa.oo I had a baby atk'átsk'u aawa.oo she had a baby tlél atk'átsk'u x̲wa.oo I didn't have a baby tlél atk'átsk'u awu.oo s/he didn't have a baby atk'átsk'u kk̲wa.oo I'm going to have a baby atk'átsk'u akg̲wa.oo she's going to have a baby tlél atk'átsk'u kk̲wa.oo I'm not going to have a baby tlél atk'átsk'u akg̲wa.oo she's not going to have a baby (ch'a) atk'átsk'u (dé) nk̲a.oo (just) let me have a baby (now) (ch'a) atk'átsk'u (dé) ang̲a.oo (just) let her have a baby (now) atk'átsk'u nx̲a.eich I have a baby (every time (every year, e.g.)) atk'átsk'u ana.eich she has a baby (every time (every year, e.g.)) tlél atk'átsk'u nx̲wa.eich I haven't had the baby yet tlél atk'átsk'u oona.eich she hasn't had the baby yet tlél aadé atk'átsk'u nk̲waa.oowu yé no way can I have a baby tlél aadé atk'átsk'u ang̲waa.oowu yé no way can she have a baby atk'átsk'u nk̲wa.oowún I would have had a baby atk'átsk'u ang̲wa.oowún she would have had a baby atk'átsk'u nx̲a.einí if/when I have a baby atk'átsk'u ana.einí if/when she has a baby atk'átsk'u yoo x̲aa.eik I have babies (regularly) atk'átsk'u yoo aya.eik she has babies (regularly) Du tláa haadé kg̲wagóot atk'átsk'u awu.oowú. Her mother will come when she has the baby. own, possess, have O-S-ø-.oo (na state) for S to own, possess, have O ya-.oo Leer 1973: 02/289-290 x̲aa.óo I own it aya.óo s/he owns it tlél x̲wa.oo I don't own it tlél oo.oo s/he doesn't own it x̲a.óowun I used to own it a.óowun s/he used to own it akg̲wa.oo s/he will own it tlél akg̲wa.oo s/he won't own it tlél oona.eich s/he doesn't own it yet tlél aadé oong̲aa.oowu yé no way can s/he own it oong̲a.oowún s/he would have owned it ana.einí if/when s/he owns it Tlákw keitl has aya.óo. They always own a dog. [Story & Naish 1973: 144] Tléil ágé yaakw ee.oo? Don't you own a boat? [Story & Naish 1973: 144] A yayís dáanaa awsineix̲ wé hít yeedát k̲wá aya.óo. He saved money for the house and now he owns it. forgive, excuse him/her ch'a aadé yéi O-S-ø-.oo (na event) for S to forgive, excuse O ch'a aa-dei + yéi + ya-.oo Ch'a aadé yéi na.oo! Forgive him/her! Ch'a aadé yéi nay.oo! You all forgive him/her! Líl ch'a aadé yéi yi.oowúk̲! Don't forgive him/her! Líl ch'a aadé yéi yeey.oowúk̲! Don't you all forgive him/her! [does not occur] ch'a aadé yéi yaa ana.ein s/he is starting to forgive him/her ch'a aadé yéi x̲waa.oo I forgave him/her ch'a aadé yéi aawa.oo s/he forgave him/her tlél ch'a aadé yéi x̲wa.oo I didn't forgive him/her tlél ch'a aadé yéi awu.oo s/he didn't forgive him/her ch'a aadé yéi akg̲wa.oo s/he will forgive him/her tlél ch'a aadé yéi akg̲wa.oo s/he won't forgive him/her ch'a aadé yéi ang̲a.oo let him/her forgive him/her ch'a aadé yéi ana.eich s/he forgives him/her (every time) tlél ch'a aadé yéi oona.eich s/he hasn't forgiven him/her yet tlél aadé ch'a aadé yéi oong̲aa.oowu yé no way can s/he forgive him/her ch'a aadé yéi oong̲a.oowún s/he would have forgiven him/her ch'a aadé yéi ana.einí if/when s/he forgives him/her ch'a aadé yéi yoo aya.eik s/he forgives him/her (regularly) Ch'a aadéi yéi haa na.oo! Forgive us! [Story & Naish 1973: 96] Ch'a aadé yéi woosh has wudi.oo. They forgave each other. dress him/her/it Note that either du náa or du daa can be used to give the same meaning. For example: du náa yéi shaawa.oo / du daa yéi shaawa.oo "s/he dressed him/her/it". N náa yéi sha-S-ø-.oo (na act) for S to dress N A-x' + yéi + sha-ya-.oo Du náa yéi shana.oo! Dress him/her/it! Du náa yéi shanay.oo! You all dress him/her/it! Líl du náa yéi shee.oox̲úk̲! Don't dress him/her/it! Líl du náa yéi shay.oox̲úk̲! Don't you all dress him/her/it! du náa yéi shax̲a.úx̲x' I am dressing him/her/it du náa yéi sha.úx̲x' s/he is dressing him/her/it du náa yéi shax̲waa.oo I dressed him/her/it du náa yéi shaawa.oo s/he dressed him/her/it tlél du náa yéi shax̲wa.oo I didn't dress him/her/it tlél du náa yéi shawu.oo s/he didn't dress him/her/it du náa yéi shakg̲wa.oo s/he will dress him/her/it tlél du náa yéi shakg̲wa.oo s/he's won't dress him/her/it du náa yéi shang̲a.oo let him/her dress him/her/it du náa yéi shana.eich s/he dresses him/her/it (every time) tlél du náa yéi shoona.eich s/he hasn't dressed him/her/it yet tlél aadé du náa yéi shang̲waa.oowu yé no way can s/he dress him/her/it du náa yéi shang̲wa.oowún s/he would have dressed him/her/it du náa yéi shana.einí if/when s/he dresses him/her/it du náa yéi yoo shaya.eik s/he dresses him/her/it (regularly) A daa yéi sha.úx̲x'. She's dressing her (a child, esp. for a special occasion). [Story & Naish 1973:74] I sée daa yéi shana.oo! Dress your doll (and make her look pretty)! [Story & Naish 1973:74] frustrate him/her Note that this verb stem is irregular in that it is almost invariable, having the long, low form -.oo in all modes EXCEPT for the affirmative imperfective, where the stem has a long high vowel -.óo. N toowú x̲'ool yáx̲ O-S-ø-.oo (na state; CV́V Imperfective) for S to frustrate N --- Du toowú x̲'ool yáx̲ na.oo! Frustrate him/her! Líl du toowú x̲'ool yáx̲ yoo ee.eigík̲! Don't frustrate him/her! du toowú x̲'ool yáx̲ x̲aa.óo I frustrate him/her du toowú x̲'ool yáx̲ aya.óo he/she/it frustrates him/her tlél du toowú x̲'ool yáx̲ x̲wa.oo I don't frustrate him/her tlél du toowú x̲'ool yáx̲ u.oo he/she/it doesn't frustrate him/her du toowú x̲'ool yáx̲ yaa ana.ein he/she/it is starting to frustrate him/her du toowú x̲'ool yáx̲ aawa.oo he/she/it frustrated him/her tlél du toowú x̲'ool yáx̲ awu.oo he/she/it didn't frustrate him/her du toowú x̲'ool yáx̲ akg̲wa.oo he/she/it will frustrate him/her tlél du toowú x̲'ool yáx̲ akg̲wa.oo he/she/it won't frustrate him/her du toowú x̲'ool yáx̲ ang̲a.oo let him/her/it frustrate him/her du toowú x̲'ool yáx̲ ana.eich he/she/it frustrates him/her (every time) tlél du toowú x̲'ool yáx̲ oona.eich he/she/it hasn't frustrated him/her yet tlél aadé du toowú x̲'ool yáx̲ oong̲aa.oowu yé no way can he/she/it frustrate him/her du toowú x̲'ool yáx̲ oong̲a.oowún he/she/it would have frustrated him/her du toowú x̲'ool yáx̲ ana.einí if/when it frustrates him/her du toowú x̲'ool yáx̲ yoo aya.eik he/she/it frustrates him/her (regularly) Du húnx̲w kawushoowú áwé du toowú x̲'ool yáx̲ ana.eich. When his brother gets drunk it frustrates him. Ax̲ toowú x̲'ool yáx̲ aya.óo. It's frustrating me. get dressed Note the locative postposition (-x') following náa in the theme in parentheses. Pronunciation of this postposition is optional, both náa and náax' being acceptable. See Leer (1991:33-34) for more information on these alternate pronunciations. náa(x') yéi sha-S-d-.oo (na act) for S to get dressed A-x' + yéi + sha-ya-.oo Leer 1973: 02/296 Náa yéi sheenda.oo! Get dressed! Náa yéi shanayda.oo! You all get dressed! Líl náa yéi sheeda.oox̲úk̲! Don't get dressed! Líl náa yéi shayda.oox̲úk̲! Don't you all get dressed! náa yéi shax̲da.úx̲x' I'm getting dressed náa yéi shada.úx̲x' s/he is getting dressed náa yéi shax̲wdi.oo I got dressed náa yéi shawdi.oo s/he got dressed tlél náa yéi shax̲wda.oo I didn't get dressed tlél náa yéi shawda.oo s/he didn't get dressed náa yéi shakk̲wada.oo I will get dressed náa yéi shagux̲da.oo s/he will get dressed tlél náa yéi shakk̲wada.oo I'm not going to get dressed tlél náa yéi shagux̲da.oo s/he's not going to get dressed náa yéi shank̲ada.oo let me get dressed náa yéi shanax̲da.oo let him/her get dressed náa yéi shanax̲da.eich I get dressed (every time) náa yéi shanda.eich s/he gets dressed (every time) tlél náa yéi shanax̲wda.eich I haven't gotten dressed yet tlél náa yéi shoonda.eich s/he hasn't gotten dressed yet tlél aadé náa yéi shanax̲wdi.oowu yé no way can s/he get dressed náa yéi shanax̲wda.oowún s/he would have gotten dressed náa yéi shanda.einí if/when s/he gets dressed náa yéi yoo shadi.eik s/he gets dressed (regularly) Daat yís sáwé tlax̲ yéi náa yéi shawdi.oo? Why is he all dressed up that way? angry, mean Note that this verb stem is irregular in that it is almost invariable, having the long, low form -.oo in all modes EXCEPT for the affirmative imperfective, where the stem has a long high vowel -.óo. x'áan a-S-ø-.oo (na state; CV́V Imperfective) for S to be angry, mean --- Leer 1973: 02/290 (Góok) x'áan ana.oo! (Go ahead) get angry! (Góok) x'áan anay.oo! (Go ahead) you all get angry! Líl x'áan ee.oowúk̲! Don't get angry! Líl x'áan ay.oowúk̲! Don't you all get angry! x'áan ax̲aa.óo I am angry; I am an angry person x'áan aya.óo s/he is angry; s/he is an angry person tlél x'áan oox̲a.oo I'm not angry tlél x'áan oo.oo s/he's not angry x'áan ax̲waa.oo I got angry; I'm an angry person x'áan aawa.oo s/he got angry; s/he's an angry person tlél x'áan ax̲wa.oo I didn't get angry tlél x'áan awu.oo s/he didn't get angry x'áan kei akg̲wa.oo s/he will get angry tlél x'áan kei akg̲wa.oo s/he won't get angry (ch'a) x'áan ang̲a.oo / ang̲a.oowú (just) let him/her be angry x'áan ana.eich s/he gets angry (every time) tlél x'áan oona.eich s/he hasn't gotten angry yet tlél aadé x'áan ang̲waa.oowu yé no way can s/he get angry x'áan oong̲a.oowún s/he would have gotten angry x'áan ana.einí if/when s/he gets angry x'áan yoo aya.eik s/he gets angry (regularly) X'áan a.oowú du nák̲ kuk̲agóot. If he's mean, I'm going to leave. Ax̲ yís x'áan aya.óo. She's being mean to me; She has anger toward me. Ch'a tlákw yagiyee x̲'ax̲wawóos'i áwé x'áan ana.eich. Every time I ask him, he gets angry. X'áan ana.einí du ée kei akakk̲walx̲éetl'. If he gets angry, I will be scared of him. wear it; use it yéi O-S-ø-.oo (na state) for S to wear, put on, dress in O; for S to use O --- Yéi na.oo! Wear it! Yéi nay.oo! You all wear it! Líl yéi ee.oowúk̲! Don't wear it! Líl yéi yi.oowúk̲! Don't you all wear it! yéi x̲aa.óo I'm wearing it yéi aya.óo s/he's wearing it tlél yéi x̲wa.oo I'm not wearing it tlél yéi oo.oo s/he isn't wearing it yéi x̲waa.oo I wore it yéi aawa.oo s/he wore it tlél yéi x̲wa.oo I didn't wear it tlél yéi awu.oo s/he didn't wear it yéi kk̲wa.oo I will wear it yéi akg̲wa.oo s/he will wear it tlél yéi kk̲wa.oo I won't wear it tlél yéi akg̲wa.oo s/he won't wear it yéi nk̲a.oo let me wear it yéi ang̲a.oo let him/her wear it yéi nx̲a.eich I wear it (every time) yéi ana.eich s/he wears it (every time) tlél yéi unx̲a.eich I haven't worn it yet tlél yéi oona.eich s/he hasn't worn it yet tlél aadé yéi oong̲aa.oowu yé no way can s/he wear it yéi oong̲a.oowún s/he would have worn it yéi ana.einí if/when s/he wears it [does not occur] Ch'a g̲óot aa naa.át yéi ang̲a.oo. Let him wear different clothes. Du yées naa.ádi yéi akg̲wa.oo. She's going to wear her new clothes. answer ei answer answer, reply to a greeting or to one's name a-S-d-.ei (na act) for S to answer, reply to a greeting or to one's name a-di-.ei Leer 1973: 02/186-187 Anida.ei! Answer! ada.ei s/he is answering ax̲wdi.ei I answered awdi.ei s/he answered tlél ax̲wda.ei I didn't answer tlél awda.ei s/he didn't answer agux̲da.ei s/he will answer tlél agux̲da.ei s/he won't answer anax̲da.ei let him/her answer anada.eich s/he answers (every time) tlél oonda.eich s/he hasn't answered yet tlél aadé oonax̲di.eiyi yé no way can s/he answer oonax̲da.eiyín s/he would have answered anada.einí if/when s/he answers ada.eix̲ s/he answers (regularly) I .éex' áwé: anida.ei! He's calling you: answer him! [Story & Naish 1973: 20] Dei ax̲wdi.ei. I answered already / I said "yes" already. [Story & Naish 1973: 20] anxiety xeel' trouble, bother, anxiety bother, trouble him/her; cause him/her anxiety O-ka-S-ø-xéel'~ (ø event; CV́C' Hort/Pot) for S to bother, trouble, cause trouble or anxiety for O ka-ya-xeel' Kaxíl'! Bother him/her! Kayxíl'! You all bother him/her! Líl kayixéel'ik̲! Don't bother him/her! Líl kayeeyxéel'ik̲! Líl kayeeyxéel'ik̲! [does not occur] yaa kanx̲axíl' I'm starting to bother him/her yaa akanaxíl' he/she/it is starting to bother him/her kax̲waaxíl' I am bothering him/her; I bothered him/her akaawaxíl' he/she/it is bothering him/her; he/she/it bothered him/her tlél kax̲waxéel' I'm not bothering him/her; I didn't bother him/her tlél akawuxéel' he/she/it isn't bothering him/her; he/she/it didn't bother him/her kakk̲waxéel' I will bother him/her akakg̲waxéel' he/she/it will bother him/her tlél kakk̲waxéel' I won't bother him/her tlél akakg̲waxéel' he/she/it won't bother him/her (ch'a) kk̲axíl' (dé) (just) let me bother him/her (now) (ch'a) akg̲axíl' (dé) (just) let him/her/it bother him/her (now) koox̲axíl'ch I bother him/her (every time) akooxíl'ch he/she/it bothers him/her (every time) tlél koox̲axéel'ch / tlél koox̲axíl'ch I haven't bothered him/her yet tlél akooxéel'ch / tlél akooxíl'ch he/she/it hasn't bothered him/her yet tlél aadé kook̲aaxíl'i yé no way can I bother him/her tlél aadé akg̲waaxíl'i yé no way can he/she/it bother him/her kook̲axíl'in I would have bothered him/her akoog̲axíl'in he/she/it would have bothered him/her kax̲axíl'ni if/when I bother him/her akaxíl'ni if/when he/she/it bothers him/her kax̲axíl'x̲ I bother him/her (regularly) akaxíl'x̲ he/she/it bothers him/her (regularly) Ash kaawaxíl' du téix̲'. Her heart is causing her trouble. anxious jee1 wonder, curious, anxious wonder about it; curious, anxious about it O-ka-S-ø-jeek (na act) for S to wonder, be curious, anxious about O ka-ya-jee yoo kx̲aajeek I wonder about it yoo akaajeek s/he wonders about it tlél yoo kx̲wajeek I don't wonder about it tlél yoo akoojeek s/he doesn't wonder about it yoo kx̲waajeek I wondered about it yoo akaawajeek s/he wondered about it tlél yoo kax̲wajeek I didn't wonder about it tlél yoo akawujeek s/he didn't wonder about it yoo kakk̲wajeek I will wonder about it yoo akakg̲wajeek s/he will wonder about it tlél yoo kakk̲wajeek I won't wonder about it tlél yoo akakg̲wajeek s/he won't wonder about it [does not occur] yoo kanx̲ajeekch I wonder about it (every time) yoo akanajeekch s/he wonders about it (every time) [does not occur] [does not occur] [does not occur] yoo akanajeekní if/when s/he wonders about it yoo akayajeek s/he wonders about it (regularly) appoint aat1 (18) go, walk, lead, gather together, go to bathroom, attack, appoint, let in, let out appoint, choose for a certain position (plural object) I a tóo daak O-S-s-.aat~ (Ø motion) for S to appoint (plural) O, choose O for a certain position a tóo + daak si-.aat A tóo daak has sa.á! Appoint them! Líl a tóo daak has isa.átjik̲! Don't appoint them! [does not occur] a tóo daak has x̲wasi.át I appointed them a tóo daak has awsi.át s/he appointed them tlél a tóo daak has x̲wasa.aat I didn't appoint them tlél a tóo daak has awus.aat s/he didn't appoint them a tóo daak has agux̲sa.áat s/he will appoint them tlél a tóo daak has agux̲sa.aat s/he won't appoint them a tóo daak has ax̲sa.aat let him/her appoint them a tóo daak has oos.aatch s/he appoints them (every time) tlél a tóo daak has oos.aatch s/he hasn't appointed them yet tlél aadé a tóo daak has oox̲si.aadi yé no way can s/he appoint them a tóo daak has oox̲sa.aadín s/he would have appointed them a tóo daak has as.átni if/when s/he appoints them a tóo daak has as.átch s/he appoints them (regularly) A tóo daak has wududzi.át. They were appointed. [Story & Naish 1973: 21] lead them yaa O-shu-S-ø-.aat~ (ga event) for S to lead (plural) O (especially by walking ahead) shu-ya-.aat Note that yaa occurs in every form except the perfective. This verb has a plural stem, meaning that multiple people or animals are being led. In the paradigm given here, the plural object pronoun has "them" is used. One could also use k̲aa "people", as in: k̲aa shoowa.aat "s/he led people". Another option is the object prefix k̲u- "people", as in: k̲ushoowa.aat "s/he led people". For both of these, note that the third person object pronoun a- on the verb is dropped. If you want to indicate that animals are being led, omit the has/k̲aa/k̲u- and use: ashoowa.aat "s/he led them (animals)". Yaa (ha)s shuga.á! Lead them! Yaa (ha)s shugay.á! You all lead them! Líl has shuyi.aadík̲! Don't lead them! Líl has shuyeey.aadík̲! Don't you all lead them! [does not occur] yaa (ha)s shunx̲a.át I am leading them yaa (ha)s ashuna.át s/he is leading them has shux̲waa.aat I led them has ashoowa.aat s/he led them tlél has shux̲wa.aat I didn't lead them tlél has ashuwu.aat s/he didn't lead them yaa (ha)s shukk̲wa.áat I will lead them yaa (ha)s ashukg̲wa.áat s/he will lead them tlél yaa (ha)s shukk̲wa.aat I won't lead them tlél yaa (ha)s ahsukg̲wa.aat s/he won't lead them yaa (ha)s shukk̲a.aat let me lead them yaa (ha)s ashukg̲a.aat let him/her lead them yaa (ha)s shukx̲a.átch I lead them (every time) yaa (ha)s ashuga.átch s/he leads them (every time) tlél yaa (ha)s shukx̲a.átch I haven't led them yet tlél yaa (ha)s ashuga.átch s/he hasn't led them yet tlél aadé yaa (ha)s ashukg̲waa.aadi yé no way can s/he lead them yaa (ha)s ashukg̲wa.aadín s/he would have led them yaa (ha)s ashuga.átni if/when s/he leads them kei (ha)s ashu.átch s/he leads them (regularly) go on foot (plural subject) II P-t~ S-ø-.aat~ (ø motion) for (plural) S to walk, go (by walking or as a general term) to P ya-.aat Direction of Motion - The following are adverbial phrases that can be used with this particular conjugation of the verb 'go on foot' to specify the direction of motion. Replace át/áx̲/aadé 'arriving at P' in the paradigm below with any of the following adverbs to change the direction of motion. P-t (~x̲~dei) arriving at P, coming to P yan (~yax̲~yándei) moving ashore, coming to rest, to a stop, setting down P-náx̲ yan (~yax̲~yándei) moving across P, to the other side of P neil (~neilx̲~neildéi) moving inside, coming home haat (~haax̲~haa(n)déi) coming here yóot (~yóox̲~yóodei) going away As seen in the paradigm below, forms ending in -x̲ are used in the repetetive imperfective; forms ending in -de are used in the progressive imperfective; and forms ending in -t / -0(plain) are used elsewhere. Át yi.á! You all go there! Líl áx̲ yi.aadík̲! Don't you all go there! Líl át yeey.aadík̲! Don't you all go there! [does not occur] aadé yaa ntoo.át we are going there aadé yaa nay.át you all are going there aadé yaa (ha)s na.át they are going there aadé yaa ana.át people are going there tlél aadé yaa ntoo.át we're not going there tlél aadé yaa nay.át you all are not going there tlél aadé (ha)s yaa una.át they're not going there tlél aadé yaa oona.át nobody is going there át wutuwa.át we arrived there át yeey.át you all arrived there át has uwa.át they arrived there át aawa.át people arrived there tlél át wutoo.aat we didn't arrive there tlél át yeey.aat you all didn't arrive there tlél át has wu.aat they didn't arrive there tlél át awu.aat nobody arrived there wé át has wu.aadi aa the ones who arrived there aadé gax̲too.áat we will go there aadé gax̲yi.áat you all will go there aadé (ha)s gug̲a.áat they will go there aadé akg̲wa.áat people will go there tlél aadé gax̲too.aat we won't go there tlél aadé gax̲yi.aat you all won't go there tlél aadé (ha)s gug̲a.aat they won't go there tlél aadé akg̲wa.aat people won't go there át g̲atoo.aat let us go there át has g̲a.aat let them go there át too.aatch we go there (every time) át yeey.aatch you all go there (every time) át has u.aatch they go there (every time) át oo.aatch people go there (every time) tlél át too.aatch we haven't arrived there yet tlél át yeey.aatch you all haven't arrived there yet tlél át has u.aatch they haven't arrived there yet tlél át oo.aatch nobody has arrived there yet tlél aadé át has g̲waa.aadi yé no way can they get there át has g̲wa.aadín they would have gone there át has .átni if/when they go there áx̲ has .aat they go there (regularly) Tlél át awu.aat. Nobody arrived there; They (regular crowd) weren't there. Yax̲ ilt'éex', t'éex' kát aa uwa.át. When it froze, they walked over ice. Ch'a yeisú l unaliyéit has u.aatjí tsu x̲áaw tsu át yatán. They hadn't been going far when another log was lying there. Ách áwé du x̲ándáx̲ yóot aawa.át. This was why they left her. walking, going along there (of plural subjects) This is an example of a progressive epiaspectual paradigm (Leer, 91), which basically means that all forms are based on the progressive aspect. The progressive epiaspect is characterized by: 1)having the yaa preverb in all forms, 2)having no perfective form, and 3)denotes semantically a continuous transition from one location or state to another. P-x̲ yaa S-ø-.aat~ (ga motion) for (plural) S to be walking, going (by foot or as general term) along P (basically plural; see goot for singular) ya-.aat Áx̲ yaa gay.á! You all be walking along there! Líl áx̲ yaa yi.átjik̲ Don't you all be walking along there! [does not occur] áx̲ yaa ntoo.át we're walking along there áx̲ yaa (ha)s na.át they are walking along there [does not occur] áx̲ yaa (ha)s gug̲a.áat they will be walking along there tlél áx̲ yaa (ha)s gug̲a.aat they won't be walking along there á́x̲ yaa (ha)s gag̲a.aat let them be walking along there áx̲ yaa (ha)s ga.átch they are walking along there (every time) tlél áx̲ yaa (ha)s goo.átch they haven't been walking along there yet tlél aadé áx̲ yaa (ha)s goog̲aa.aadi yé no way can they be walking along there áx̲ yaa (ha)s goog̲a.aadín they would have been walking along there áx̲ yaa (ha)s ga.átni if/when they are walking along there áx̲ yaa (ha)s ga.átch they are walking along there (regularly) Kag̲ít tóox̲ yaa s gag̲a.aat. Let them be walking through the darkness. Wé kag̲ít tóox̲ yaa ntoo.ádi awdlidées. As we walked along in the darkness, the moon shined bright. Wé dzísk'u tlein ítx̲ yaa na.át wé g̲ooch. The wolves are following behind the big moose. go on foot (plural subject) IX P-x̲ S-ø-.aat~ (g̲a motion) for (plural) S to walk, go (by walking or as a general term) down along P ya-.aat Direction of Motion - The following are adverbial phrases that can be used with this particular conjugation of the verb 'go on foot' to specify the direction of motion. Replace yaa 'down' in the paradigm below with any of the following adverbs to change the direction of motion. yaa (deletes before aspect marker yei) moving down yaax̲ getting into canoe, boat, or other vehicle P-x̲ moving down along héenx̲ moving into the water P-náx̲ moving down by way of P, through P Áx̲ yaa g̲ay.á! You all walk down along it! Líl áx̲ yei yi.átjik̲! Don't you all walk down along it! [does not occur] áx̲ yei ntoo.át we are walking down along it áx̲ yei nay.át you all are walking down along it áx̲ yei (ha)s na.át they are walking down along it áx̲ yei ana.át people are walking down along it tlél áx̲ yei ntoo.át we're not walking down along it tlél áx̲ yei nay.át you all are not walking down along it tlél áx̲ yei (ha)s una.át they're not walking down along it tlél áx̲ yei oona.át nobody is walking down along it áx̲ wtuwa.aat we walked down along it áx̲ yeey.aat you all walked down along it áx̲ (ha)s woo.aat they walked down along it áx̲ aawa.aat people walked down along it tlél áx̲ wtoo.aat we didn't walk down along it tlél áx̲ yeey.aat you all didn't walk down along it tlél áx̲ (ha)s wu.aat they didn't walk down along it tlél áx̲ awu.aat nobody walked down along it wé áx̲ yaa (ha)s woo.aadi aa (has) the ones who walked down along it áx̲ yei gax̲too.áat we will walk down along it áx̲ yei gax̲yi.áat you all will walk down along it áx̲ yei has gug̲a.áat they will walk down along it áx̲ yei akg̲wa.áat people will walk down along it tlél áx̲ yei gax̲too.aat we won't walk down along it tlél áx̲ yei gax̲yi.aat you all won't walk down along it tlél áx̲ yei (ha)s gug̲a.aat they won't walk down along it tlél áx̲ yei akg̲wa.aat nobody will walk down along it áx̲ yaa g̲aax̲too.aat let us walk down along it áx̲ yaa (ha)s g̲aag̲a.aat let them walk down along it áx̲ yaa g̲atoo.átch we walk down along it (every time) áx̲ yaa g̲ay.átch you all walk down along it (every time) áx̲ yaa (ha)s g̲a.átch they walk down along it (every time) áx̲ yaa ag̲a.átch people walk down along it (every time) tlél áx̲ yaa g̲atoo.átch we haven't walked down along it yet tlél áx̲ yaa g̲ay.átch you all haven't walked down along it yet tlél áx̲ yaa (ha)s g̲wa.átch they haven't walked down along it yet tlél áx̲ yaa ag̲wa.átch nobody has walked down along it yet tlél aadé áx̲ yaa (ha)s g̲waag̲aa.aadi yé no way can they walk down along it áx̲ yaa (ha)s g̲waag̲a.aadín they would have walked down along it áx̲ yaa (ha)s g̲a.átni if/when they walk down along it áx̲ yei (ha)s .átch they walk down along it (regularly) Anax̲ áyá yaa ag̲a.átjeen yóo aan tayeedéi. This is what they came down on to go underneath the village. S'ootaat áwé yaax̲ has woo.aat. At dawn they went aboard. go on foot (plural subject) V N jikaadáx̲ ya-u-S-ø-.aat~ (ø motion) for (plural) S to get out of N's way ya-.aat Direction of Motion - The following are adverbial phrases that can be used with this particular conjugation of the verb 'go on foot' to specify the direction of motion. Replace du jikaadáx̲ 'getting out of his/her way' in the paradigm below with any of the following adverbs to change the direction of motion. P-x̲ moving circuitously, obliquely along P N daax̲ circling around N haandéi moving over this way (toward speaker) héidei moving over that way (away from speaker) N jikaadáx̲ / N jikaax̲ getting out of N's way P-náx̲ moving circuitously, obliquely through P N eetíx̲ taking N's place; trading places with N; missing N Du jikaadáx̲ yay.á! You all get out of his/her way! Líl du jikaadáx̲ yaa yi.átjik̲! Don't you all get out of his/her way! [does not occur] du jikaadáx̲ yaa ntoo.át we are getting out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ yaa nay.át you all are getting out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ yaa (ha)s na.át they are getting out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ yaa ana.át people are getting out of his/her way [does not occur] du jikaadáx̲ yawtuwa.át we got out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ yayeey.át you all got out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ has yaawa.át they got out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ ayaawa.át people got out of his/her way tlél du jikaadáx̲ yawtoo.aat we didn't get out of his/her way tlél du jikaadáx̲ yayeey.aat you all didn't get out of his/her way tlél du jikaadáx̲ has yawu.aat they didn't get out of his/her way tlél du jikaadáx̲ ayawu.aat nobody got out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ yagax̲too.áat we will get out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ yagax̲yee.áat you all will get out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ has yakg̲wa.áat they will get out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ ayakg̲wa.áat people will get out of his/her way tlél du jikaadáx̲ yagax̲too.aat we won't get out of his/her way tlél du jikaadáx̲ yagax̲yi.aat you all won't get out of his/her way tlél du jikaadáx̲ has yakg̲wa.aat they won't get out of his/her way tlél du jikaadáx̲ ayakg̲wa.aat people won't get out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ yax̲too.aat let us get out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ has yag̲a.aat let them get out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ yatoo.átch we get out of his/her way (every time) du jikaadáx̲ yay.átch you all get out of his/her way (every time) du jikaadáx̲ has woo.átch they get out of his/her way (every time) du jikaadáx̲ awoo.átch people get out of his/her way (every time) tlél du jikaadáx̲ yatoo.aatch we haven't gotten out of his/her way yet tlél du jikaadáx̲ yay.aatch you all haven't gotten out of his/her way yet tlél du jikaadáx̲ has woo.aatch they haven't gotten out of his/her way yet tlél du jikaadáx̲ awoo.aatch people haven't gotten out of his/her way yet tlél aadé du jikaadáx̲ has yag̲waa.aadi yé no way can they get out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ has woog̲a.aadín they would have gotten out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ has ya.átni if/when they get out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ yaa (ha)s .átch they get out of his/her way (regularly) Ch'u tle tláakw áwé k̲a wé áx̲ ayaawa.adi yéix̲ yaa nagút. She went quickly and along where people had walked. Tle a kanax̲ has yaawa.át. They went over it. Nas'giyeekáx' a kaanáx̲ has yaawa.át. They walked for three days. go on foot (plural subject) III gági S-ø-.aat~ (ø motion) for (plural) S to emerge, walk out into the open ya-.aat Direction of Motion - The following are adverbial phrases that can be used with this particular conjugation of the verb 'go on foot' to specify the direction of motion. Replace gági 'coming out' in the paradigm below with any of the following adverbs to change the direction of motion. N yáa coming up to N N g̲unayáa separating from N N shukáx' getting ahead of N gági emerging, coming out into the open dáag̲i coming out of the water héeni going to the sea; getting into the water g̲unayéi / g̲unéi starting off, beginning to go P-x̲ moving in place at P, trying to move while stuck at P Gági yi.á! You all come out! Líl gági yeey.aadík̲! Don't you all come out! [does not occur] gági yaa ntoo.át we are coming out gági yaa nay.át you all are coming out gági yaa (ha)s na.át they are coming out gági yaa ana.át people are coming out tlél gági yaa ntoo.át we're not coming out tlél gági yaa nay.át you all are not coming out tlél gági (ha)s yaa una.át they're not coming out tlél gági oona.át nobody is coming out gági wutuwa.át we came out gági yeey.át you all came out gági has uwa.át they came out gági aawa.át people came out tlél gági wutoo.aat we didn't come out tlél gági yeey.aat you all didn't come out tlél gági (ha)s woo.aat they didn't come out tlél gági awu.aat nobody came out wé gági (ha)s wu.aadi aa the ones who came out gági gax̲too.áat we will come out gági gax̲yi.áat you all will come out gági (ha)s gug̲a.áat they will come out gági akg̲wa.áat people will come out tlél gági gax̲too.aat we won't come out tlél gági gax̲yi.aat you all won't come out tlél gági (ha)s gug̲a.aat they won't come out tlél gági akg̲wa.aat nobody will come out gági g̲atoo.aat let us come out gági (ha)s g̲a.aat let them come out gági too.aatch we come out (every time) gági yeey.aatch you all come out (every time) gági (ha)s u.aatch they come out (every time) gági oo.aatch people come out (every time) tlél gági too.aatch we haven't come out yet tlél gági yeey.aatch you all haven't come out yet tlél gági has u.aatch they haven't come out yet tlél gági oo.aatch nobody has come out yet tlél aadé gági (ha)s g̲waa.aadi yé no way can they come out gági (ha)s g̲wa.aadín they would have come out gági (ha)s .átni if/when they come out gági (ha)s .átx̲ they come out (repeatedly) Du daadéi g̲unayéi a.áat. They began to gather around him. go to the bathroom (plural subject) VII Much like the English phrase "go to the bathroom", gánde (ha)s woo.aat is a euphemism for urinating and/or defecating. gánde S-ø-.aat~ (na motion) for (plural) S to go to the bathroom ya-.aat Gánde nay.á! You all go to the bathroom! Líl gánde yoo yi.átgik̲! Don't you all go to the bathroom! Líl gánde yeey.aadík̲! Don't you all go to the bathroom! [does not occur] gánde yaa (ha)s na.át they are going to the bathroom gánde wtuwa.aat we went to the bathroom gánde (ha)s woo.aat they went to the bathroom tlél gánde wtoo.aat we didn't go to the bathroom tlél gánde (ha)s wu.aat they didn't go to the bathroom wé gánde (ha)s wu.aadi aa the ones who went to the bathroom gánde (ha)s gug̲a.áat they will go to the bathroom tlél gánde (ha)s gug̲a.aat they won't go to the bathroom gánde (ha)s nag̲a.aat let them go to the bathroom gánde (ha)s na.átch they go to the bathroom (every time) tlél gánde (ha)s una.átch they haven't gone to the bathroom yet tlél aadé gánde (ha)s nag̲waa.aadi yé no way can they go to the bathroom gánde (ha)s nag̲wa.aadín they would have gone to the bathroom gánde (ha)s na.átni if/when they go to the bathroom gánde yoo (ha)s ya.átk they go to the bathroom (regularly) go on foot (plural subject) VI a-ya-u-S-d-.aat~ (ø motion) for (plural) S to turn back, go back (by walking or as general term) a-ya-di-.aat -- turn back, return, retreat, go back kei escape, flee Ayeeda.á! You all turn back! Líl ayeeda.átx̲ik̲ Don't you all turn back! [does not occur] yaa ayantuda.át we are turning back yaa ayanayda.át you all are turning back yaa (ha)s ayanda.át they are turning back yaa ayandu.át people are turning back [does not occur] ayawtudi.át we turned back ayaydi.át you all turned back has ayawdi.át they turned back ayawduwa.át people turned back tlél ayawtuda.aat we didn't turn back tlél ayayda.aat you all didn't turn back tlél has ayawda.aat they didn't turn back tlél ayawdu.aat (check prefix combos) nobody turned back wé has ayawdi.adi aa the ones who turned back ayagax̲tuda.áat we will turn back ayagax̲yida.áat you all will turn back has ayagux̲da.áat they will turn back ayagux̲du.áat people will turn back tlél ayagax̲tuda.aat we won't turn back tlél ayagax̲yida.aat you all won't turn back tlél has ayagux̲da.aat they won't turn back tlél ayagax̲du.aat nobody will turn back ayax̲tuda.aat let us turn back has ayax̲da.aat let them turn back ayatuda.átch we turn back (every time) ayayda.átch you all turn back (every time) has ayada.átch they turn back (every time) ayadu.átch people turn back (every time) tlél ayawtuda.aatch we haven't turned back yet tlél ayayda.aatch you all haven't turned back yet tlél has awooda.aatch they haven't turned back yet tlél awoodu.aatch nobody has turned back yet tlél aadé has awux̲di.aadi yé no way can they turn back has awux̲da.aadín they would have turned back has ayada.átni if/when they turn back has ayada.átx̲ they turn back (regularly) Dé du nák̲ ayagux̲da.at aa du x̲oonx'í áwé át nák̲ wé a yeex' du nák̲ akg̲wa.at hídi. The relatives who were going to leave her were standing by her in the house they were lieaving her in. go on foot (plural subject) VII P-dé S-ø-.aat~ (na motion) for (plural) S to walk, go (by walking or as a general term) to P ya-.aat Note that -g̲aa takes the opposite tone of the final syllable of the noun that it attaches to. Hence: kanat'ág̲aa "(going) after blueberries", but shaawg̲áa "(going) after gumboots". Direction of Motion - The following are adverbial phrases that can be used with this particular conjugation of the verb 'go on foot' to specify the direction of motion. Replace aadé 'toward there' in the paradigm below with any of the following adverbs to change the direction of motion. -- moving (along) P-t moving around, about P P-dé(i) moving toward P P-dáx̲ moving away from P P-náx̲ moving by way of P yux̲ moving out of house P-nák̲ leaving P behind P-g̲aa going to get P Aadé nay.á! You all go there! Líl aadé yoo yi.átgik̲! Don't you all go there! Líl aadé yeey.aadík̲! Don't you all go there! [does not occur] aadé yaa ntoo.át we are going there aadé yaa nay.át you all are going there aadé yaa (ha)s na.át they are going there aadé yaa ana.át people are going there tlél aadé yaa ntoo.át we're not going there tlél aadé yaa nay.át you all are not going there tlél aadé yaa (ha)s una.át they're not going there tlél aadé yaa oona.át nobody is going there [does not occur] aadé wtuwa.aat we went there aadé yeey.aat you all went there aadé (ha)s woo.aat they went there aadé aawa.aat people went there tlél aadé wtoo.aat we didn't go there tlél aadé yeey.aat you all didn't go there tlél aadé (ha)s wu.aat they didn't go there tlél aadé awu.aat nobody went there wé aadé (ha)s wu.aadi aa the ones who went there aadé gax̲too.áat we will go there aadé gax̲yi.áat you all will go there aadé (ha)s gug̲a.áat they will go there aadé akg̲wa.áat people will go there tlél aadé gax̲too.aat we won't go there tlél aadé gax̲yi.aat you all won't go there tlél aadé (ha)s gug̲a.aat they won't go there tlél aadé akg̲wa.aat nobody will go there aadé nax̲too.aat let us go there aadé (ha)s nag̲a.aat let them go there aadé ntoo.átch we go there (every time) aadé nay.átch you all go there (every time) aadé (ha)s na.átch they go there (every time) aadé ana.átch people go there (every time) tlél aadé ntoo.átch we haven't gone there yet tlél aadé nay.átch you all haven't gone there yet tlél aadé (ha)s una.átch they haven't gone there yet tlél aadé oona.átch nobody has gone there yet tlél aadé aadé (ha)s nag̲waa.aadi yé no way can they go there aadé (ha)s nag̲wa.aadín they would have gone there aadé (ha)s na.átni if/when they go there aadé yoo (ha)s ya.átk they go there (regularly) Ch'u tle, ch'u yaa has na.ádi áwé, ch'u tle k̲aa x̲oot has uwa.át. Then, while they were walking along then they came upon people. A daat aawa.aat. People are walking around on it. Lingítch aadéi s at in yé, yú heentak ádi tsu aadéi kéi s ashátji yé k̲a yá át woo.aadi át, yá héen x̲ukaanáx̲ aa aadéi s a.eeni yé áwé wdudzikóo k̲a yú dáak̲t woo.aadi át x̲á. Tlingits knew how to hunt things, those sea mammals too, and how to catch those animals that walked, how to harvest those on the sea and those that walked inland. Yá aan tayeedéi, téil kagánee káax' áyú ana.átch, yá aan tayeedéi. They would go underneath the village in a grotto, by the light of sapwood, underneath the village. Sagú yáx̲ k̲aa yayík du.ax̲ji nuch héendei yáa ana.ádi. Their voices would sound happy when they went to the sea. Dleeyg̲áa áwé aadéi aawa.aat. They went for meat. Tlél tsu naliyéidei s wu.aadí áwé x̲áaw át yatán. They hadn't gone very far when a log was lying there. go on foot (plural subject) I kei S-ø-.aat~ (ø motion) for (plural) S to walk up, go up (by walking or as a general term) ya-.aat Note that there is no "yaa" preverb in the progressive imperfective form with this particular group of adverbs. Direction of Motion - The following are adverbial phrases that can be used with this particular conjugation of the verb 'go on foot' to specify the direction of motion. Replace kei "up" in the paradigm below with any of the following adverbs to change the direction of motion. kei moving up ux̲ kei moving out of control, blindly, amiss; going the wrong way yei getting out of a canoe, boat, vehicle yeek̲ / yeik̲ / eek̲ moving down; moving toward beach, shore daak̲ moving up from beach, back away from open, inland daak moving out to sea, into open, onto fire k̲ux̲ / k̲úx̲dei (requires d- element) returning, going/coming back Kei yi.á! You all go up! Líl kei yi.átjik̲! Don't you all go up! Líl kei yeey.aadík̲! Don't you all go up! [does not occur] kei ntoo.át we are going up kei nay.át you all are going up kei (ha)s na.át they are going up kei ana.át people are going up tlél kei ntoo.át we're not going up tlél kei nay.át you all are not going up tlél kei (ha)s una.át they're not going up tlél kei oona.át nobody is going up kei wutuwa.át we went up kei yeey.át you all went up kei (ha)s uwa.át they went up kei aawa.át people went up tlél kei wutoo.aat we didn't go up tlél kei yeey.aat you all didn't go up tlél kei (ha)s wu.aat they didn't go up tlél kei awu.aat nobody went up wé kei (ha)s wu.aadi aa the ones who went up kei gax̲too.áat we will go up kei gax̲yi.áat you all will go up kei (ha)s gug̲a.áat they will go up kei akg̲wa.áat people will go up tlél kei gax̲too.aat we won't go up tlél kei gax̲yi.aat you all won't go up tlél kei (ha)s gug̲a.aat they won't go up tlél kei akg̲wa.aat nobody will go up kei g̲atoo.aat let us go up kei (ha)s g̲a.aat let them go up kei too.aatch we go up (every time) kei yeey.aatch you all go up (every time) kei has u.aatch they go up (every time) kei oo.aatch people go up (every time) tlél kei too.aatch we haven't gone up yet tlél kei yeey.aatch you all haven't gone up yet tlél kei (ha)s u.aatch they haven't gone up yet tlél kei oo.aatch nobody has gone up yet tlél aadé kei (ha)s g̲waa.aadi yé no way can they go up kei (ha)s g̲wa.aadín they would have gone up kei (ha)s .átni if/when they go up kei (ha)s .átch they go up (regularly) Ách áwé áa kei has uwa.át tsu. So they moved up there again. K̲ux̲ yawdi.át tsu. They left again. Daak ana.át. People are coming out. attack someone ji-S-d-.aat~ (ø motion) for (plural) S to attack, assault, fall upon ji-di-.aat To indicate who is being attacked, use: N éet~ 'to N'. For example: Haa éet has jiwdi.át. 'They attacked us'. It is also acceptable to use this verb without specifying who was attacked. For example: Has jiwdi.át 'They attacked'. Therefore, the N éet~ is not given in the theme above. K̲aa éet jeeyda.á! You all attack someone! Líl k̲aa éex̲ jeeyda.aadík̲! Don't you all attack anyone! [does not occur] k̲aa éede yaa jintuda.át we're attacking someone k̲aa éede yaa (ha)s jinda.át they're attacking people k̲aa éet jiwtudi.át we attacked someone k̲aa éet has jiwdi.át they attacked someone tlél k̲aa éet jiwtuda.aat we didn't attack anyone tlél k̲aa éet has jiwda.aat they didn't attack anyone k̲aa eedé jigax̲tuda.áat we will attack someone k̲aa eedé has jigux̲da.áat they will attack someone tlél k̲aa eedé jigax̲tuda.aat we won't attack anyone tlél k̲aa eedé (ha)s jigux̲da.aat they won't attack anyone k̲aa éet jix̲tuda.aat let us attack someone k̲aa éet has jix̲da.aat let them attack someone [does not occur] tlél k̲aa éet jituda.aatch we haven't attacked anyone yet tlél k̲aa éet has jeeda.aatch they haven't attacked anyone yet tlél aadé k̲aa éet jix̲tudi.aadi yé no way can we attack someone tlél aadé k̲aa éet has jeex̲di.aadi yé no way can they attack someone k̲aa éet jix̲tuda.aadín we would have attacked someone k̲aa éet has jeex̲da.aadín they would have attacked someone k̲aa éex̲ jituda.aat we attack people (regularly) k̲aa éex̲ has jida.aat they attack people (regularly) k̲aa éet has jida.átni if/when they attack people X'wás teen k̲aa éet has jiwdi.át. They attacked people with clubs. go on foot (plural subject) VIII k̲ut S-ø-.aat~ (ga motion) for (plural) S to get lost (on foot) ya-.aat -- taking off, starting off P-dáx̲ taking off from P; starting off from P k̲ut going astray, getting lost [does not occur] Líl k̲ut kei yi.átjik̲! Don't you all get lost! [does not occur] k̲ut kei ntoo.át we are getting lost k̲ut kei nay.át you all are getting lost k̲ut kei (ha)s na.át they are getting lost k̲ut kei ana.át people are getting lost [does not occur] [does not occur] k̲ut wutuwa.aat we got lost k̲ut yeey.aat you all got lost k̲ut has woo.aat they got lost k̲ut aawa.aat people got lost tlél k̲ut wutoo.aat we didn't get lost tlél k̲ut yeey.aat you all didn't get lost tlél k̲ut has wu.aat they didn't get lost tlél k̲ut aawu.aat nobody got lost k̲ut kei gax̲too.áat we will get lost k̲ut kei gax̲yi.áat you all will get lost k̲ut kei (ha)s gug̲a.áat they will get lost k̲ut kei akg̲wa.áat people will get lost tlél k̲ut kei gax̲too.aat we won't get lost tlél k̲ut kei gax̲yi.aat you all won't get lost tlél k̲ut kei (ha)s gug̲a.aat they won't get lost tlél k̲ut kei akg̲wa.aat nobody will get lost k̲ut gax̲too.aat let us get lost k̲ut has gag̲a.aat let them get lost k̲ut gatoo.átch we get lost (every time) k̲ut gay.átch you all get lost (every time) k̲ut has ga.átch they get lost (every time) k̲ut aga.átch people get lost (every time) tlél k̲ut gatoo.átch we haven't gotten lost yet tlél k̲ut gay.átch you all haven't gotten lost yet tlél k̲ut has goo.átch they haven't gotten lost yet tlél k̲ut agoo.átch nobody has gotten lost yet tlél aadé k̲ut has gag̲waa.aadi yé no way can they get lost k̲ut has gag̲wa.aadín they would have gotten lost k̲ut has ga.átni if/when they get lost k̲ut kei (ha)s .átch they get lost (regularly) go back (plural subject) I k̲ux̲~ S-d-.aat~ (Ø motion) for (plural) S to go back, return --- K̲ux̲ yida.á! You all go back! Líl k̲ux̲ yida.átjík̲! Don't you all go back! [does not occur] k̲úx̲de yaa (ha)s nada.át they are beginning to go back k̲ux̲ wutudi.át we went back k̲ux̲ has wudi.át they went back tlél k̲ux̲ wutuda.aat we didn't go back tlél k̲ux̲ has wuda.aat they didn't go back k̲úx̲de has gux̲da.áat they are going to go back tlél k̲úx̲de has gux̲da.aat they aren't going to go back (ch'a) k̲ux̲ has g̲ada.aat (just) let them go back k̲ux̲ has uda.aatch they go back (every time) tlél k̲ux̲ has uda.aatch they haven't gone back yet tlél aadé k̲ux̲ has ux̲di.aadi yé no way can they go back k̲ux̲ has ux̲da.aadín they would have gone back k̲ux̲ has da.átni if/when they go back k̲ux̲ has da.átch they go back (regularly) K̲ux̲ has wuda.aadí has jigax̲duk̲éi. If they go back, they'll get paid. let in (esp. animal); welcome in, receive (plural object) II neil~ O-S-s-.aat~ (Ø motion) for S to let in, welcome in (plural) O si-.aat Neil has sa.á! Let them in! Líl neilx̲ has isa.aadík̲! Don't let them in! [does not occur] neil has x̲wasi.át I let them in neil has awsi.át s/he let them in tlél neil has x̲wasa.aat I didn't let them in tlél neil has awus.aat s/he didn't let them in neildé has agux̲sa.áat s/he will let them in tlél neildé has agux̲sa.aat s/he won't let them in neil has ax̲sa.aat let him/her let them in neil has oos.aatch s/he lets them in (every time) tlél neil has oos.aatch s/he hasn't let them in yet tlél aadé neil has oox̲si.aadi yé no way can s/he let them in neil has oox̲sa.aadín s/he would have let them in neil has as.átni if/when s/he lets them in neilx̲ has as.aat s/he lets them in (regularly) Keitlx' neil wududzi.át. They let the dogs in. [Story & Naish 1973: 124] gather together, assemble, congregate (esp. for meetings) woosh kaanáx̲ S-d-.aat~ (ga event) for (plural) S to assemble, congregate, gather together (for meetings) woosh kaa-nax̲ + di-.aat Woosh kaanáx̲ gayda.á! You all gather together! Líl woosh kaanáx̲ kei yda.átjik̲! Don't you all gather together! [does not occur] woosh kaanáx̲ kei ntuda.át we are beginning to gather together woosh kaanáx̲ kei (ha)s nada.át they are beginning to gather together woosh kaanáx̲ wutudi.aat we gathered together woosh kaanáx̲ has wudi.aat they gathered together tlél woosh kaanáx̲ wutuda.aat we didn't gather together tlél woosh kaanáx̲ has wuda.aat they didn't gather together woosh kaanáx̲ kei gax̲tuda.áat we will gather together woosh kaanáx̲ kei (ha)s gug̲a.áat they will gather together tlél woosh kaanáx̲ kei gax̲tuda.aat we won't gather together tlél woosh kaanáx̲ kei (ha)s gug̲a.aat they won't gather together woosh kaanáx̲ gax̲tuda.aat let us gather together woosh kaanáx̲ has gax̲da.aat let them gather together woosh kaanáx̲ gatuda.átch we gather together (every time) woosh kaanáx̲ has gada.átch they gather together (every time) tlél woosh kaanáx̲ gatuda.átch we haven't gathered together yet tlél woosh kaanáx̲ has gada.átch they haven't gathered together yet tlél aadé woosh kaanáx̲ gax̲tudi.aadi yé no way can we gather together tlél aadé woosh kaanáx̲ has gux̲di.aadi yé no way can they gather together woosh kaanáx̲ gax̲tuda.aadín we would have gagthered together woosh kaanáx̲ has gux̲da.aadín they would have gagthered together woosh kaanáx̲ gatuda.átni if/when we gather together woosh kaanáx̲ has gada.átni if/when they gather together woosh kaanáx̲ kei tuda.átch we gather together (regularly) woosh kaanáx̲ kei (ha)s da.átch they gather together (regularly) gather, assemble, congregate (esp. for meetings) II woosh x̲oo-t~ S-d-.aat~ (ø motion) for S to assemble, congregate, gather together (for meetings) --- Woosh and wooch seem to be interchangeable here. Woosh x̲oot yida.á! You all come together! Líl woosh x̲oox̲ yida.aadík̲! Don't you all come together! [does not occur] woosh x̲oodé yaa ntuda.át we are coming together woosh x̲oodé yaa (ha)s nada.át they are coming together woosh x̲oot wutudi.át we came together woosh x̲oot has wudi.át they came together tlél woosh x̲oot wutuda.aat we didn't come together tlél woosh x̲oot has wuda.aat they didn't come together woosh x̲oodé gax̲tuda.áat we will come together woosh x̲oodé has gux̲da.áat they will come together tlél woosh x̲oodé gax̲tuda.aat we won't come together tlél woosh x̲oodé has gux̲da.aat they won't come together woosh x̲oot g̲atuda.aat let us come together woosh x̲oot has g̲ada.aat let them come together woosh x̲oot tuda.aatch we come together (every time) woosh x̲oot has uda.aatch they come together (every time) tlél woosh x̲oot tuda.aatch we haven't come together yet tlél woosh x̲oot has uda.aatch they haven't come together yet tlél aadé woosh x̲oot g̲atudi.aadi yé no way can we come together tlél aadé woosh x̲oot has ux̲di.aadi yé no way can they come together woosh x̲oot g̲atuda.aadín we would have come together woosh x̲oot has ux̲da.aadín they would have come together woosh x̲oot tuda.átni if/when we come together woosh x̲oot has da.átni if/when they come together woosh x̲oox̲ tuda.aat we come together (regularly) woosh x̲oox̲ has da.aat they come together (regularly) bend over, lean down (plural subject) yínde sh ka-S-l-.aat~ (na motion) for (plural) S to bend over, lean down --- Yínde sh kanayil.á! You all bend over! Líl yínde yoo sh kayil.átgik̲! Don't you all bend over! [does not occur] yínde yaa has sh kanal.át they are bending over slowly yínde sh kawtudli.aat we bent over yínde has sh kawdli.aat they bent over tlél yínde sh kawtool.aat we didn't bend over tlél yínde has sh kawul.aat they didn't bend over yínde has sh kakg̲wal.áat they will bend over tlél yínde has sh kakg̲wal.aat they won't bend over yínde has sh kang̲al.aat let them bend over yínde has sh kanal.átch they bend over (every time) tlél yínde has sh koonal.átch they haven't bent over yet tlél aadé yínde has sh koonax̲dli.aadi yé no way can they bend over yínde has sh koong̲al.aadín they would have bent over yínde has sh kanal.átni if/when they bend over yínde yoo has sh kadli.átk they bend over (regularly) Wóosh tin yínde sh kawtool.aadí woosh yát sh kawtudit'íx̲'. We bent over at the same time and knocked heads. appoint goot1 (13) go, walk, follow, go to bathroom, appoint, let in, let out follow him/her/it (singular subject) IX N ítx̲ yaa S-ø-goot~ (ga motion) for (singular) S to follow N (on foot) ya-goot Note that the preverb yaa does not occur in the perfective form. A ítx̲ yaa gagú! Follow it! Líl a ítx̲ yaa eegútjik̲! Don't follow it! [does not occur] a ítx̲ yaa nax̲agút I'm following it a ítx̲ yaa nagút he/she/it is following it a ítx̲ x̲waagoot I followed it a ítx̲ woogoot he/she/it followed it tlél a ítx̲ x̲wagoot I didn't follow it tlél a ítx̲ wugoot he/she/it didn't follow it a ítx̲ yaa kk̲wagóot I will follow it a ítx̲ yaa kg̲wagóot he/she/it will follow it tlél a ítx̲ yaa kk̲wagoot I won't follow it tlél a ítx̲ yaa kg̲wagoot he/she/it won't follow it a ítx̲ yaa kk̲agoodí let me follow it a ítx̲ yaa kg̲agoodí let him/her/it follow it a ítx̲ yaa gax̲agútch I follow it (every time) a ítx̲ yaa gagútch he/she/it follows it (every time) tlél a ítx̲ yaa goox̲agútch I haven't followed it yet tlél a ítx̲ yaa googútch he/she/it hasn't followed it yet tlél aadé a ítx̲ yaa kk̲waagoodi yé no way can I follow it tlél aadé a ítx̲ yaa kg̲waagoodi yé no way can he/she/it follow it a ítx̲ yaa kk̲wagoodín I would have followed it a ítx̲ yaa kg̲wagoodín he/she/it would have followed it a ítx̲ yaa gax̲agútni if/when I follow it a ítx̲ yaa gagútni if/when he/she/it follows it [does not occur] appoint, choose for a certain position (singular object) I a tóo daak O-S-s-goot~ (Ø motion) for S to appoint (singular) O, choose O for a certain position a tóo + daak si-goot A tóo daak sagú! Appoint him/her! Líl a tóo daak isagútjik̲! Don't appoint him/her! [does not occur] a tóo daak x̲wasigút I appointed him/her a tóo daak awsigút s/he appointed him/her tlél a tóo daak x̲wasagoot I didn't appoint him/her tlél a tóo daak awusgoot s/he didn't appoint him/her a tóo daak agux̲sagóot s/he will appoint him/her tlél a tóo daak agux̲sagoot s/he won't appoint him/her a tóo daak ax̲sagoot let him/her appoint him/her a tóo daak oosgootch s/he appoints him/her (every time) tlél a tóo daak oosgootch s/he hasn't appointed him/her yet tlél aadé a tóo daak oox̲sigoodi yé no way can s/he appoint him/her a tóo daak oox̲sagoodín s/he would have appointed him/her a tóo daak asgútni if/when s/he appoints him/her a tóo daak asgútch s/he appoints him/her (regularly) Ax̲ éeshch a tóo daak x̲at wusigút. My father appointed me (to fill the position). [Story & Naish 1973: 21] A tóo daak isagútni tlél yei haa kagux̲dakei. If you appoint him, we won't fail. go on foot (singular subject) II P-t~ S-ø-goot~ (ø motion) for (singular) S to arrive at P, go to P (by walking or as general term) ya-goot Direction of Motion - The following are adverbial phrases that can be used with this particular conjugation of the verb 'go on foot' to specify the direction of motion. Replace át/áx̲/aadé 'arriving at P' in the paradigm below with any of the following adverbs to change the direction of motion. P-t (~x̲~dei) arriving at P, coming to P yan (~yax̲~yándei) moving ashore, coming to rest, to a stop, setting down P-náx̲ yan (~yax̲~yándei) moving across P, to the other side of P neil (~neilx̲~neildéi) moving inside, coming home haat (~haax̲~haa(n)déi) coming here yóot (~yóox̲~yóodei) going away As seen in the paradigm below, forms ending in -x̲ are used in the repetetive imperfective; forms ending in -de are used in the progressive imperfective; and forms ending in -t / -0(plain) are used elsewhere. Át gú! Go there! Líl áx̲ eegoodík̲! Don't go there! Líl át yigoodík̲! Don't go there! [does not occur] aadé yaa nx̲agút I am going there aadé yaa neegút you are going there aadé yaa nagút s/he is going there aadé yaa anagút someone is going there tlél aadé yaa nx̲wagút I'm not going there tlél aadé yaa neegút you're not going there tlél aadé yaa unagút s/he's not going there [does not occur] át x̲waagút I arrived there át iyagút you arrived there át uwagút s/he arrived there át aawagút someone arrived there tlél át x̲wagoot I didn't arrive there tlél át yigoot you didn't arrive there tlél át wugoot s/he didn't arrive there [does not occur] wé át wugoodi aa the one who arrived there aadé kk̲wagóot I will go there aadé kg̲eegóot you will go there aadé gug̲agóot s/he will go there aadé akg̲wagóot someone will go there tlél aadé kk̲wagoot I won't go there tlél aadé kg̲eegoot you won't go there tlél aadé kg̲wagoot s/he won't go there [does not occur] át k̲agoot let me go there át g̲agoot let him/her go there át x̲wagootch I go there (every time) át eegootch you go there (every time) át ugootch s/he goes there (every time) át oogootch someone goes there (every time) tlél át x̲wagootch I haven't arrived there yet tlél át eegootch you haven't arrived there yet tlél át ugootch s/he hasn't arrived there yet [does not occur] tlél aadé át g̲waagoodi yé no way can s/he get there tlél aadé át has g̲waa.aadi yé no way can they get there át g̲wagoodín s/he would have gone there át gútni if/when s/he goes there áx̲ goot s/he goes there (regularly) Has du wak̲sheeyeet gú! Show yourself to them! A x̲ánt uwagút. He went up to her. Tle ash x̲ándei yaa nagúdi teen áwé yéi akaayak̲á, "Ax̲ een na.á". As soon as he came by her he said to her, "Come with me". Ch'áakwx̲ sateeyí áwé wéináx̲ neil uwagút. After a while he came inside. Eek̲náx̲ áwé awsikóo yú anax̲ haat uwagudi yé yú dáak̲náx̲ yú shaa t'éináx̲. He knew how he had come along the shore line through the forest from behind the mountain. Yóot uwagút héen áyá yaa anas.ín. He left, carrying water. go on foot (singular subject) IX P-x̲ S-ø-goot~ (g̲a motion) for (singular) S to walk, go (by walking or as a general term) down along P ya-goot Direction of Motion - The following are adverbial phrases that can be used with this particular conjugation of the verb 'go on foot' to specify the direction of motion. Replace yaa 'down' in the paradigm below with any of the following adverbs to change the direction of motion. yaa (deletes before aspect marker yei) moving down yaax̲ getting into canoe, boat, or other vehicle P-x̲ moving down along héenx̲ moving into the water P-náx̲ stopping by P Áx̲ yaa g̲agú! Walk down along it! Líl áx̲ yei eegútjik̲! Don't walk down along it! [does not occur] áx̲ yei nx̲agút I am walking down along it áx̲ yei neegút you are walking down along it áx̲ yei nagút s/he is walking down along it tlél áx̲ yei nx̲wagút I'm not walking down along it tlél áx̲ yei neegút you're not walking down along it tlél áx̲ yei unagút s/he's not walking down along it áx̲ x̲waagoot I walked down along it áx̲ yeegoot you walked down along it áx̲ woogoot s/he walked down along it tlél áx̲ x̲wagoot I didn't walk down along it tlél áx̲ yigoot you didn't walk down along it tlél áx̲ woogoot s/he didn't walk down along it wé áx̲ yaa woogoodi aa the one who walked down along it áx̲ yei kk̲wagóot I will walk down along it áx̲ yei kg̲eegóot you will walk down along it áx̲ yei gug̲agóot s/he will walk down along it tlél áx̲ yei kk̲wagoot I won't walk down along it tlél áx̲ yei kg̲eegoot you won't walk down along it tlél áx̲ yei gug̲agoot s/he won't walk down along it áx̲ yaa g̲aak̲agoot let me walk down along it áx̲ yaa g̲aag̲agoot let him/her walk down along it áx̲ yaa k̲agútch I walk down along it (every time) áx̲ yaa g̲eegútch you walk down along it (every time) áx̲ yaa g̲agútch s/he walks down along it (every time) tlél áx̲ yaa k̲wagútch I haven't walked down along it yet tlél áx̲ yaa g̲eegútch you haven't walked down along it yet tlél áx̲ yaa g̲wagútch s/he hasn't walked down along it yet tlél aadé áx̲ yaa g̲waag̲aagoodi yé no way can s/he walk down along it áx̲ yaa g̲waag̲agoodín s/he would have walked down along it áx̲ yaa g̲agútni if/when s/he walks down along it áx̲ yei gútch s/he walks down along it (regularly) Hú tsú, g̲aa yatee wé x̲'ayaak̲uwdlig̲adi aa; g̲aa yatee. Yaax̲ g̲aag̲agoot! Her too, it's ok to take the one who broke the taboo; it's ok. Let her come aboard! Tléik', tlél yaax̲ yéi kk̲wagoot! No, I won't go aboard! Shaa yáx̲ yei nx̲agút. I am climbing down along the face of the mountain. Ha tsu héenx̲ g̲agú! Now go into the water again! go on foot (singular subject) V N jikaadáx̲ ya-u-S-ø-goot~ (ø motion) for (singular) S to get out of N's way ya-goot Direction of Motion - The following are adverbial phrases that can be used with this particular conjugation of the verb 'go on foot' to specify the direction of motion. Replace du jikaadáx̲ 'getting out of his/her way' in the paradigm below with any of the following adverbs to change the direction of motion. P-x̲ moving circuitously, obliquely along P N daax̲ circling around N haandéi moving over this way (toward speaker) héidei moving over that way (away from speaker) N jikaadáx̲ / N jikaax̲ getting out of N's way P-náx̲ moving circuitously, obliquely through P N eetíx̲ taking N's place; trading places with N; missing N Du jikaadáx̲ woogú! Get out of his/her way! Líl du jikaadáx̲ yaa eegútjik̲! Don't get out of his/her way! [does not occur] du jikaadáx̲ yaa wunx̲agút I am getting out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ yaa wuneegút you are getting out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ yaa wunagút s/he is getting out of his/her way [does not occur] du jikaadáx̲ yax̲waagút I got out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ yiyagút you got out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ yaawagút s/he got out of his/her way tlél du jikaadáx̲ yax̲wagoot I didn't get out of his/her way tlél du jikaadáx̲ yayigoot you didn't get out of his/her way tlél du jikaadáx̲ yawugoot s/he didn't get out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ yakk̲wagóot I will get out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ yakg̲eegóot you will get out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ yakg̲wagóot s/he will get out of his/her way tlél du jikaadáx̲ yakk̲wagoot I won't get out of his/her way tlél du jikaadáx̲ yakg̲eegoot you won't get out of his/her way tlél du jikaadáx̲ yakg̲wagoot s/he won't get out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ yak̲agoot let me get out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ yag̲agoot let him/her get out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ yoox̲wagútch I get out of his/her way (every time) du jikaadáx̲ yeegútch you get out of his/her way (every time) du jikaadáx̲ woogútch s/he gets out of his/her way (every time) tlél du jikaadáx̲ yoox̲wagootch I haven't gotten out of his/her way yet tlél du jikaadáx̲ yeegootch you haven't gotten out of his/her way yet tlél du jikaadáx̲ woogootch s/he hasn't gotten out of his/her way yet tlél aadé du jikaadáx̲ yag̲waagoodi yé no way can s/he get out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ woog̲agoodín s/he would have gotten out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ yagútni if/when s/he gets out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ yaa gútch s/he gets out of his/her way (regularly) Ch'u tle tláakw áwé k̲a wé áx̲ ayaawa.adi yéix̲ yaa nagút. She went quickly and along where people had walked. Yeisú áx̲ yaawagút. It had just gone along there. go on foot (singular subject) VI a-ya-u-S-d-goot~ (ø motion) for (singular) S to turn back, go back (by walking or as general term) a-ya-di-goot -- turn back, return, retreat, go back kei escape, flee Ayeedagú! Turn back! Líl ayeedagútx̲ik̲! Don't turn back! [does not occur] yaa ayanax̲dagút I am turning back yaa ayanidagút you are turning back yaa awundagút s/he is turning back [does not occur] ayax̲wdigút I turned back ayaydigút you turned back ayawdigút s/he turned back tlél ayax̲wdagoot I didn't turn back tlél ayaydagoot you didn't turn back tlél ayawdagoot s/he didn't turn back wé ayawdigudi aa the one who turned back ayakk̲wadagóot I will turn back ayakg̲idagóot you will turn back ayakg̲wadagóot s/he will turn back tlél ayakk̲wadagoot I won't turn back tlél ayakg̲idagoot you won't turn back tlél ayakg̲wadagoot s/he won't turn back ayak̲adagoot let me turn back ayax̲dagoot let him/her turn back ayax̲dagútch I turn back (every time) ayidagútch you turn back (every time) ayadagútch s/he turns back (every time) tlél awoox̲dagootch I haven't turned back yet tlél ayeedagootch you haven't turned back yet tlél awoodagootch s/he hasn't turned back yet tlél aadé awux̲digoodi yé no way can s/he turn back awux̲dagoodín s/he would have turned back ayadagútni if/when s/he turns back ayadagútx̲ s/he turns back (regularly) Aan ayagux̲dagóot. It will go back with it. Yáax' áwé has du x̲oo ayawdigút. Here's when she turned on them. go on foot (singular subject) III gági S-ø-goot~ (ø motion) for (singular) S to emerge, walk out into the open ya-goot Direction of Motion - The following are adverbial phrases that can be used with this particular conjugation of the verb 'go on foot' to specify the direction of motion. Replace gági 'coming out' in the paradigm below with any of the following adverbs to change the direction of motion. N yáa coming up to N N g̲unayáa separating from N N shukáx' getting ahead of N gági emerging, coming out into the open dáag̲i coming out of the water héeni going to the sea; going into the water g̲unayéi / g̲unéi starting off, beginning to go P-x̲ moving in place at P, trying to move while stuck at P Gági gú! Come out! Líl gági yigoodík̲! Don't come out! [does not occur] gági yaa nx̲agút I am coming out gági yaa neegút you are coming out gági yaa nagút s/he is coming out gági yaa anagút someone is coming out tlél gági yaa nx̲wagút I'm not coming out tlél gági yaa neegút you're not coming out tlél gági yaa unagút s/he's not coming out [does not occur] gági x̲waagút I came out gági iyagút you came out gági uwagút s/he came out gági aawagút someone came out tlél gági x̲wagoot I didn't come out tlél gági yigoot you didn't come out tlél gági wugoot s/he didn't come out [does not occur] wé gági wugoodi aa the one who came out gági kk̲wagóot I will come out gági kg̲eegóot you will come out gági kg̲wagóot s/he will come out gági akg̲wagóot someone will come out tlél gági kk̲wagoot I won't come out tlél gági kg̲eegoot you won't come out tlél gági kg̲wagoot s/he won't come out [does not occur] gági k̲agoot let me come out gági g̲agoot let him/her come out gági x̲wagootch I come out (every time) gági eegootch you come out (every time) gági ugootch s/he comes out (every time) gági oogootch someone comes out (every time) tlél gági x̲wagootch I haven't come out yet tlél gági eegootch you haven't come out yet tlél gági ugootch s/he hasn't come out yet [does not occur] tlél aadé gági g̲waagoodi yé no way can s/he come out gági g̲wagoodín s/he would have come out gági gútni if/when s/he comes out gági gútx̲ s/he comes out (repeatedly) Gágí gútx̲i áwé yatee. It is as if s/he keeps coming out. Yee tula.eesháani káx̲ áwé gági uwagudi yáx̲. As if he came out for your grief. Ch'a g̲oot héeni yoo uwagút. He went to the sea alone. Dák̲dei g̲unayéi uwagút. He started (walking) up. go to the bathroom (singular subject) VII Much like the English phrase "go to the bathroom", gánde woogoot is a euphemism for urinating and/or defecating. gánde S-ø-goot~ (na motion) for (singular) S to go to the bathroom ya-goot Gánde nagú! Go to the bathroom! Líl gánde yoo eegútgik̲ (tsá)! Don't go to the bathroom (yet)! [does not occur] gánde yaa nagút s/he is going to the bathroom gánde x̲waagoot I went to the bathroom gánde woogoot s/he went to the bathroom tlél gánde wugoot s/he didn't go to the bathroom wé gánde wugoodi aa the one who went to the bathroom gánde kg̲wagóot s/he will go to the bathroom tlél gánde kg̲wagoot s/he won't go to the bathroom gánde ng̲agoot let her/him go to the bathroom gánde nagútch s/he goes to the bathroom (every time) tlél gánde unagútch s/he hasn't gone to the bathroom yet tlél aadé gánde ng̲waagoodi yé no way can s/he go to the bathroom gánde ng̲wagoodín s/he would have gone to the bathroom gánde nagútni if/when s/he goes to the bathroom gánde yoo yagútk s/he goes to the bathroom (regularly) A tóox' gé gánde yigoot? Did you go to the bathroom in your clothes? Wé kwás káx' gánde nagú! Go potty on the toilet! go on foot (singular subject) I kei S-ø-goot~ (ø motion) for (singular) S to walk, go up (by walking or as general term) ya-goot Note that there is no "yaa" preverb in the progressive imperfective form with this particular group of adverbs. Also note that the form k̲ux̲ wudigút also has a metaphorical meaning to "come back to life". Direction of Motion - The following are adverbial phrases that can be used with this particular conjugation of the verb "go on foot" to specify the direction of motion. Replace kei "up" in the paradigm below with any of the following adverbs to change the direction of motion. kei moving up ux̲ kei moving out of control, blindly, amiss; going the wrong way yei getting out of a canoe, boat, vehicle yeek̲ / yeik̲ / eek̲ moving down; moving toward beach, shore daak̲ moving up from beach, back away from open, inland daak moving out to sea, into open, onto fire k̲ux̲ / k̲úx̲dei (requires d- element) returning, going/coming back Kei gú! Go up! Líl kei eegútjik̲! Don't go up! Líl kei yigoodík̲! Don't go up! [does not occur] kei nx̲agút I am going up kei neegút you are going up kei nagút s/he is going up kei anagút someone is going up tlél kei nx̲wagút I'm not going up tlél kei neegút you're not going up tlél kei unagút s/he's not going up [does not occur] kei x̲waagút I went up kei iyagút you went up kei uwagút s/he went up kei aawagút someone went up tlél kei x̲wagoot I didn't go up tlél kei yigoot you didn't go up tlél kei wugoot s/he didn't go up tlél kei awugoot someone didn't go up wé kei wugoodi aa the one who went up kei kk̲wagóot I will go up kei kg̲eegóot you will go up kei kg̲wagóot s/he will go up kei akg̲wagóot someone will go up tlél kei kk̲wagoot I won't go up tlél kei kg̲eegoot you won't go up tlél kei kg̲wagoot s/he won't go up tlél kei akg̲wagoot someone won't go up kei k̲agoot let me go up kei g̲agoot let him/her go up kei x̲wagootch I go up (every time) kei eegootch you go up (every time) kei ugootch s/he goes up (every time) kei oogootch someone goes up (every time) tlél kei x̲wagootch I haven't gone up yet tlél kei eegootch you haven't gone up yet tlél kei ugootch s/he hasn't gone up yet [does not occur] tlél aadé kei g̲waagoodi yé no way can s/he go up kei g̲wagoodín s/he would have gone up kei gútni if/when s/he goes up kei gútch s/he goes up (regularly) A ítx kei uwagút. She caught up to him. Áwé yéi uwagút áwé yú.á. It's said he stepped out of the canoe. Tlél yeik̲ wugoot. S/he didn't come down. Áa ash shukaawajáa anax̲ yeik̲ gug̲agut yé; ch'u yeedát áwu á. He showed him to where he was coming down; it's still there today. Anax̲ yei uwagút. She got off there (boat, train, bus, etc.). Daak̲ uwagút. S/he got out (of the hospital, prison, eg). Ch'u yeisú akoo.aag̲ú áyá k̲áak̲wx̲ daak uwagúdi yáx̲ áyú yatee. After trying for a while he stepped into a dangerous place. go on foot (singular subject) VIII k̲ut S-ø-goot~ (ga motion) for (singular) S to get lost (on foot) ya-goot -- taking off, starting off P-dáx̲ taking off from P; starting off from P k̲ut going astray, getting lost [does not occur] Líl k̲ut kei eegútjik̲! Don't get lost! [does not occur] k̲ut kei nx̲agút I am getting lost k̲ut kei neegút you are getting lost k̲ut kei nagút s/he is getting lost [does not occur] [does not occur] k̲ut x̲waagoot I got lost k̲ut yeegoot you got lost k̲ut woogoot s/he got lost tlél k̲ut x̲wagoot I didn't get lost tlél k̲ut yigoot you didn't get lost tlél k̲ut wugoot s/he didn't get lost k̲ut kei kk̲wagóot I will get lost k̲ut kei kg̲eegóot you will get lost k̲ut kei kg̲wagóot s/he will get lost tlél k̲ut kei kk̲wagoot I won't get lost tlél k̲ut kei kg̲eegoot you won't get lost tlél k̲ut kei kg̲wagoot s/he won't get lost k̲ut gak̲agoot let me get lost k̲ut gag̲agoot let him/her get lost [does not occur] k̲ut gax̲agútch I get lost (every time) k̲ut geegútch you get lost (every time) k̲ut gagútch s/he gets lost (every time) tlél k̲ut goox̲agútch I haven't gotten lost yet tlél k̲ut geegútch you haven't gotten lost yet tlél k̲ut googútch s/he hasn't gotten lost yet tlél aadé k̲ut gag̲waagoodi yé no way can s/he get lost k̲ut gag̲wagoodín s/he would have gotten lost k̲ut gagútni if/when s/he gets lost k̲ut kei gútch s/he gets lost (regularly) Ch'a tle yóox̲ áwé kei nagút. He was approaching up there. A wánx̲ áwé yaa gagútch wé kaxéel' tin. S/he walks on the edge of trouble. A ítx̲ kei gútch. She catches up to him. go back (singular subject) I k̲ux̲~ S-d-goot~ (Ø motion) for (singular) S to go back, return --- K̲ux̲ idagú! Go back! Líl k̲ux̲ idagútjik̲! Don't go back! [does not occur] k̲úx̲de yaa ndagút s/he is starting to go back k̲ux̲ x̲wadigút I went back k̲ux̲ wudigút s/he went back tlél k̲ux̲ x̲wadagoot I didn't go back tlél k̲ux̲ wudagoot s/he didn't go back k̲úx̲de gux̲dagóot s/he will go back tlél k̲úx̲de gux̲dagoot s/he won't go back k̲ux̲ g̲adagoot / g̲adagoodí let him/her go back k̲ux̲ udagútch s/he goes back (every time) tlél k̲ux̲ udagútch s/he hasn't gone back yet tlél aadé k̲ux̲ ux̲digoodi yé no way can s/he go back k̲ux̲ ux̲dagoodín s/he would have gone back k̲ux̲ dagútni if/when s/he goes back k̲ux̲ dagútch s/he goes back (regularly) K̲ux̲ dagútni du jeedé yéi agux̲sanéi du átx'i. If he goes back, she'll give him his things. let in (esp. animal); welcome in, receive (singular object) II neil~ O-S-s-goot~ (Ø motion) for S to let in, welcome in (singular) O neil si-goot Neil sagú! Let him/her/it in! Líl neilx̲ isagoodík̲! Don't let him/her/it in! [does not occur] neil x̲wasigút I let him/her/it in neil awsigút s/he let him/her/it in tlél neil x̲wasagoot I didn't let him/her/it in tlél neil awusgoot s/he didn't let him/her/it in neildé agux̲sagóot s/he will let him/her/it in tlél neildé agux̲sagoot s/he won't let him/her/it in neil ax̲sagoot let him/her let him/her/it in neil oosgootch s/he lets him/her/it in (every time) tlél neil oosgootch s/he hasn't let him/her/it in yet tlél aadé oox̲sigoodi yé no way can s/he let him/her/it in neil oox̲sagoodín s/he would have let him/her/it in neil asgútni if/when s/he lets him/her/it in neilx̲ asgoot s/he lets him/her/it in (regularly) Dóosh neil sagú! Let the cat in! [Story & Naish 1973: 124] Aadóoch sá neil wusgoodí yáa kax̲waak̲aayi aa, x̲át tsú neilx̲ x̲at sagoot. Whoever receives and welcomes anyone I send, receives me also. [Story & Naish 1973: 245] Neilx̲ ágé isagoot? Did you welcome him / take him into the home? [Story & Naish 1973: 245] go on foot (singular subject) VII P-dé S-ø-goot~ (na motion) for (singular) S to walk, go (by walking or as general term) away from P ya-goot Note that -g̲aa takes the opposite tone of the final syllable of the noun that it attaches to. Hence: kanat'ág̲aa "(going) after blueberries", but shaawg̲áa "(going) after gumboots". Direction of Motion - The following are adverbial phrases that can be used with this particular conjugation of the verb 'go on foot' to specify the direction of motion. Replace aadé 'toward there' in the paradigm below with any of the following adverbs to change the direction of motion. -- moving (along) P-t moving around, about P P-dé(i) moving toward P P-dáx̲ moving away from P P-náx̲ moving by way of P yux̲ moving out of house P-nák̲ leaving P behind P-g̲aa going to get P Aadé nagú! Go there! Líl aadé yoo eegútgik̲! Don't go there! Líl aadé yigoodík̲! Don't go there! [does not occur] aadé yaa nx̲agút I am going there aadé yaa neegút you are going there aadé yaa nagút s/he is going there tlél aadé yaa nx̲wagút I'm not going there tlél aadé yaa neegút you're not going there tlél aadé yaa unagút s/he's not going there [does not occur] aadé x̲waagoot I went there aadé yeegoot you went there aadé woogoot s/he went there tlél aadé x̲wagoot I didn't go there tlél aadé yigoot you didn't go there tlél aadé wugoot s/he didn't go there wé aadé wugoodi aa the one who went there aadé kk̲wagóot I will go there aadé kg̲eegóot you will go there aadé kg̲wagóot s/he will go there tlél aadé kk̲wagoot I won't go there tlél aadé kg̲eegoot you won't go there tlél aadé kg̲wagoot s/he won't go there aadé nk̲agoot let me go there aadé ng̲agoot let her/him go there aadé nx̲agútch I go there (every time) aadé neegútch you go there (every time) aadé nagútch s/he goes there (every time) tlél aadé nx̲wagútch I haven't gone there yet tlél aadé neegútch you haven't gone there yet tlél aadé unagútch s/he hasn't gone there yet tlél aadé aadé ng̲waagoodi yé no way can s/he go there aadé ng̲wagoodín s/he would have gone there aadé nagútni if/when s/he goes there aadé yoo yagútk s/he goes there (regularly) Wé du kéek' k̲wá tle ash nák̲ woogoot. But her sister had already left her. Geesh daax̲ woogoodi yéil áyá. It's Raven who walked along the bull kelp. Ch'u tle tláakw áwé k̲a wé áx̲ ayaawa.adi yéix̲ yaa nagút. She went quickly and along where people had walked. Ash ítx̲ yaa nagút. She 's walking behind her. A áyá a k'wát'i áyá tle a tóonáx̲ yóot wugoodí áyá; tle awsineix̲ yá shaatk'átsk'ooch. It was when it came out of its egg this little girl saved it. Aag̲áa áwé tsá yá gáanax̲ áwé a k̲oowú x̲'é áwé áa yux̲ woogoot wé shaawát. That's when the woman finally went out to the entrance of the den. Yux̲ yaa kk̲wagóot du jiyeex'. I will go out to him. Ax̲ dachx̲ánk' ax̲ nák̲ wugoodí x̲at galtíshch. I get lonely every time my grandchild leaves me. argue xeet (3) write, argue write it; draw it; paint it; take a photograph of it; x-ray it O-ka-S-sh-xeet~ (ø act; CV́C Hort/Pot) for S to write, draw, or paint a picture of O; for S to print O by hand; for S to photograph, take pictures, X-rays of O ka-shi-xeet Kashaxít! Write it! Kayshaxít! You all write it! Líl keeshaxeedík̲! Don't write it! Líl kayshaxeedík̲! Don't you all write it! kax̲shaxeet I write it; I am writing it akshaxeet s/he writes it; s/he is writing it tlél koox̲shaxeet I don't write it; I'm not writing it tlél akooshxeet s/he doesn't write it; s/he's not writing it kax̲wshixít I wrote it akawshixít s/he wrote it tlél kax̲wshaxeet I didn't write it tlél akawushxeet s/he didn't write it kakk̲washaxéet I will write it akagux̲shaxéet s/he will write it tlél kakk̲washaxeet I won't write it tlél akagux̲shaxeet s/he won't write it kak̲ashaxít let me write it akax̲shaxít let him/her write it akshaxit nooch s/he always writes it koox̲shaxítch I write it (every time) akooshxítch s/he writes it (every time) tlél koox̲shaxeetch I haven't written it yet tlél akooshxeetch s/he hasn't written it yet tlél aadé akoox̲shixídi yé no way can s/he write it akoox̲shaxídin s/he would have written it akshaxítni if/when s/he writes it akshaxítx̲ s/he writes it (regularly) argue, quarrel N een woosh x̲'a-S-d-xéet (na act) for S to argue, quarrel with N --- --- Du een woosh x̲'eendaxéet! Argue with him/her! Líl du een woosh x̲'eedaxéedik̲! Don't argue with him/her! du een woosh x̲'adaxéet s/he is arguing with him/her du een woosh x̲'ax̲wdixéet I argued with him/her du een woosh x̲'awdixéet s/he argued with him/her tlél du een woosh x̲'ax̲wdaxéet I didn't argue with him/her tlél du een woosh x̲'awdaxéet s/he didn't argue with him/her du een woosh x̲'agux̲daxéet s/he will argue with him/her tlél du een woosh x̲'agux̲daxéet s/he won't argue with him/her (ch'a) du een woosh x̲'anax̲daxéet (just) let him/her argue with him/her du een woosh x̲'andaxéetch s/he aruges with him/her (every time) tlél du een woosh x̲'eindaxéetch s/he hasn't argued with him/her yet tlél aadé du een woosh x̲'einax̲dixéedi yé no way can s/he argue with him/her du een woosh x̲'einax̲daxéedin s/he would have argued with him/her du een woosh x̲'andaxéetni if/when s/he argues with him/her du een yoo woosh x̲'adixéetk s/he argues with him/her (regularly) Dáanaa daat woosh has x̲'awdixéet. They argued over money. write; draw; paint; take a photograph ka-S-d-sh-xeet~ (ø act; CV́C Hort/Pot) for S to write, draw, or paint; for S to take a photograph ka-shi-xeet Keeshxít! Write! Kayishxít! You all write! Líl keeshxeedík̲! Don't write! Líl kayishxeedík̲! Don't you all write! kax̲ashxeet I write; I am writing keeshxeet you write; you are writing kashxeet s/he writes; s/he is writing katooshxeet we write; we are writing kayishxeet you all write; you all are writing has kashxeet they write; they are writing kadushxeet people write; people are writing tlél koox̲ashxeet I don't write; I'm not writing tlél keeshxeet you don't write; you aren't writing tlél kooshxeet s/he doesn't write; s/he isn't writing tlél katooshxeet we don't write; we aren't writing tlél kayishxeet you all don't write; you all aren't writing tlél has kooshxeet they don't write; they aren't writing tlél kadushxeet nobody writes; nobody is writing wé kashxeet aa the one who writes kashxeedín s/he used to write tlél kashxeedín s/he didn't used to write kax̲wjixít I wrote kayjixít you wrote kawjixít s/he wrote kawtujixít we wrote kayeeyjixít you all wrote has akawjixít they wrote kawdujixít someone wrote tlél kax̲washxeet I didn't write tlél kayishxeet you didn't write tlél kawushxeet s/he didn't write tlél kawtooshxeet we didn't write tlél kayeeyshxeet you all didn't write tlél has kawushxeet they didn't write tlél kawdushxeet nobody wrote kakk̲washxéet I will write kakg̲eeshxéet you will write kakg̲washxéet s/he will write kagax̲tooshxéet we will write kagax̲yeeshxéet you all will write has kakg̲washxéet they will write kagax̲dushxéet someone will write tlél kakk̲washxeet I won't write tlél kakg̲eeshxeet you won't write tlél kakg̲washxeet s/he won't write tlél kagax̲tooshxeet we won't write tlél kagax̲yeeshxeet you all won't write tlél has kakg̲washxeet they won't write tlél kagax̲dushxeet nobody will write kak̲ashxít let me write kag̲ashxít let him/her write kax̲tooshxít let us write kashxit nooch s/he always writes koox̲ashxítch I write (every time) keeshxítch you write (every time) kooshxítch s/he writes (every time) katooshxítch we write (every time) kayishxítch you all write (every time) has kooshxítch they write (every time) kadushxítch someone writes (every time) tlél koox̲ashxeetch I haven't written yet tlél keeshxeetch you haven't written yet tlél kooshxeetch s/he hasn't written yet tlél katooshxeetch we haven't written yet tlél kayishxeetch you all haven't written yet tlél has kooshxeetch they haven't written yet tlél kadushxeetch nobody has written yet tlél aadé koox̲jixídi yé no way can s/he write koog̲ashxídin s/he would have written kashxítni if/when s/he writes kashxítx̲ s/he writes (regularly) Tlél tudatóow k̲a tlél katooshxeet. We can't read or write. ask k̲aa1 (7) ask, charge, confess, order, say, send, tell instruct him/her; give him/her orders to do áa O-ji-ka-(u)-S-ø-k̲aa~ (na event) for S to instruct, give O orders (to do) áa + ji-ka-ya-k̲aa Note that in classical Tlingit, this verb had a thematic prefix (u-) which is slowly falling out of modern day speech. This is indicated in the theme as (u)-. Alternate forms given here show one form with the thematic (u)- and one without, both of which are acceptable in modern speech. Áa jeekunak̲á! / Áa jeekanak̲á! Give him/her orders! Áa jeekunayk̲á! / Áa jeekanayk̲á! You all give him/her orders! Líl áa yoo jikeek̲éigik̲! Don't give him/her orders! Líl áa yoo jikayk̲éigik̲! Don't you all give him/her orders! [does not occur] [does not occur] áa jikx̲waak̲aa I gave him/her orders áa ajikaawak̲aa s/he gave him/her orders tlél áa jikx̲wak̲aa I didn't give him/her orders tlél áa ajikawuk̲aa s/he didn't give him/her orders áa jikakk̲wak̲áa I will give him/her orders áa ajikakg̲wak̲áa s/he will give him/her orders tlél áa jikakk̲wak̲aa I won't give him/her orders tlél áa ajikakg̲wak̲aa s/he won't give him/her orders áa jikunk̲ak̲aa let me give him/her orders áa ajikung̲ak̲aa let him/her give him/her orders áa jikunx̲ak̲éich / áa jikanx̲ak̲éich I give him/her orders (every time) áa ajikunak̲éich / áa ajikanak̲éich s/he gives him/her orders (every time) tlél áa jikunx̲ak̲éich I haven't given him/her orders yet tlél áa ajikunak̲éich s/he hasn't given him/her orders yet tlél aadé áa ajikung̲waak̲aayi yé no way can s/he give him/her orders áa ajikung̲wak̲aayín s/he would have given him/her orders áa ajikanak̲éini if/when s/he gives him/her orders áa yoo ajikaayak̲éik s/he gives him/her orders (regularly) send him/her on a mission, errand O-ka-(u)-S-ø-k̲aa~ (na event) for S to send O (esp. on a mission or errand, or to deliver a message) ka-ya-k̲aa Note that in classical Tlingit, this verb had a thematic prefix (u-) which is slowly falling out of modern day speech. This is indicated in the Leer-Edwards theme as (u)-. Alternate forms given below show one form with the thematic (u)- and one without, both of which are acceptable in modern speech. Kanak̲á! / Kunak̲á! Send him/her on an errand! Kanayk̲á! / Kunayk̲á! You all send him/her on an errand! Líl yoo keek̲éig̲ik̲! Don't send him/her on an errand! Líl yoo kayk̲éig̲ik̲! Don't you all send him/her on an errand! [does not occur] kax̲waak̲aa I sent him/her on an errand akaawak̲aa s/he sent him/her on an errand tlél kax̲wak̲aa I didn't send him/her on an errand tlél akawuk̲aa s/he didn't send him/her on an errand kakk̲wak̲áa I will send him/her on an errand akakg̲wak̲áa s/he will send him/her on an errand tlél kakk̲wak̲aa I won't send him/her on an errand tlél akakg̲wak̲aa s/he won't send him/her on an errand kunk̲ak̲aa let me send him/her on an errand akung̲ak̲aa let him/her send him/her on an errand kunx̲ak̲éich I send him/her on an errand (every time) akunak̲éich s/he sends him/her on an errand (every time) tlél koonx̲ak̲éich I haven't sent him/her on an errand yet tlél akoonak̲éich s/he hasn't sent him/her on an errand yet tlél aadé akoong̲aak̲aayi yé no way can s/he send him/her on an errand akoong̲ak̲aayín s/he would have sent him/her on an errand akunak̲éini if/when s/he sends him/her on an errand yoo akayak̲éik / yoo akuwak̲éik s/he sends him/her on an errand (regularly) confess, acknowledge, declare; charge, set the price, charge for (N éede) O-ya-S-s-k̲aa~ (na act) for S to charge (N) for O; for S to set the price of O; for S to confess, acknowledge, or delcare O ya-si-k̲aa Although this verb is translated as "charge" throughout the paradigm below, it actually has a number of different meanings. For all potential meanings, please see the translation of the Leer-Edwards theme. Note the (N éede) in the Leer-Edwards theme. This is used for the "charge" sense of this verb to indicate who is being charged. For example: Du éede ayawsik̲aa. "S/he charged him/her for it". Or: Tlél du éede ayawusk̲á "S/he didn't charge him/her for it." Yanask̲á! Charge for it! Yanaysak̲á! You all charge for it! Líl yoo yeesak̲éigik̲! Don't charge for it! Líl yoo yaysak̲éigik̲! Don't you all charge for it! yax̲sak̲á I charge for it ayasak̲á s/he charges for it tlél yax̲wsak̲á I don't charge for it tlél awoosk̲á s/he doesn't charge for it yax̲wsik̲aa I charged for it ayawsik̲aa s/he charged for it tlél yax̲wsak̲á I didn't charge for it tlél ayawusk̲á s/he didn't charge for it yakk̲wasak̲áa I will charge for it ayagux̲sak̲áa s/he will charge for it tlél yakk̲wasak̲aa I won't charge for it tlél ayagux̲sak̲aa s/he won't charge for it yank̲asak̲aa let me charge for it ayanax̲sak̲aa let him/her charge for it yanax̲sak̲éich I charge for it (every time) ayanask̲éich s/he charges for it (every time) tlél woonax̲sak̲éich I haven't charged for it yet tlél awoonask̲éich s/he hasn't charged for it yet tlél aadé woonk̲asik̲aayi yé no way can I charge for it tlél aadé awoonax̲sik̲aayi yé no way can s/he charge for it woonk̲asak̲aayín I would have charged for it awoonax̲sak̲aayín s/he would have charged for it yanax̲sak̲éini if/when I charge for it ayanask̲éini if/when s/he charges for it yoo yax̲sik̲éik I charge for it (regularly) yoo ayasik̲éik s/he charges for it (regularly) insult him/her, offend him/her by what one says sh tugéit O-ya-S-d-s-k̲aa~ (Ø event) for S to insult, offend O by what one says sh tugéi- + ya-dzi-k̲aa Sh tugéit yeesk̲á! Insult him/her! Sh tugéit yayisk̲á! You all insult him/her! Líl sh tugéit yeesk̲éix̲ik̲! Don't insult him/her! Líl sh tugéit yayisk̲éix̲ik̲! Don't you all insult him/her! [does not occur] sh tugéit yax̲wdzik̲áa I insulted him/her sh tugéit ayawdzik̲áa s/he insulted him/her tlél sh tugéit yax̲wask̲á I didn't insult him/her tlél sh tugéit ayawusk̲á s/he didn't insult him/her sh tugéit ayakg̲wask̲áa s/he will insult him/her tlél sh tugéit ayakg̲wask̲aa s/he won't insult him/her (ch'a) sh tugéit ayag̲ask̲aa (just) let him/her insult him/her sh tugéit ayoosk̲áaych s/he insults him/her (every time) tlél sh tugéit ayoosk̲áaych s/he hasn't insulted him/her yet tlél aadé sh tugéit ayax̲wdzik̲aayi yé no way can s/he insult him/her sh tugéit ayag̲wask̲aayín s/he would have insulted him/her sh tugéit ayask̲éini if/when s/he insults him/her sh tugéit ayask̲éix̲ s/he insults him/her (regularly) Sh tugéit ágé iyawtudzik̲áa? Have we offended you by what we said? [Story & Naish 1973: 115] Sh tugéit x̲at yawdzik̲áa. He insulted me (he said cutting things that hit me pretty hard). [Story & Naish 1973: 115] tell him/her (a certain thing) (yéi) O-daa-ya-S-ø-k̲á (act) for S to tell O (a certain thing) A + daa-ya-ya-k̲aa This verb only occurs in the imperfective. [does not occur] yéi daayax̲ak̲á I tell him/her that yéi daayeek̲á you tell him/her that yéi adaayak̲á s/he tells him/her that yéi daayatook̲á we tell him/her that yéi daayeeyk̲á you all tell him/her that yéi (ha)s adaayak̲á they tell him/her that yéi daayaduk̲á someone tells him/her that tlél yéi daayax̲wak̲á I don't tell him/her that tlél yéi daayeek̲á you don't tell him/her that tlél yéi adaawuk̲á s/he doesn't tell him/her that tlél yéi daayatook̲á we don't tell him/her that tlél yéi daayeeyk̲á you all don't tell him/her that tlél yéi (ha)s adaawuk̲á they don't tell him/her that tlél yéi daayaduk̲á nobody tells him/her that [does not occur] [does not occur] say (a certain thing); confess, acknowledge, declare (a certain thing) (yéi) ya-S-ø-k̲aa~ (na act) for S to say (a certain thing); for S to confess, acknowledge, declare (a certain thing) A + ya-ya-k̲aa, A + x̲'a-ya-ya-k̲aa (present action) Note that the imperfective form and prohibitive forms require the thematic prefix x̲'a- which refers to the mouth. Yéi yanak̲á! Say it! Yéi yanayk̲á! You all say it! Líl yéi x̲'ayeek̲áak̲! Don't say it! Líl yéi x̲'ayeeyk̲áak̲! Don't you all you all say it! yéi x̲'ayax̲ak̲á I say that; I'm saying that yéi x̲'ayeek̲á you say that; you're saying that yéi x̲'ayak̲á s/he says that; s/he's saying that yéi x̲'ayatook̲á we say that; we're saying that yéi x̲'ayeeyk̲á you all say that; you all are saying that yéi (ha)s x̲'ayak̲á they say that; they're saying that yéi x̲'ayaduk̲á it is said; someone is saying that tlél yéi x̲'awux̲ak̲á I don't say that; I'm not saying that tlél yéi x̲'ayeek̲á you don't say that; you aren't saying that tlél yéi x̲'awuk̲á s/he doesn't say that; s/he isn't saying that tlél yéi x̲'ayatook̲á we don't say that; we aren't saying that tlél yéi x̲'ayayk̲á you all don't say that; you all aren't saying that tlél yéi (ha)s x̲'awuk̲á they don't say that; they aren't saying that tlél yéi x̲'ayaduk̲á that isn't said; people aren't saying that wé yéi x̲'ayak̲aayi aa the one who says that yéi x̲'ayak̲áayin s/he used to say that tlél yéi x̲'awuk̲áayin s/he didn't used to say that yéi yax̲waak̲aa I said that yéi yeeyak̲aa you said that yéi yaawak̲aa s/he said that yéi yawtuwak̲aa we said that yéi yayeeyk̲aa you all said that yéi has yaawak̲aa they said that yéi yawduwak̲aa that was said tlél yéi yax̲wak̲aa I didn't say that tlél yéi yayik̲aa you didn't say that tlél yéi yawuk̲aa s/he didn't say that tlél yéi yawtook̲aa we didn't say that tlél yéi yayeeyk̲aa you all didn't say that tlél yéi (ha)s yawuk̲aa they didn't say that tlél yéi yawduk̲aa that wasn't said yéi yakk̲wak̲áa I will say that yéi yakg̲eek̲áa you will say that yéi yakg̲wak̲áa s/he will say that yéi yagax̲took̲áa we will say that yéi yagax̲yeek̲áa you all will say that yéi (ha)s yakg̲wak̲áa they will say that yéi yagax̲duk̲áa it will be said tlél yéi yakk̲wak̲aa I won't say that tlél yéi yakg̲eek̲aa you won't say that tlél yéi yakg̲wak̲aa s/he won't say that tlél yéi yagax̲took̲aa we won't say that tlél yéi yagax̲yeek̲aa you all won't say that tlél yéi (ha)s yakg̲wak̲aa they won't say that tlél yéi yagax̲duk̲aa that won't be said yéi yank̲ak̲aa let me say that yéi yang̲ak̲aa let him/her say that yéi yanax̲took̲aa let us say that yéi x̲'ayak̲áa nooch s/he always says that yéi yanx̲ak̲éich I say that (every time) yéi yaneek̲éich you say that (every time) yéi yanak̲éich s/he says that (every time) yéi yantook̲éich we say that (every time) yéi yanayk̲éich you all say that (every time) yéi (ha)s yanak̲éich they say that (every time) yéi yanduk̲éich it is said (every time) tlél yéi yanx̲wak̲éich / yoonx̲ak̲éich I haven't said that yet tlél yéi yaneek̲éich you haven't said that yet tlél yéi yoonak̲éich s/he hasn't said that yet tlél yéi yantook̲éich we haven't said that yet tlél yéi yanayk̲éich you all haven't said that yet tlél yéi (ha)s wunak̲éich they haven't said that yet tlél yéi k̲uwanak̲éich it hasn't been said yet tlél aadé yéi yang̲waak̲aayi yé no way can s/he say that yéi yang̲wak̲aayín s/he would have said that yéi yanak̲éini if/when s/he says that yoo x̲'ayak̲éik s/he says that (regularly) Gunalchéesh yéi yank̲ak̲aat áyá x̲wdihaan. I stood up to say thank you. Wé haa sháadeiháni gunalchéesh haa jee yís yéi yanak̲éich. Our leader says thank you for us. Tsu yéi wunak̲á! You can say that again! tell, say to him/her; ask him/her to do (yóo) O-ya-S-s-k̲aa~ (na event) for S to tell, say (that) to O; for S to ask O to do (that) A + ya-si-k̲aa Yóo yanask̲á! Tell him/her! Yóo yanaysak̲á! You all tell him/her! Líl yóo yeesak̲éigik̲! Don't tell him/her! Líl yóo yaysak̲éigik̲! Don't you all tell him/her! [does not occur] [does not occur] yóo yax̲wsik̲aa I told him/her yóo yaysik̲aa you told him/her yóo ayawsik̲aa s/he told him/her yóo yawtusik̲aa we told him/her yóo yayeeysik̲aa you all told him/her yóo (ha)s ayawsik̲aa they told him/her yóo yawdudzik̲aa someone told him/her tlél yéi yax̲wsak̲aa I didn't tell him/her tlél yéi yaysak̲aa you didn't tell him/her tlél yéi ayawusk̲aa s/he didn't tell him/her tlél yéi yawtusak̲aa we didn't tell him/her tlél yéi yayeeysak̲aa you all didn't tell him/her tlél yéi (ha)s ayawusk̲aa they didn't tell him/her tlél yéi yawdusk̲aa nobody told him/her yóo yakk̲wasak̲áa I will tell him/her yóo yakg̲isak̲áa you will tell him/her yóo ayagux̲sak̲áa s/he will tell him/her yóo yagax̲tusak̲áa we will tell him/her yóo yagax̲yisak̲áa you all will tell him/her yóo (ha)s ayagux̲sak̲áa they will tell him/her yóo yagax̲dusk̲áa someone will tell him/her tlél yóo yakk̲wasak̲aa I won't tell him/her tlél yóo yakg̲isak̲aa you won't tell him/her tlél yóo ayagux̲sak̲aa s/he won't tell him/her tlél yóo yagax̲tusak̲aa we won't tell him/her tlél yóo yagax̲yisak̲aa you all won't tell him/her tlél yóo (ha)s ayagux̲sak̲aa they won't tell him/her tlél yóo yagax̲dusk̲aa nobody will tell him/her yóo yank̲asak̲aa let me tell him/her yóo ayanax̲sak̲aa let him/her tell him/her yóo yanax̲tusak̲aa let us tell him/her yóo yanax̲sak̲éich I tell him/her (every time) yóo yanisak̲éich you tell him/her (every time) yóo ayanask̲éich s/he tells him/her (every time) yóo yantusak̲éich we tell him/her (every time) yóo yanaysak̲éich you all tell him/her (every time) yóo (ha)s ayanask̲éich they tell him/her (every time) yóo yandusk̲éich someone tells him/her (every time) tlél yóo yanax̲sak̲éich I haven't told him/her yet tlél yóo yanisak̲éich you haven't told him/her yet tlél yóo ayanask̲éich s/he hasn't told him/her yet tlél yóo yantusak̲éich we haven't told him/her yet tlél yóo yanaysak̲éich you all haven't told him/her yet tlél yóo (ha)s awunask̲éich they haven't told him/her yet tlél yóo yandusk̲éich nobody has told him/her yet tlél aadé yóo ayanax̲sik̲aayi yé no way can s/he tell him/her yóo ayanax̲sak̲aayín s/he would have told him/her yóo ayanask̲éinni if/when s/he tells him/her yóo ayasik̲éik s/he tells him/her (regularly) ask woos'1 ask, question ask him/her, question him/her O-x̲'a-S-ø-wóos' (na act) for S to ask, question O x̲'a-ya-woos' X̲'anawóos'! Ask him/her! X̲'anaywóos'! You all ask him/her! Líl x̲'eewóos'ik̲! Don't ask him/her! Líl x̲'aywóos'ik̲! Don't you all ask him/her! ax̲'awóos' s/he's asking him/her tlél ax̲'eiwóos' s/he isn't asking him/her ax̲'eiwawóos' s/he asked him/her tlél ax̲'awuwóos' s/he didn't ask him/her ax̲'akg̲wawóos' s/he will ask him/her tlél ax̲'akg̲wawóos' s/he won't ask him/her ax̲'ang̲awóos' let him/her ask him/her ax̲'awóos' nooch s/he always asks him/her ax̲'anawóos'ch s/he asks him/her (every time) tlél ax̲'einawóos'ch s/he hasn't asked him/her yet tlél aadé ax̲'ang̲waawóos'i yé no way can s/he ask him/her ax̲'ang̲wawóos'in s/he would have asked him/her ax̲'anawóos'ni if s/he asks him/her yoo ax̲'ayawóos'k s/he asks him/her (regularly) Ax̲ x̲'éit yag̲as.aa x̲'ax̲waawóos' tlei ax̲ nák̲ wujixeex. I asked her to kiss me and she ran away from me. Hél aadé x̲'ank̲waawóos'i yé, tlákw yaa sh k̲'agalyélch. I can't ask him a question, he lies every time. assault jaak̲w1 beat up, assault, attack beat him/her up; assault him/her; attack him/her O-S-ø-jáak̲w (na act) for S to beat up, assault, violently attack O ya-jaak̲w Najáak̲w! Beat him/her up! Nayjáak̲w! You all beat him/her up! Líl eejáag̲uk̲! Don't beat him/her up! Líl yijáag̲uk̲! Don't you all beat him/her up! x̲ajáak̲w I'm beating him/her up ajáak̲w s/he's beating him/her up tlél x̲wajáak̲w I'm not beating him/her up tlél oojáak̲w s/he's not beating him/her up yaa nx̲aják̲w I'm beating him/her up yaa anaják̲w s/he's beating him/her up x̲waajáak̲w I beat him/her up aawajáak̲w s/he beat him/her up tlél x̲wajáak̲w I didn't beat him/her up tlél awujáak̲w s/he didn't beat him/her up kuk̲ajáak̲w I will beat him/her up akg̲wajáak̲w s/he will beat him/her up tlél kuk̲ajáak̲w I won't beat him/her up tlél akg̲wajáak̲w s/he won't beat him/her up nak̲ajáak̲w let me beat him/her up nag̲ajáak̲w let him/her beat him/her up nax̲ajáak̲wch I beat him/her up (every time) anajáak̲wch s/he beats him/her up (every time) tlél nax̲wajáak̲wch I haven't beat him/her up yet tlél oonajáak̲wch s/he hasn't beat him/her up yet tlél aadé nak̲waajáag̲u yé no way can I beat him/her up tlél aadé oong̲aajáag̲u yé no way can s/he beat him/her up nak̲wajáag̲un I would have beat him/her up oong̲ajáag̲un s/he would have beat him/her up nax̲aják̲wni if/when I beat him/her up anaják̲wni if/when s/he beats him/her up yoo x̲aajáak̲wk I beat him/her up (regularly) yoo ayajáak̲wk s/he beats him/her up (regularly) Tlákw kaawashoowú áwé anajáak̲wch. Whenever he's drunk, he beats him up. Tlél x̲wajáak̲w, ch'a g̲óot k̲áach áwé woojáak̲w. I didn't beat him up, some other guy beat him up. astonished gwaatl (7) roll, rock, fold up, bend, astonished roll it (log, barrel, etc.) Note that the forms listed here have the ka- thematic prefix (akawligwáatl), while Story & Naish (1973) document it without this prefix (awligwáatl). According to speakers consulted for this project, both forms are acceptable and mean the same thing. O-ka-S-l-gwáatl~ (na motion) for S to roll O (log, barrel, etc.) li-gwaatl Kanalgwáatl! Roll it! Kanaylagwáatl! You all roll it! Líl yoo keelagwátlgik̲! Don't roll it! Líl yoo kaylagwátlgik̲! Don't you all roll it! [does not occur] yaa akanalgwátl s/he is rolling it kax̲wligwáatl I rolled it akawligwáatl s/he rolled it tlél kax̲wlagwáatl I didn't roll it tlél akawulgwáatl s/he didn't roll it akagux̲lagwáatl s/he will roll it tlél akagux̲lagwáatl s/he won't roll it akanax̲lagwáatl let him/her roll it akanalgwátlch s/he rolls it (every time) tlél akoonalgwátlch s/he hasn't rolled it yet tlél aadé akoonax̲ligwáadli yé no way can s/he roll it akoonax̲lagwáadlin s/he would have rolled it akanalgwátlni if/when s/he rolls it yoo akligwátlk s/he rolls it (regularly) Káast yaa nax̲lagwátl. I am rolling a barrel. [Story & Naish 1973: 175] Héent sh wudligwátl. He rolled himself into the water. [Story & Naish 1973: 175] bend limb (arm, leg); fold up (paper, etc.) in loose roll Note that although the translation given throughout the paradigm here is given as "bend a limb", this verb can also mean "fold something up in a loose roll." Just replace du t'eeyshú "his/her elbow" with x'úx' "paper" or some other flexible object to convey the meaning "fold up". O-ka-S-l-gwaatl~ (Ø act; CV́C Hort/Pot) for S to bend O (limb); for S to fold up O (paper, etc.) in a loose roll ka-li-gwaatl (I t'eeyshú) kalagwátl! Bend (your elbow)! Líl (i t'eeyshú) keelagwátlx̲ik̲! Don't bend (your elbow)! (du t'eeyshú) aklagwáatl s/he is bending (his/her elbow) (du t'eeyshú) yaa akanalgwátl s/he is starting to bend (his/her elbow) (ax̲ t'eeyshú) kax̲wligwátl I bent (my elbow) (du t'eeyshú) akawligwátl s/he bent (his/her elbow) tlél (ax̲ t'eeyshú) kax̲wlagwaatl I didn't bend (my elbow) tlél (du t'eeyshú) akawulgwaatl s/he didn't bend (his/her elbow) (du t'eeyshú) akagux̲lagwáatl s/he will bend (his/her elbow) tlél (du t'eeyshú) akagux̲lagwaatl s/he won't bend (his/her elbow) (du t'eeyshú) akax̲lagwátl let him/her bend (his/her elbow) (du t'eeyshú) akoolgwátlch s/he bends (his/her elbow) (every time) (du t'eeyshú) tlél akoolgwátlch s/he hasn't bent (his/her elbow) yet (du t'eeyshú) tlél aadé akoox̲ligwádli yé no way can s/he bend (his/her elbow) (du t'eeyshú) akoox̲lagwádlin s/he would have bent (his/her elbow) (du t'eeyshú) aklagwátlni if/when s/he bends (his/her elbow) (du t'eeyshú) aklagwátlx̲ s/he bends (his/her elbow) (regularly) Tléináx̲ aanáx̲ k̲u.aa ch'a aklagwátlx̲. He can bend one leg. [Story & Naish 1973: 28] Tlél du x̲eek akawulgwaatl. He didn't bend his arm. [Story & Naish 1973: 28] Du keeyshá akawligwátl. He bent his knee. Du t'eeyshú akawligwátl. She bent her elbow. Wé x'úx' akawligwátl. She folded up the paper in a loose roll. roll (of spherical object) P-t~ ka-ø-gwáatl~ (ø motion) for a spherical object to roll to P ka-ya-gwaatl [does not occur] aadé yaa kanagwátl it's rolling to it át kaawagwátl it rolled to it tlél át kawugwáatl it didn't roll to it aadé kakg̲wagwáatl it will roll to it tlél aadé kakg̲wagwáatl it won't roll to it át kag̲agwáatl let it roll to it át koogwáatlch it rolls to it (every time) tlél át koogwáatlch it hasn't rolled to it yet tlél aadé át koog̲waagwáadli yé no way can it roll to it át koog̲wagwáadlin it would have rolled to it át kagwátlni if/when it rolls to it áx̲ kagwáatl it rolls to it (regularly) astonished, flabbergasted, be left open-mouthed O-k̲'a-d-gwáatl~ (Ø event; CV́C Hort/Pot) for O to be astonished, flabbergasted, left open-mouthed k̲'a-di-gwaatl [does not occur] yaa k̲'andagwátl s/he is getting to be astonished x̲at k̲'awdigwátl I'm astonished k̲'awdigwátl s/he is astonished tlél x̲at k̲'awdagwáatl I'm not astonished tlél k̲'awdagwáatl she's not astonished k̲'agux̲dagwáatl s/he is going to be astonished tlél k̲'agux̲dagwáatl s/he isn't going to be astonished (ch'a) k̲'ax̲dagwátl (just) let him/her be astonished k̲'eidagwátlch s/he is astonished (every time) tlél k̲'eidagwátlch s/he hasn't been astonished yet tlél aadé k̲'eix̲digwádli yé no way can s/he be astonished k̲'eix̲dagwádlin s/he would have been astonished k̲'adagwátlni if/when s/he is astonished k̲'adagwátlch s/he is astonished (regularly) X̲at k̲'awdigwátl wé i shkalneegí. I'm very surprised at what you are telling me. [Story & Naish 1973: 23] capsize, overturn (of canoe, boat) III áa yax̲ ø-gwáatl~ (Ø motion) for a boat to capsize, overturn áa + yax̲ ya-gwaatl [does not occur] áa yax̲ yaa nagwátl it's starting to capsize áa yax̲ uwagwátl it capsized tlél áa yax̲ wugwáatl it didn't capsize áa yax̲ gug̲wagwáatl it's going to capsize tlél áa yax̲ gug̲wagwáatl it's not going to capsize (ch'a) áa yax̲ g̲agwáatl (just) let it capsize áa yax̲ ugwáatlch it capsizes (every time) tlél áa yax̲ ugwáatlch it hasn't capsized yet tlél aadé áa yax̲ g̲waagwáadli yé no way can it capsize áa yax̲ g̲wagwáadlin it would have capsized áa yax̲ gwátlni if/when it capsizes áa yax̲ gwátlx̲ it capsizes (regularly) Áa yax̲ gwátlni yánde has kagux̲dat'áach. When it capsizes, they'll swim ashore. Du yaagú du een áa yax̲ uwagwátl. His boat capsized with him. [Story & Naish 1973: 41] rock, roll it (canoe, boat) Note that this verb theme has two ka- prefixes. However the future verb form that was provided by the consultant has only one ka- prefix (át akagux̲lagwáatl), possibly because two ka- prefixes are expecially awkward to pronounce in the future form. P-t O-ka-ka-S-l-gwáatl~ (na motion) for S to rock, roll O (boat) at P ka-ka-li-gwaatl Át kakanalgwáatl! Rock the boat! Át kakanaylagwáatl! You all rock the boat! Líl át kakaylagwáadlik̲! Don't rock the boat! Líl át kakayeeylagwáadlik̲! Don't you all rock the boat! [does not occur] át kakax̲wligwáatl I am rocking the boat; I rocked the boat át akakawligwáatl s/he is rocking the boat; s/he rocked the boat tlél át kakax̲wlagwáatl I'm not rocking the boat; I didn't rock the boat tlél át akakawulgwáatl s/he isn't rocking the boat át akagux̲lagwáatl s/he will rock the boat tlél át akagux̲lagwáatl s/he won't rock the boat (ch'a) át akakanax̲lagwáatl (just) let him/her rock the boat át akakanalgwátlch s/he rocks the boat (every time) tlél át akakoonalgwátlch s/he hasn't rocked the boat yet tlél aadé át akakoonax̲ligwáadli yé no way can s/he rock the boat át akakoong̲algwáadlin s/he would have rocked the boat át akakanalgwátlni if/when s/he rocks the boat át yoo akakligwátlk s/he rocks the boat (regularly) Tlél ushk'é yaakw át kakawdulgwáadli. It's bad to roll or rock the boat. [Story & Naish 1973: 175] Yaakw át akakawligwáatl. He's making the boat roll. [Story & Naish 1973: 175] rock, roll (of canoe, boat) Note that this verb theme has two ka- prefixes. However the future verb form that was provided by the consultant has only one ka- prefix (át kakg̲wagwáatl), possibly because two ka- prefixes are expecially awkward to pronounce in the future form. P-t ka-ka-ø-gwáatl~ (na motion) for a canoe, boat to rock, roll around ka-ka-ya-gwaatl [does not occur] át kakaawagwáatl it's rolling around; it rolled around tlél át kakawugwáatl it's not rolling around; it didn't roll around át kakg̲wagwáatl it will roll around tlél át kakg̲wagwáatl it won't roll around (ch'a) át kakang̲agwáatl (just) let it roll around át kakanagwátlch it rolls around (every time) tlél át kakoonagwátlch it hasn't rolled around yet tlél aadé át kakoong̲aagwáadli yé no way can it roll around át kakoong̲agwáadlin it would have rolled around át kakanagwátlni if/when it rolls around át yoo kakayagwátlk it rolls around (regularly) Teet jiwustaaní yaakw át kakanagwátlch. When the waves are beating hard, the boat really rolls. [Story & Naish 1973: 175] attack aat1 (18) go, walk, lead, gather together, go to bathroom, attack, appoint, let in, let out appoint, choose for a certain position (plural object) I a tóo daak O-S-s-.aat~ (Ø motion) for S to appoint (plural) O, choose O for a certain position a tóo + daak si-.aat A tóo daak has sa.á! Appoint them! Líl a tóo daak has isa.átjik̲! Don't appoint them! [does not occur] a tóo daak has x̲wasi.át I appointed them a tóo daak has awsi.át s/he appointed them tlél a tóo daak has x̲wasa.aat I didn't appoint them tlél a tóo daak has awus.aat s/he didn't appoint them a tóo daak has agux̲sa.áat s/he will appoint them tlél a tóo daak has agux̲sa.aat s/he won't appoint them a tóo daak has ax̲sa.aat let him/her appoint them a tóo daak has oos.aatch s/he appoints them (every time) tlél a tóo daak has oos.aatch s/he hasn't appointed them yet tlél aadé a tóo daak has oox̲si.aadi yé no way can s/he appoint them a tóo daak has oox̲sa.aadín s/he would have appointed them a tóo daak has as.átni if/when s/he appoints them a tóo daak has as.átch s/he appoints them (regularly) A tóo daak has wududzi.át. They were appointed. [Story & Naish 1973: 21] lead them yaa O-shu-S-ø-.aat~ (ga event) for S to lead (plural) O (especially by walking ahead) shu-ya-.aat Note that yaa occurs in every form except the perfective. This verb has a plural stem, meaning that multiple people or animals are being led. In the paradigm given here, the plural object pronoun has "them" is used. One could also use k̲aa "people", as in: k̲aa shoowa.aat "s/he led people". Another option is the object prefix k̲u- "people", as in: k̲ushoowa.aat "s/he led people". For both of these, note that the third person object pronoun a- on the verb is dropped. If you want to indicate that animals are being led, omit the has/k̲aa/k̲u- and use: ashoowa.aat "s/he led them (animals)". Yaa (ha)s shuga.á! Lead them! Yaa (ha)s shugay.á! You all lead them! Líl has shuyi.aadík̲! Don't lead them! Líl has shuyeey.aadík̲! Don't you all lead them! [does not occur] yaa (ha)s shunx̲a.át I am leading them yaa (ha)s ashuna.át s/he is leading them has shux̲waa.aat I led them has ashoowa.aat s/he led them tlél has shux̲wa.aat I didn't lead them tlél has ashuwu.aat s/he didn't lead them yaa (ha)s shukk̲wa.áat I will lead them yaa (ha)s ashukg̲wa.áat s/he will lead them tlél yaa (ha)s shukk̲wa.aat I won't lead them tlél yaa (ha)s ahsukg̲wa.aat s/he won't lead them yaa (ha)s shukk̲a.aat let me lead them yaa (ha)s ashukg̲a.aat let him/her lead them yaa (ha)s shukx̲a.átch I lead them (every time) yaa (ha)s ashuga.átch s/he leads them (every time) tlél yaa (ha)s shukx̲a.átch I haven't led them yet tlél yaa (ha)s ashuga.átch s/he hasn't led them yet tlél aadé yaa (ha)s ashukg̲waa.aadi yé no way can s/he lead them yaa (ha)s ashukg̲wa.aadín s/he would have led them yaa (ha)s ashuga.átni if/when s/he leads them kei (ha)s ashu.átch s/he leads them (regularly) go on foot (plural subject) II P-t~ S-ø-.aat~ (ø motion) for (plural) S to walk, go (by walking or as a general term) to P ya-.aat Direction of Motion - The following are adverbial phrases that can be used with this particular conjugation of the verb 'go on foot' to specify the direction of motion. Replace át/áx̲/aadé 'arriving at P' in the paradigm below with any of the following adverbs to change the direction of motion. P-t (~x̲~dei) arriving at P, coming to P yan (~yax̲~yándei) moving ashore, coming to rest, to a stop, setting down P-náx̲ yan (~yax̲~yándei) moving across P, to the other side of P neil (~neilx̲~neildéi) moving inside, coming home haat (~haax̲~haa(n)déi) coming here yóot (~yóox̲~yóodei) going away As seen in the paradigm below, forms ending in -x̲ are used in the repetetive imperfective; forms ending in -de are used in the progressive imperfective; and forms ending in -t / -0(plain) are used elsewhere. Át yi.á! You all go there! Líl áx̲ yi.aadík̲! Don't you all go there! Líl át yeey.aadík̲! Don't you all go there! [does not occur] aadé yaa ntoo.át we are going there aadé yaa nay.át you all are going there aadé yaa (ha)s na.át they are going there aadé yaa ana.át people are going there tlél aadé yaa ntoo.át we're not going there tlél aadé yaa nay.át you all are not going there tlél aadé (ha)s yaa una.át they're not going there tlél aadé yaa oona.át nobody is going there át wutuwa.át we arrived there át yeey.át you all arrived there át has uwa.át they arrived there át aawa.át people arrived there tlél át wutoo.aat we didn't arrive there tlél át yeey.aat you all didn't arrive there tlél át has wu.aat they didn't arrive there tlél át awu.aat nobody arrived there wé át has wu.aadi aa the ones who arrived there aadé gax̲too.áat we will go there aadé gax̲yi.áat you all will go there aadé (ha)s gug̲a.áat they will go there aadé akg̲wa.áat people will go there tlél aadé gax̲too.aat we won't go there tlél aadé gax̲yi.aat you all won't go there tlél aadé (ha)s gug̲a.aat they won't go there tlél aadé akg̲wa.aat people won't go there át g̲atoo.aat let us go there át has g̲a.aat let them go there át too.aatch we go there (every time) át yeey.aatch you all go there (every time) át has u.aatch they go there (every time) át oo.aatch people go there (every time) tlél át too.aatch we haven't arrived there yet tlél át yeey.aatch you all haven't arrived there yet tlél át has u.aatch they haven't arrived there yet tlél át oo.aatch nobody has arrived there yet tlél aadé át has g̲waa.aadi yé no way can they get there át has g̲wa.aadín they would have gone there át has .átni if/when they go there áx̲ has .aat they go there (regularly) Tlél át awu.aat. Nobody arrived there; They (regular crowd) weren't there. Yax̲ ilt'éex', t'éex' kát aa uwa.át. When it froze, they walked over ice. Ch'a yeisú l unaliyéit has u.aatjí tsu x̲áaw tsu át yatán. They hadn't been going far when another log was lying there. Ách áwé du x̲ándáx̲ yóot aawa.át. This was why they left her. walking, going along there (of plural subjects) This is an example of a progressive epiaspectual paradigm (Leer, 91), which basically means that all forms are based on the progressive aspect. The progressive epiaspect is characterized by: 1)having the yaa preverb in all forms, 2)having no perfective form, and 3)denotes semantically a continuous transition from one location or state to another. P-x̲ yaa S-ø-.aat~ (ga motion) for (plural) S to be walking, going (by foot or as general term) along P (basically plural; see goot for singular) ya-.aat Áx̲ yaa gay.á! You all be walking along there! Líl áx̲ yaa yi.átjik̲ Don't you all be walking along there! [does not occur] áx̲ yaa ntoo.át we're walking along there áx̲ yaa (ha)s na.át they are walking along there [does not occur] áx̲ yaa (ha)s gug̲a.áat they will be walking along there tlél áx̲ yaa (ha)s gug̲a.aat they won't be walking along there á́x̲ yaa (ha)s gag̲a.aat let them be walking along there áx̲ yaa (ha)s ga.átch they are walking along there (every time) tlél áx̲ yaa (ha)s goo.átch they haven't been walking along there yet tlél aadé áx̲ yaa (ha)s goog̲aa.aadi yé no way can they be walking along there áx̲ yaa (ha)s goog̲a.aadín they would have been walking along there áx̲ yaa (ha)s ga.átni if/when they are walking along there áx̲ yaa (ha)s ga.átch they are walking along there (regularly) Kag̲ít tóox̲ yaa s gag̲a.aat. Let them be walking through the darkness. Wé kag̲ít tóox̲ yaa ntoo.ádi awdlidées. As we walked along in the darkness, the moon shined bright. Wé dzísk'u tlein ítx̲ yaa na.át wé g̲ooch. The wolves are following behind the big moose. go on foot (plural subject) IX P-x̲ S-ø-.aat~ (g̲a motion) for (plural) S to walk, go (by walking or as a general term) down along P ya-.aat Direction of Motion - The following are adverbial phrases that can be used with this particular conjugation of the verb 'go on foot' to specify the direction of motion. Replace yaa 'down' in the paradigm below with any of the following adverbs to change the direction of motion. yaa (deletes before aspect marker yei) moving down yaax̲ getting into canoe, boat, or other vehicle P-x̲ moving down along héenx̲ moving into the water P-náx̲ moving down by way of P, through P Áx̲ yaa g̲ay.á! You all walk down along it! Líl áx̲ yei yi.átjik̲! Don't you all walk down along it! [does not occur] áx̲ yei ntoo.át we are walking down along it áx̲ yei nay.át you all are walking down along it áx̲ yei (ha)s na.át they are walking down along it áx̲ yei ana.át people are walking down along it tlél áx̲ yei ntoo.át we're not walking down along it tlél áx̲ yei nay.át you all are not walking down along it tlél áx̲ yei (ha)s una.át they're not walking down along it tlél áx̲ yei oona.át nobody is walking down along it áx̲ wtuwa.aat we walked down along it áx̲ yeey.aat you all walked down along it áx̲ (ha)s woo.aat they walked down along it áx̲ aawa.aat people walked down along it tlél áx̲ wtoo.aat we didn't walk down along it tlél áx̲ yeey.aat you all didn't walk down along it tlél áx̲ (ha)s wu.aat they didn't walk down along it tlél áx̲ awu.aat nobody walked down along it wé áx̲ yaa (ha)s woo.aadi aa (has) the ones who walked down along it áx̲ yei gax̲too.áat we will walk down along it áx̲ yei gax̲yi.áat you all will walk down along it áx̲ yei has gug̲a.áat they will walk down along it áx̲ yei akg̲wa.áat people will walk down along it tlél áx̲ yei gax̲too.aat we won't walk down along it tlél áx̲ yei gax̲yi.aat you all won't walk down along it tlél áx̲ yei (ha)s gug̲a.aat they won't walk down along it tlél áx̲ yei akg̲wa.aat nobody will walk down along it áx̲ yaa g̲aax̲too.aat let us walk down along it áx̲ yaa (ha)s g̲aag̲a.aat let them walk down along it áx̲ yaa g̲atoo.átch we walk down along it (every time) áx̲ yaa g̲ay.átch you all walk down along it (every time) áx̲ yaa (ha)s g̲a.átch they walk down along it (every time) áx̲ yaa ag̲a.átch people walk down along it (every time) tlél áx̲ yaa g̲atoo.átch we haven't walked down along it yet tlél áx̲ yaa g̲ay.átch you all haven't walked down along it yet tlél áx̲ yaa (ha)s g̲wa.átch they haven't walked down along it yet tlél áx̲ yaa ag̲wa.átch nobody has walked down along it yet tlél aadé áx̲ yaa (ha)s g̲waag̲aa.aadi yé no way can they walk down along it áx̲ yaa (ha)s g̲waag̲a.aadín they would have walked down along it áx̲ yaa (ha)s g̲a.átni if/when they walk down along it áx̲ yei (ha)s .átch they walk down along it (regularly) Anax̲ áyá yaa ag̲a.átjeen yóo aan tayeedéi. This is what they came down on to go underneath the village. S'ootaat áwé yaax̲ has woo.aat. At dawn they went aboard. go on foot (plural subject) V N jikaadáx̲ ya-u-S-ø-.aat~ (ø motion) for (plural) S to get out of N's way ya-.aat Direction of Motion - The following are adverbial phrases that can be used with this particular conjugation of the verb 'go on foot' to specify the direction of motion. Replace du jikaadáx̲ 'getting out of his/her way' in the paradigm below with any of the following adverbs to change the direction of motion. P-x̲ moving circuitously, obliquely along P N daax̲ circling around N haandéi moving over this way (toward speaker) héidei moving over that way (away from speaker) N jikaadáx̲ / N jikaax̲ getting out of N's way P-náx̲ moving circuitously, obliquely through P N eetíx̲ taking N's place; trading places with N; missing N Du jikaadáx̲ yay.á! You all get out of his/her way! Líl du jikaadáx̲ yaa yi.átjik̲! Don't you all get out of his/her way! [does not occur] du jikaadáx̲ yaa ntoo.át we are getting out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ yaa nay.át you all are getting out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ yaa (ha)s na.át they are getting out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ yaa ana.át people are getting out of his/her way [does not occur] du jikaadáx̲ yawtuwa.át we got out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ yayeey.át you all got out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ has yaawa.át they got out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ ayaawa.át people got out of his/her way tlél du jikaadáx̲ yawtoo.aat we didn't get out of his/her way tlél du jikaadáx̲ yayeey.aat you all didn't get out of his/her way tlél du jikaadáx̲ has yawu.aat they didn't get out of his/her way tlél du jikaadáx̲ ayawu.aat nobody got out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ yagax̲too.áat we will get out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ yagax̲yee.áat you all will get out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ has yakg̲wa.áat they will get out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ ayakg̲wa.áat people will get out of his/her way tlél du jikaadáx̲ yagax̲too.aat we won't get out of his/her way tlél du jikaadáx̲ yagax̲yi.aat you all won't get out of his/her way tlél du jikaadáx̲ has yakg̲wa.aat they won't get out of his/her way tlél du jikaadáx̲ ayakg̲wa.aat people won't get out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ yax̲too.aat let us get out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ has yag̲a.aat let them get out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ yatoo.átch we get out of his/her way (every time) du jikaadáx̲ yay.átch you all get out of his/her way (every time) du jikaadáx̲ has woo.átch they get out of his/her way (every time) du jikaadáx̲ awoo.átch people get out of his/her way (every time) tlél du jikaadáx̲ yatoo.aatch we haven't gotten out of his/her way yet tlél du jikaadáx̲ yay.aatch you all haven't gotten out of his/her way yet tlél du jikaadáx̲ has woo.aatch they haven't gotten out of his/her way yet tlél du jikaadáx̲ awoo.aatch people haven't gotten out of his/her way yet tlél aadé du jikaadáx̲ has yag̲waa.aadi yé no way can they get out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ has woog̲a.aadín they would have gotten out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ has ya.átni if/when they get out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ yaa (ha)s .átch they get out of his/her way (regularly) Ch'u tle tláakw áwé k̲a wé áx̲ ayaawa.adi yéix̲ yaa nagút. She went quickly and along where people had walked. Tle a kanax̲ has yaawa.át. They went over it. Nas'giyeekáx' a kaanáx̲ has yaawa.át. They walked for three days. go on foot (plural subject) III gági S-ø-.aat~ (ø motion) for (plural) S to emerge, walk out into the open ya-.aat Direction of Motion - The following are adverbial phrases that can be used with this particular conjugation of the verb 'go on foot' to specify the direction of motion. Replace gági 'coming out' in the paradigm below with any of the following adverbs to change the direction of motion. N yáa coming up to N N g̲unayáa separating from N N shukáx' getting ahead of N gági emerging, coming out into the open dáag̲i coming out of the water héeni going to the sea; getting into the water g̲unayéi / g̲unéi starting off, beginning to go P-x̲ moving in place at P, trying to move while stuck at P Gági yi.á! You all come out! Líl gági yeey.aadík̲! Don't you all come out! [does not occur] gági yaa ntoo.át we are coming out gági yaa nay.át you all are coming out gági yaa (ha)s na.át they are coming out gági yaa ana.át people are coming out tlél gági yaa ntoo.át we're not coming out tlél gági yaa nay.át you all are not coming out tlél gági (ha)s yaa una.át they're not coming out tlél gági oona.át nobody is coming out gági wutuwa.át we came out gági yeey.át you all came out gági has uwa.át they came out gági aawa.át people came out tlél gági wutoo.aat we didn't come out tlél gági yeey.aat you all didn't come out tlél gági (ha)s woo.aat they didn't come out tlél gági awu.aat nobody came out wé gági (ha)s wu.aadi aa the ones who came out gági gax̲too.áat we will come out gági gax̲yi.áat you all will come out gági (ha)s gug̲a.áat they will come out gági akg̲wa.áat people will come out tlél gági gax̲too.aat we won't come out tlél gági gax̲yi.aat you all won't come out tlél gági (ha)s gug̲a.aat they won't come out tlél gági akg̲wa.aat nobody will come out gági g̲atoo.aat let us come out gági (ha)s g̲a.aat let them come out gági too.aatch we come out (every time) gági yeey.aatch you all come out (every time) gági (ha)s u.aatch they come out (every time) gági oo.aatch people come out (every time) tlél gági too.aatch we haven't come out yet tlél gági yeey.aatch you all haven't come out yet tlél gági has u.aatch they haven't come out yet tlél gági oo.aatch nobody has come out yet tlél aadé gági (ha)s g̲waa.aadi yé no way can they come out gági (ha)s g̲wa.aadín they would have come out gági (ha)s .átni if/when they come out gági (ha)s .átx̲ they come out (repeatedly) Du daadéi g̲unayéi a.áat. They began to gather around him. go to the bathroom (plural subject) VII Much like the English phrase "go to the bathroom", gánde (ha)s woo.aat is a euphemism for urinating and/or defecating. gánde S-ø-.aat~ (na motion) for (plural) S to go to the bathroom ya-.aat Gánde nay.á! You all go to the bathroom! Líl gánde yoo yi.átgik̲! Don't you all go to the bathroom! Líl gánde yeey.aadík̲! Don't you all go to the bathroom! [does not occur] gánde yaa (ha)s na.át they are going to the bathroom gánde wtuwa.aat we went to the bathroom gánde (ha)s woo.aat they went to the bathroom tlél gánde wtoo.aat we didn't go to the bathroom tlél gánde (ha)s wu.aat they didn't go to the bathroom wé gánde (ha)s wu.aadi aa the ones who went to the bathroom gánde (ha)s gug̲a.áat they will go to the bathroom tlél gánde (ha)s gug̲a.aat they won't go to the bathroom gánde (ha)s nag̲a.aat let them go to the bathroom gánde (ha)s na.átch they go to the bathroom (every time) tlél gánde (ha)s una.átch they haven't gone to the bathroom yet tlél aadé gánde (ha)s nag̲waa.aadi yé no way can they go to the bathroom gánde (ha)s nag̲wa.aadín they would have gone to the bathroom gánde (ha)s na.átni if/when they go to the bathroom gánde yoo (ha)s ya.átk they go to the bathroom (regularly) go on foot (plural subject) VI a-ya-u-S-d-.aat~ (ø motion) for (plural) S to turn back, go back (by walking or as general term) a-ya-di-.aat -- turn back, return, retreat, go back kei escape, flee Ayeeda.á! You all turn back! Líl ayeeda.átx̲ik̲ Don't you all turn back! [does not occur] yaa ayantuda.át we are turning back yaa ayanayda.át you all are turning back yaa (ha)s ayanda.át they are turning back yaa ayandu.át people are turning back [does not occur] ayawtudi.át we turned back ayaydi.át you all turned back has ayawdi.át they turned back ayawduwa.át people turned back tlél ayawtuda.aat we didn't turn back tlél ayayda.aat you all didn't turn back tlél has ayawda.aat they didn't turn back tlél ayawdu.aat (check prefix combos) nobody turned back wé has ayawdi.adi aa the ones who turned back ayagax̲tuda.áat we will turn back ayagax̲yida.áat you all will turn back has ayagux̲da.áat they will turn back ayagux̲du.áat people will turn back tlél ayagax̲tuda.aat we won't turn back tlél ayagax̲yida.aat you all won't turn back tlél has ayagux̲da.aat they won't turn back tlél ayagax̲du.aat nobody will turn back ayax̲tuda.aat let us turn back has ayax̲da.aat let them turn back ayatuda.átch we turn back (every time) ayayda.átch you all turn back (every time) has ayada.átch they turn back (every time) ayadu.átch people turn back (every time) tlél ayawtuda.aatch we haven't turned back yet tlél ayayda.aatch you all haven't turned back yet tlél has awooda.aatch they haven't turned back yet tlél awoodu.aatch nobody has turned back yet tlél aadé has awux̲di.aadi yé no way can they turn back has awux̲da.aadín they would have turned back has ayada.átni if/when they turn back has ayada.átx̲ they turn back (regularly) Dé du nák̲ ayagux̲da.at aa du x̲oonx'í áwé át nák̲ wé a yeex' du nák̲ akg̲wa.at hídi. The relatives who were going to leave her were standing by her in the house they were lieaving her in. go on foot (plural subject) VII P-dé S-ø-.aat~ (na motion) for (plural) S to walk, go (by walking or as a general term) to P ya-.aat Note that -g̲aa takes the opposite tone of the final syllable of the noun that it attaches to. Hence: kanat'ág̲aa "(going) after blueberries", but shaawg̲áa "(going) after gumboots". Direction of Motion - The following are adverbial phrases that can be used with this particular conjugation of the verb 'go on foot' to specify the direction of motion. Replace aadé 'toward there' in the paradigm below with any of the following adverbs to change the direction of motion. -- moving (along) P-t moving around, about P P-dé(i) moving toward P P-dáx̲ moving away from P P-náx̲ moving by way of P yux̲ moving out of house P-nák̲ leaving P behind P-g̲aa going to get P Aadé nay.á! You all go there! Líl aadé yoo yi.átgik̲! Don't you all go there! Líl aadé yeey.aadík̲! Don't you all go there! [does not occur] aadé yaa ntoo.át we are going there aadé yaa nay.át you all are going there aadé yaa (ha)s na.át they are going there aadé yaa ana.át people are going there tlél aadé yaa ntoo.át we're not going there tlél aadé yaa nay.át you all are not going there tlél aadé yaa (ha)s una.át they're not going there tlél aadé yaa oona.át nobody is going there [does not occur] aadé wtuwa.aat we went there aadé yeey.aat you all went there aadé (ha)s woo.aat they went there aadé aawa.aat people went there tlél aadé wtoo.aat we didn't go there tlél aadé yeey.aat you all didn't go there tlél aadé (ha)s wu.aat they didn't go there tlél aadé awu.aat nobody went there wé aadé (ha)s wu.aadi aa the ones who went there aadé gax̲too.áat we will go there aadé gax̲yi.áat you all will go there aadé (ha)s gug̲a.áat they will go there aadé akg̲wa.áat people will go there tlél aadé gax̲too.aat we won't go there tlél aadé gax̲yi.aat you all won't go there tlél aadé (ha)s gug̲a.aat they won't go there tlél aadé akg̲wa.aat nobody will go there aadé nax̲too.aat let us go there aadé (ha)s nag̲a.aat let them go there aadé ntoo.átch we go there (every time) aadé nay.átch you all go there (every time) aadé (ha)s na.átch they go there (every time) aadé ana.átch people go there (every time) tlél aadé ntoo.átch we haven't gone there yet tlél aadé nay.átch you all haven't gone there yet tlél aadé (ha)s una.átch they haven't gone there yet tlél aadé oona.átch nobody has gone there yet tlél aadé aadé (ha)s nag̲waa.aadi yé no way can they go there aadé (ha)s nag̲wa.aadín they would have gone there aadé (ha)s na.átni if/when they go there aadé yoo (ha)s ya.átk they go there (regularly) Ch'u tle, ch'u yaa has na.ádi áwé, ch'u tle k̲aa x̲oot has uwa.át. Then, while they were walking along then they came upon people. A daat aawa.aat. People are walking around on it. Lingítch aadéi s at in yé, yú heentak ádi tsu aadéi kéi s ashátji yé k̲a yá át woo.aadi át, yá héen x̲ukaanáx̲ aa aadéi s a.eeni yé áwé wdudzikóo k̲a yú dáak̲t woo.aadi át x̲á. Tlingits knew how to hunt things, those sea mammals too, and how to catch those animals that walked, how to harvest those on the sea and those that walked inland. Yá aan tayeedéi, téil kagánee káax' áyú ana.átch, yá aan tayeedéi. They would go underneath the village in a grotto, by the light of sapwood, underneath the village. Sagú yáx̲ k̲aa yayík du.ax̲ji nuch héendei yáa ana.ádi. Their voices would sound happy when they went to the sea. Dleeyg̲áa áwé aadéi aawa.aat. They went for meat. Tlél tsu naliyéidei s wu.aadí áwé x̲áaw át yatán. They hadn't gone very far when a log was lying there. go on foot (plural subject) I kei S-ø-.aat~ (ø motion) for (plural) S to walk up, go up (by walking or as a general term) ya-.aat Note that there is no "yaa" preverb in the progressive imperfective form with this particular group of adverbs. Direction of Motion - The following are adverbial phrases that can be used with this particular conjugation of the verb 'go on foot' to specify the direction of motion. Replace kei "up" in the paradigm below with any of the following adverbs to change the direction of motion. kei moving up ux̲ kei moving out of control, blindly, amiss; going the wrong way yei getting out of a canoe, boat, vehicle yeek̲ / yeik̲ / eek̲ moving down; moving toward beach, shore daak̲ moving up from beach, back away from open, inland daak moving out to sea, into open, onto fire k̲ux̲ / k̲úx̲dei (requires d- element) returning, going/coming back Kei yi.á! You all go up! Líl kei yi.átjik̲! Don't you all go up! Líl kei yeey.aadík̲! Don't you all go up! [does not occur] kei ntoo.át we are going up kei nay.át you all are going up kei (ha)s na.át they are going up kei ana.át people are going up tlél kei ntoo.át we're not going up tlél kei nay.át you all are not going up tlél kei (ha)s una.át they're not going up tlél kei oona.át nobody is going up kei wutuwa.át we went up kei yeey.át you all went up kei (ha)s uwa.át they went up kei aawa.át people went up tlél kei wutoo.aat we didn't go up tlél kei yeey.aat you all didn't go up tlél kei (ha)s wu.aat they didn't go up tlél kei awu.aat nobody went up wé kei (ha)s wu.aadi aa the ones who went up kei gax̲too.áat we will go up kei gax̲yi.áat you all will go up kei (ha)s gug̲a.áat they will go up kei akg̲wa.áat people will go up tlél kei gax̲too.aat we won't go up tlél kei gax̲yi.aat you all won't go up tlél kei (ha)s gug̲a.aat they won't go up tlél kei akg̲wa.aat nobody will go up kei g̲atoo.aat let us go up kei (ha)s g̲a.aat let them go up kei too.aatch we go up (every time) kei yeey.aatch you all go up (every time) kei has u.aatch they go up (every time) kei oo.aatch people go up (every time) tlél kei too.aatch we haven't gone up yet tlél kei yeey.aatch you all haven't gone up yet tlél kei (ha)s u.aatch they haven't gone up yet tlél kei oo.aatch nobody has gone up yet tlél aadé kei (ha)s g̲waa.aadi yé no way can they go up kei (ha)s g̲wa.aadín they would have gone up kei (ha)s .átni if/when they go up kei (ha)s .átch they go up (regularly) Ách áwé áa kei has uwa.át tsu. So they moved up there again. K̲ux̲ yawdi.át tsu. They left again. Daak ana.át. People are coming out. attack someone ji-S-d-.aat~ (ø motion) for (plural) S to attack, assault, fall upon ji-di-.aat To indicate who is being attacked, use: N éet~ 'to N'. For example: Haa éet has jiwdi.át. 'They attacked us'. It is also acceptable to use this verb without specifying who was attacked. For example: Has jiwdi.át 'They attacked'. Therefore, the N éet~ is not given in the theme above. K̲aa éet jeeyda.á! You all attack someone! Líl k̲aa éex̲ jeeyda.aadík̲! Don't you all attack anyone! [does not occur] k̲aa éede yaa jintuda.át we're attacking someone k̲aa éede yaa (ha)s jinda.át they're attacking people k̲aa éet jiwtudi.át we attacked someone k̲aa éet has jiwdi.át they attacked someone tlél k̲aa éet jiwtuda.aat we didn't attack anyone tlél k̲aa éet has jiwda.aat they didn't attack anyone k̲aa eedé jigax̲tuda.áat we will attack someone k̲aa eedé has jigux̲da.áat they will attack someone tlél k̲aa eedé jigax̲tuda.aat we won't attack anyone tlél k̲aa eedé (ha)s jigux̲da.aat they won't attack anyone k̲aa éet jix̲tuda.aat let us attack someone k̲aa éet has jix̲da.aat let them attack someone [does not occur] tlél k̲aa éet jituda.aatch we haven't attacked anyone yet tlél k̲aa éet has jeeda.aatch they haven't attacked anyone yet tlél aadé k̲aa éet jix̲tudi.aadi yé no way can we attack someone tlél aadé k̲aa éet has jeex̲di.aadi yé no way can they attack someone k̲aa éet jix̲tuda.aadín we would have attacked someone k̲aa éet has jeex̲da.aadín they would have attacked someone k̲aa éex̲ jituda.aat we attack people (regularly) k̲aa éex̲ has jida.aat they attack people (regularly) k̲aa éet has jida.átni if/when they attack people X'wás teen k̲aa éet has jiwdi.át. They attacked people with clubs. go on foot (plural subject) VIII k̲ut S-ø-.aat~ (ga motion) for (plural) S to get lost (on foot) ya-.aat -- taking off, starting off P-dáx̲ taking off from P; starting off from P k̲ut going astray, getting lost [does not occur] Líl k̲ut kei yi.átjik̲! Don't you all get lost! [does not occur] k̲ut kei ntoo.át we are getting lost k̲ut kei nay.át you all are getting lost k̲ut kei (ha)s na.át they are getting lost k̲ut kei ana.át people are getting lost [does not occur] [does not occur] k̲ut wutuwa.aat we got lost k̲ut yeey.aat you all got lost k̲ut has woo.aat they got lost k̲ut aawa.aat people got lost tlél k̲ut wutoo.aat we didn't get lost tlél k̲ut yeey.aat you all didn't get lost tlél k̲ut has wu.aat they didn't get lost tlél k̲ut aawu.aat nobody got lost k̲ut kei gax̲too.áat we will get lost k̲ut kei gax̲yi.áat you all will get lost k̲ut kei (ha)s gug̲a.áat they will get lost k̲ut kei akg̲wa.áat people will get lost tlél k̲ut kei gax̲too.aat we won't get lost tlél k̲ut kei gax̲yi.aat you all won't get lost tlél k̲ut kei (ha)s gug̲a.aat they won't get lost tlél k̲ut kei akg̲wa.aat nobody will get lost k̲ut gax̲too.aat let us get lost k̲ut has gag̲a.aat let them get lost k̲ut gatoo.átch we get lost (every time) k̲ut gay.átch you all get lost (every time) k̲ut has ga.átch they get lost (every time) k̲ut aga.átch people get lost (every time) tlél k̲ut gatoo.átch we haven't gotten lost yet tlél k̲ut gay.átch you all haven't gotten lost yet tlél k̲ut has goo.átch they haven't gotten lost yet tlél k̲ut agoo.átch nobody has gotten lost yet tlél aadé k̲ut has gag̲waa.aadi yé no way can they get lost k̲ut has gag̲wa.aadín they would have gotten lost k̲ut has ga.átni if/when they get lost k̲ut kei (ha)s .átch they get lost (regularly) go back (plural subject) I k̲ux̲~ S-d-.aat~ (Ø motion) for (plural) S to go back, return --- K̲ux̲ yida.á! You all go back! Líl k̲ux̲ yida.átjík̲! Don't you all go back! [does not occur] k̲úx̲de yaa (ha)s nada.át they are beginning to go back k̲ux̲ wutudi.át we went back k̲ux̲ has wudi.át they went back tlél k̲ux̲ wutuda.aat we didn't go back tlél k̲ux̲ has wuda.aat they didn't go back k̲úx̲de has gux̲da.áat they are going to go back tlél k̲úx̲de has gux̲da.aat they aren't going to go back (ch'a) k̲ux̲ has g̲ada.aat (just) let them go back k̲ux̲ has uda.aatch they go back (every time) tlél k̲ux̲ has uda.aatch they haven't gone back yet tlél aadé k̲ux̲ has ux̲di.aadi yé no way can they go back k̲ux̲ has ux̲da.aadín they would have gone back k̲ux̲ has da.átni if/when they go back k̲ux̲ has da.átch they go back (regularly) K̲ux̲ has wuda.aadí has jigax̲duk̲éi. If they go back, they'll get paid. let in (esp. animal); welcome in, receive (plural object) II neil~ O-S-s-.aat~ (Ø motion) for S to let in, welcome in (plural) O si-.aat Neil has sa.á! Let them in! Líl neilx̲ has isa.aadík̲! Don't let them in! [does not occur] neil has x̲wasi.át I let them in neil has awsi.át s/he let them in tlél neil has x̲wasa.aat I didn't let them in tlél neil has awus.aat s/he didn't let them in neildé has agux̲sa.áat s/he will let them in tlél neildé has agux̲sa.aat s/he won't let them in neil has ax̲sa.aat let him/her let them in neil has oos.aatch s/he lets them in (every time) tlél neil has oos.aatch s/he hasn't let them in yet tlél aadé neil has oox̲si.aadi yé no way can s/he let them in neil has oox̲sa.aadín s/he would have let them in neil has as.átni if/when s/he lets them in neilx̲ has as.aat s/he lets them in (regularly) Keitlx' neil wududzi.át. They let the dogs in. [Story & Naish 1973: 124] gather together, assemble, congregate (esp. for meetings) woosh kaanáx̲ S-d-.aat~ (ga event) for (plural) S to assemble, congregate, gather together (for meetings) woosh kaa-nax̲ + di-.aat Woosh kaanáx̲ gayda.á! You all gather together! Líl woosh kaanáx̲ kei yda.átjik̲! Don't you all gather together! [does not occur] woosh kaanáx̲ kei ntuda.át we are beginning to gather together woosh kaanáx̲ kei (ha)s nada.át they are beginning to gather together woosh kaanáx̲ wutudi.aat we gathered together woosh kaanáx̲ has wudi.aat they gathered together tlél woosh kaanáx̲ wutuda.aat we didn't gather together tlél woosh kaanáx̲ has wuda.aat they didn't gather together woosh kaanáx̲ kei gax̲tuda.áat we will gather together woosh kaanáx̲ kei (ha)s gug̲a.áat they will gather together tlél woosh kaanáx̲ kei gax̲tuda.aat we won't gather together tlél woosh kaanáx̲ kei (ha)s gug̲a.aat they won't gather together woosh kaanáx̲ gax̲tuda.aat let us gather together woosh kaanáx̲ has gax̲da.aat let them gather together woosh kaanáx̲ gatuda.átch we gather together (every time) woosh kaanáx̲ has gada.átch they gather together (every time) tlél woosh kaanáx̲ gatuda.átch we haven't gathered together yet tlél woosh kaanáx̲ has gada.átch they haven't gathered together yet tlél aadé woosh kaanáx̲ gax̲tudi.aadi yé no way can we gather together tlél aadé woosh kaanáx̲ has gux̲di.aadi yé no way can they gather together woosh kaanáx̲ gax̲tuda.aadín we would have gagthered together woosh kaanáx̲ has gux̲da.aadín they would have gagthered together woosh kaanáx̲ gatuda.átni if/when we gather together woosh kaanáx̲ has gada.átni if/when they gather together woosh kaanáx̲ kei tuda.átch we gather together (regularly) woosh kaanáx̲ kei (ha)s da.átch they gather together (regularly) gather, assemble, congregate (esp. for meetings) II woosh x̲oo-t~ S-d-.aat~ (ø motion) for S to assemble, congregate, gather together (for meetings) --- Woosh and wooch seem to be interchangeable here. Woosh x̲oot yida.á! You all come together! Líl woosh x̲oox̲ yida.aadík̲! Don't you all come together! [does not occur] woosh x̲oodé yaa ntuda.át we are coming together woosh x̲oodé yaa (ha)s nada.át they are coming together woosh x̲oot wutudi.át we came together woosh x̲oot has wudi.át they came together tlél woosh x̲oot wutuda.aat we didn't come together tlél woosh x̲oot has wuda.aat they didn't come together woosh x̲oodé gax̲tuda.áat we will come together woosh x̲oodé has gux̲da.áat they will come together tlél woosh x̲oodé gax̲tuda.aat we won't come together tlél woosh x̲oodé has gux̲da.aat they won't come together woosh x̲oot g̲atuda.aat let us come together woosh x̲oot has g̲ada.aat let them come together woosh x̲oot tuda.aatch we come together (every time) woosh x̲oot has uda.aatch they come together (every time) tlél woosh x̲oot tuda.aatch we haven't come together yet tlél woosh x̲oot has uda.aatch they haven't come together yet tlél aadé woosh x̲oot g̲atudi.aadi yé no way can we come together tlél aadé woosh x̲oot has ux̲di.aadi yé no way can they come together woosh x̲oot g̲atuda.aadín we would have come together woosh x̲oot has ux̲da.aadín they would have come together woosh x̲oot tuda.átni if/when we come together woosh x̲oot has da.átni if/when they come together woosh x̲oox̲ tuda.aat we come together (regularly) woosh x̲oox̲ has da.aat they come together (regularly) bend over, lean down (plural subject) yínde sh ka-S-l-.aat~ (na motion) for (plural) S to bend over, lean down --- Yínde sh kanayil.á! You all bend over! Líl yínde yoo sh kayil.átgik̲! Don't you all bend over! [does not occur] yínde yaa has sh kanal.át they are bending over slowly yínde sh kawtudli.aat we bent over yínde has sh kawdli.aat they bent over tlél yínde sh kawtool.aat we didn't bend over tlél yínde has sh kawul.aat they didn't bend over yínde has sh kakg̲wal.áat they will bend over tlél yínde has sh kakg̲wal.aat they won't bend over yínde has sh kang̲al.aat let them bend over yínde has sh kanal.átch they bend over (every time) tlél yínde has sh koonal.átch they haven't bent over yet tlél aadé yínde has sh koonax̲dli.aadi yé no way can they bend over yínde has sh koong̲al.aadín they would have bent over yínde has sh kanal.átni if/when they bend over yínde yoo has sh kadli.átk they bend over (regularly) Wóosh tin yínde sh kawtool.aadí woosh yát sh kawtudit'íx̲'. We bent over at the same time and knocked heads. attack jaak̲w1 beat up, assault, attack beat him/her up; assault him/her; attack him/her O-S-ø-jáak̲w (na act) for S to beat up, assault, violently attack O ya-jaak̲w Najáak̲w! Beat him/her up! Nayjáak̲w! You all beat him/her up! Líl eejáag̲uk̲! Don't beat him/her up! Líl yijáag̲uk̲! Don't you all beat him/her up! x̲ajáak̲w I'm beating him/her up ajáak̲w s/he's beating him/her up tlél x̲wajáak̲w I'm not beating him/her up tlél oojáak̲w s/he's not beating him/her up yaa nx̲aják̲w I'm beating him/her up yaa anaják̲w s/he's beating him/her up x̲waajáak̲w I beat him/her up aawajáak̲w s/he beat him/her up tlél x̲wajáak̲w I didn't beat him/her up tlél awujáak̲w s/he didn't beat him/her up kuk̲ajáak̲w I will beat him/her up akg̲wajáak̲w s/he will beat him/her up tlél kuk̲ajáak̲w I won't beat him/her up tlél akg̲wajáak̲w s/he won't beat him/her up nak̲ajáak̲w let me beat him/her up nag̲ajáak̲w let him/her beat him/her up nax̲ajáak̲wch I beat him/her up (every time) anajáak̲wch s/he beats him/her up (every time) tlél nax̲wajáak̲wch I haven't beat him/her up yet tlél oonajáak̲wch s/he hasn't beat him/her up yet tlél aadé nak̲waajáag̲u yé no way can I beat him/her up tlél aadé oong̲aajáag̲u yé no way can s/he beat him/her up nak̲wajáag̲un I would have beat him/her up oong̲ajáag̲un s/he would have beat him/her up nax̲aják̲wni if/when I beat him/her up anaják̲wni if/when s/he beats him/her up yoo x̲aajáak̲wk I beat him/her up (regularly) yoo ayajáak̲wk s/he beats him/her up (regularly) Tlákw kaawashoowú áwé anajáak̲wch. Whenever he's drunk, he beats him up. Tlél x̲wajáak̲w, ch'a g̲óot k̲áach áwé woojáak̲w. I didn't beat him up, some other guy beat him up. awake x̲eik̲ awake keep him/her awake O-S-s-x̲eik̲~ (ø event; CV́C Hort/Pot) for S to keep O awake O-S-s-x̲eek̲~ (ø event) si-x̲eik̲ Sax̲ék̲! Keep him/her awake! Yisax̲ék̲! You all keep him/her awake! Líl yisax̲eig̲ík̲! Don't keep him/her awake! Líl yeeysax̲eig̲ík̲! Don't you all keep him/her awake! [does not occur] x̲wasix̲ék̲ I kept him/her awake ash wusix̲ék̲ he/she/it kept him/her awake tlél x̲wasax̲eik̲ I didn't keep him/her awake tlél ash wusx̲eik̲ he/she/it didn't keep him/her awake kuk̲wasax̲éik̲ I will keep him/her awake ash gux̲sax̲éik̲ he/she/it will keep him/her awake tlél kuk̲wasax̲eik̲ I won't keep him/her awake tlél ash gux̲sax̲eik̲ he/she/it won't keep him/her awake (ch'a) k̲asax̲ék̲ (just) let me keep him/her awake (ch'a) ash g̲asax̲ék̲ (just) let him/her/it keep him/her awake x̲wasax̲ék̲ch / ux̲sax̲ék̲ch I keep him/her awake (every time) ash usx̲ék̲ch he/she/it keeps him/her awake (every time) tlél x̲wasax̲ék̲ch / tlél ux̲sax̲ék̲ch I haven't kept him/her awake yet tlél ash usx̲ék̲ch he/she/it hasn't kept him/her awake yet tlél aadé k̲wasix̲ég̲i yé no way can I keep him/her awake tlél aadé ash ux̲six̲ég̲i yé no way can he/she/it keep him/her awake k̲wasax̲ég̲in I would have kept him/her awake ash ux̲sax̲ég̲in he/she/it would have kept him/her awake x̲asax̲ék̲ni if/when I keep him/her awake ash sax̲ék̲ni if/when he/she/it keeps him/her awake x̲asax̲ék̲x̲ I keep him/her awake (regularly) ash sax̲ék̲x̲ he/she/it keeps him/her awake (regularly) bad-mouth xwei joke, bad-mouth tease, joke about (esp. particular tribal relations, such as paternal uncle); bad-mouth him/her O-S-ø-xwéi (na act) for S to tease, joke about O (esp. particular tribal relations, such as paternal uncle); for S to bad-mouth O ya-xwei Líl yoo eexwéiyik̲! Don't joke about him/her! axwéi s/he is joking about him/her x̲waaxwéi I joked about him/her aawaxwéi s/he joked about him/her tlél x̲waxwéi I didn't joke about him/her tlél awuxwéi s/he didn't joke about him/her akg̲waxwéi s/he will joke about him/her tlél akg̲waxwéi s/he won't joke about him/her (ch'a) ang̲axwéi (just) let him/her joke about him/her anaxwéich s/he jokes about him/her every time tlél oonaxwéich s/he hasn't joked about him/her yet tlél aadé oong̲aaxwéiyi yé no way can s/he joke about him/her oong̲axwéiyin s/he would have joked about him/her anaxwéini if/when s/he jokes about him/her yoo ayaxwéik s/he jokes about him/her (regularly) Tléináx̲ shaawát du yátx'i has kasiyaayí, kadéix' jeet yoo ayaxwéik du yátx'i. There's this woman whose kids are crazy, she always says bad things about them out of embarrassment. Du sáni aawaxwéi. He made jokes about his paternal uncle. [Story & Naish 1973: 225] Has haa xwéi, "tlél aan yádi yee x̲oo." They teased us, "there's no prince among you." [Story & Naish 1973: 225] bait hooks naak̲w1 bait hooks bait hooks (put bait on fish hooks) ya-S-d-náak̲w~ (ø act) for S to bait hooks, put bait on fish hooks ya-di-naak̲w Yeedanák̲w! Bait hooks! Yaydanák̲w! You all bait hooks! Líl (s'é) yeedanák̲wx̲uk̲! Don't bait hooks (yet)! Líl (s'é) yaydanák̲wx̲uk̲! Don't you all bait hooks (yet)! yax̲danák̲ws' I'm baiting hooks yadanák̲ws' s/he's baiting hooks tlél yoox̲danák̲ws' I'm not baiting hooks tlél yoodanák̲ws' s/he isn't baiting hooks yax̲wdinák̲w I baited hooks yawdinák̲w s/he baited hooks tlél yax̲wdanáak̲w I didn't bait hooks tlél yawdanáak̲w s/he didn't bait hooks yakk̲wadanáak̲w I will bait hooks yagux̲danáak̲w s/he will bait hooks tlél yakk̲wadanáak̲w I won't bait hooks tlél yagux̲danáak̲w s/he won't bait hooks yak̲adanáak̲w let me bait hooks yax̲danáak̲w let him/her bait hooks yoox̲danáak̲wch I bait hooks (every time) yoodanáak̲wch s/he baits hooks (every time) tlél yoox̲danáak̲wch I haven't baited hooks yet tlél yoodanáak̲wch s/he hasn't baited hooks yet tlél aadé yak̲wdináag̲u yé no way can I bait hooks tlél aadé yax̲wdináag̲u yé no way can s/he bait hooks yak̲wdanáag̲un I would have baited hooks yax̲wdanáag̲un s/he would have baited hooks yax̲danák̲wni if/when I bait hooks yadanák̲wni if/when s/he baits hooks yax̲danák̲wx̲ I bait hooks (regularly) yadanák̲wx̲ s/he baits hooks (regularly) bandage s'eet bind, wrap, bandage bandage it, bind it up, wrap it O-ka-S-ø-s'eet~ (ø act; CV́C Hort/Pot) for S to bind up, wrap around, bandage O ka-ya-s'eet Kas'ít! Bandage it! Kays'ít! You all bandage it! Líl kees'ítx̲ik̲! Don't bandage it! Líl kays'ítx̲ik̲! Don't you all bandage it! akas'éet s/he is bandaging it tlél akoos'eet s/he isn't bandaging it akaawas'ít s/he bandaged it tlél akawus'eet s/he didn't bandage it akakg̲was'éet s/he will bandage it tlél akakg̲was'eet s/he won't bandage it akag̲as'ít let him/her bandage it akoos'ítch s/he bandages it (every time) tlél akoos'ítch s/he hasn't bandaged it yet tlél aadé ookg̲aas'ídi yé no way can s/he bandage it ookg̲as'ídin s/he would have bandaged it akas'ítni if s/he bandages it akas'ítx̲ s/he bandages it (regularly) baptize teeʰ2 (19) give, take, carry, expect, stormy, blame, baptize, postpone carry it, take it (general, often compact object) IX P-dáx̲ O-S-ø-teeʰ~ (ga motion) for S to pick O up off of P ya-tee -- carrying it P-dáx̲ picking it up off of P k̲ut misplacing it Aax̲ gatí! Pick it up off of it! Aax̲ gaytí! You all pick it up off of it! Líl aax̲ kei eeteejík̲! Don't pick it up off of it! Líl aax̲ kei yiteejík̲! Don't you all pick it up off of it! [does not occur] aax̲ aawatee s/he picked it up off of it tlél aax̲ awutee s/he didn't pick it up off of it aax̲ kei akg̲watée s/he will pick it up off of it tlél aax̲ kei akg̲watee s/he won't pick it up off of it aax̲ akg̲atee let him/her pick it up off of it aax̲ agateech s/he picks it up off of it (every time) tlél aax̲ agooteech s/he hasn't picked it up off of it yet tlél aadé aax̲ akg̲waateeyi yé no way can s/he pick it up off of it aax̲ akg̲wateeyín s/he would have picked it up off of it aax̲ agatéeni if/when s/he picks it up off of it aax̲ kei ateech s/he picks it up off of it (regularly) carry it, take it (general, often compact object) VII Direction of Motion - The following are adverbial phrases that can be used with this particular conjugation of the verb 'go on foot' to specify the direction of motion. Replace aadé 'toward there' in the paradigm below with any of the following adverbs to change the direction of motion. -- carrying it (along) P-t carrying it around, about P (no repetitive imperfective form) P-dei carrying it toward P P-dáx̲ picking it up off of P P-náx̲ stopping over at P with it; dropping it off at P yux̲ carrying it out of house P-dé O-S-ø-teeʰ~ (na motion) for S to carry, take O (general, often compact object) to P ya-tee Aadé natí! Take it there! Aadé naytí! You all take it there! Líl aadé yoo eeteegík̲! Don't take it there! Líl aadé yoo yiteegík̲! Don't you all take it there! [does not occur] aadé yaa nx̲atéen I'm taking it there aadé yaa neetéen you're taking it there aadé yaa anatéen s/he's taking it there aadé yaa ntootéen we're taking it there aadé yaa naytéen you all are taking it there aadé yaa (ha)s anatéen they're taking it there aadé yaa ndutéen someone is taking it there [does not occur] aadé x̲waatee I took it there aadé yeetee you took it there aadé aawatee s/he took it there aadé wutuwatee we took it there aadé yeeytee you all took it there aadé has aawatee they took it there aadé wuduwatee someone took it there tlél aadé x̲watee I didn't take it there tlél aadé yitee you didn't take it there tlél aadé awutee s/he didn't take it there tlél aadé wutootee we didn't take it there tlél aadé yeeytee you all didn't take it there tlél aadé has awutee they didn't take it there tlél aadé wudutee nobody took it there aadé kuk̲atée I will take it there aadé gag̲eetée you will take it there aadé akg̲watée s/he will take it there aadé gax̲tootée we will take it there aadé gax̲yitée you all will take it there aadé (ha)s akg̲watée they will take it there aadé gax̲dutée someone will take it there tlél aadé kuk̲atee I won't take it there tlél aadé gag̲eetee you won't take it there tlél aadé akg̲watee s/he won't take it there tlél aadé gax̲tootee we won't take it there tlél aadé gax̲yitee you all won't take it there tlél aadé (ha)s akg̲watee they won't take it there tlél aadé gax̲dutee nobody will take it there aadé nak̲atee let me take it there aadé ang̲atee let him/her take it there aadé nax̲tootee let us take it there aadé nx̲ateech I take it there (every time) aadé neeteech you take it there (every time) aadé anateech s/he takes it there (every time) aadé natooteech we take it there (every time) aadé nayteech you all take it there (every time) aadé (ha)s anateech they take it there (every time) aadé naduteech someone takes it there (every time) tlél aadé unx̲ateech I haven't taken it there yet tlél aadé neeteech you haven't taken it there yet tlél aadé oonateech s/he hasn't taken it there yet tlél aadé natooteech we haven't taken it there yet tlél aadé nayteech you all haven't taken it there yet tlél aadé (ha)s oonateech they haven't taken it there yet tlél aadé naduteech nobody has taken it there yet tlél aadé aadé oong̲aateeyi yé no way can s/he take it there aadé oong̲ateeyín s/he would have taken it there aadé anatéeni if/when s/he takes it there aadé yoo ayateek s/he takes it there (regularly) Wé x'úx' du x̲annáx̲ aawatee. He dropped the papers off with him. anticipate, forsee; expect, consider likely to happen or arrive O-shu-S-s-teeʰ~ (na state) for S to anticipate, forsee, expect O; for S to consider O likely to happen or arrive shu-si-tee Leer 1973: 06/176 Líl sheesatéek̲! Don't expect him/her/it! Líl shuysatéek̲! Don't you all expect him/her/it! shux̲sitee I am expecting him/her/it ashusitee s/he is expecting him/her/it tlél shoox̲satí I'm not expecting him/her/it tlél ashoostí s/he isn't expecting him/her/it ashoowsitee s/he expected him/her/it tlél ashuwustee s/he didn't expect him/her/it yei ashugux̲satée s/he will expect him/her/it tlél yei ashugux̲satee s/he won't expect him/her/it (ch'a) ashunax̲satee (just) let him/her expect him/her/it ashunasteech s/he expects him/her/it (every time) tlél ashoonasteech s/he hasn't expected him/her/it yet tlél aadé ashoonax̲siteeyi yé no way can s/he expect him/her/it ashoonax̲sateeyín s/he would have expected him/her/it ashunastéeni if/when s/he expects him/her/it yoo ashusiteek s/he expects him/her/it (regularly) Shux̲sitee áyá kaxéel' ax̲ káa yéi wuneiyí. I'm anticipating difficulty / I'm expecting some bad trouble is going to hit me. [Story & Naish 1973: 20] Aangóon aantk̲eení has ashusitee. Angoon is expecting visitors. [Story & Naish 1973: 83] Has du éet awdlig̲ín, has du jeedáx̲ at shusatí een. He looked at them, expecting to get something from them. [Story & Naish 1973: 83] G̲wátgeen sá sheesitee wé k'isáani? When do you expect the young men? [Leer 1973: 06/176] Du dáanayi ashusitee haat jiwuhaayí. He expects his money to be sent. [Leer 1973: 06/176] X̲'ashux̲sitee a daat x̲aan yoo x̲'awul.aadí. I'm expecting him to talk to me about that. [Leer 1973: 06/176] Yei yagax̲tulajéich, tlél yei ashugux̲satee. We'll surprise him, he won't expect it. Yéi ashunastéeni tlél yei akg̲wajeich. If he expects it, he won't be surprised. postpone it O-shu-ka-S-ø-teeʰ~ (na event) for S to postpone O --- Shukanatí! Postpone it! Shukanaytí! You all postpone it! Líl yoo shukeeteegík̲! Don't postpone it! Líl yoo shukayteegík̲! Don't you all postpone it! shukax̲waatee I postponed it ashukaawatee s/he postponed it tlél ashukawutee s/he didn't postpone it ashukakg̲watée s/he will postpone it tlél ashukakg̲watee s/he won't postpone it ashukang̲atee let him/her postpone it ashukanateech s/he postpones it (every time) tlél ashukoonateech s/he hasn't postponed it yet tlél aadé ashukoong̲aateeyi yé no way can s/he postpone it ashukoong̲ateeyín s/he would have postponed it ashukanatéeni if/when s/he postpones it yoo ashukayateek s/he postpones it (regularly) Dei tsú ashukawuteeyí tlél aadé kk̲wagoot. If he postpones it again, I'm not going to go. expect him/her/it; anticipate it O-shu-S-s-teeʰ~ (na state) for S to anticipate, foresee O; for S to expect, consider O likely to happen or arrive shu-si-tee Shunastí! Expect him/her/it! Shunaysatí! You all expect him/her/it! Líl sheesatéeyik̲! Don't expect him/her/it! Líl shaysatéeyik̲! Don't you all expect him/her/it! shux̲sitee I'm expecting him/her/it ashusitee s/he's expecting him/her/it tlél shux̲satí I'm not expecting him/her/it tlél ashoostí s/he isn't expecting him/her/it shux̲wsitee I expected him/her/it ashuwsitee s/he expected him/her/it tlél shux̲wsatee I didn't expect him/her/it tlél ashuwustee s/he didn't expect him/her/it shukk̲wasatée I will expect him/her/it ashugux̲satée s/he will expect him/her/it tlél shukk̲wasatee I won't expect him/her/it tlél ashugux̲satee s/he won't expect him/her/it shunak̲satee let me expect him/her/it ashunax̲satee let him/her expect him/her/it shunax̲sateech I expect him/her/it (every time) ashunasteech s/he expects him/her/it (every time) [does not occur] tlél aadé ashunax̲wsiteeyi yé no way can s/he expect him/her/it ashunax̲wsateeyín s/he would have expected him/her/it ashunastéeni if/when s/he expects him/her/it yoo ashusiteek s/he expects him/her/it (regularly) carry it, take it (solid, complex object) VII P-dé O-S-s-teeʰ~ (na motion) for S to carry, take O (solid, often complex object) to P si-tee -- carrying it (along) P-t carrying it around, about P (no repetitive imperfective form) P-dei carrying it toward P P-dáx̲ picking it up off of P P-náx̲ stopping over at P with it; dropping it off at P yux̲ carrying it out of house Aadé nastí! Carry it there! Aadé naysatí! You all carry it there! Líl aadé yoo eesteegík̲! Don't carry it there! Líl aadé yoo yisteegík̲! Don't you all carry it there! [does not occur] aadé yaa nax̲satéen I am carrying it there aadé yaa anastéen s/he is carrying it there aadé x̲wasitee I carried it there aadé awsitee s/he carried it there tlél aadé x̲wasatee I didn't carry it there tlél aadé awustee s/he didn't carry it there aadé kk̲wasatée I will carry it there aadé agux̲satée s/he will carry it there tlél aadé kk̲wasatee I won't carry it there tlél aadé agux̲satee s/he won't carry it there aadé nak̲asatee let me carry it there aadé anax̲satee let him/her carry it there aadé nax̲sateech I carry it there (every time) aadé anasteech s/he carries it there (every time) tlél aadé nax̲wsateech I haven't carried it there yet tlél aadé oonasteech s/he hasn't carried it there yet tlél aadé aadé nak̲wasiteeyi yé no way can I carry it there tlél aadé aadé oonax̲siteeyi yé no way can s/he carry it there aadé nak̲wasateeyín I would have carried it there aadé oonax̲sateeyín s/he would have carried it there aadé nax̲satéeni if/when I carry it there aadé anastéeni if/when s/he carries it there aadé yoo x̲asiteek I carry it there (regularly) aadé yoo asiteek s/he carries it there (regularly) carry it, take it (solid, complex object) IX -- carrying it, taking it P-dáx̲ picking it up off of P k̲ut misplacing it O-S-s-teeʰ~ (ga motion) for S to carry, take O (solid, often complex object) si-tee Gastí! Carry it! Gaysatí! You all carry it! Líl kei isateejík̲! Don't carry it! Líl kei yisateejík̲! Don't you all carry it! [does not occur] yaa nax̲satéen I'm carrying it yaa anastéen s/he is carrying it x̲wasitee I carried it awsitee s/he carried it tlél x̲wasatee I didn't carry it tlél awustee s/he didn't carry it kei kk̲wasatée I will carry it kei agux̲satée s/he will carry it tlél kei kk̲wasatee I won't carry it tlél kei agux̲satee s/he won't carry it gak̲asatee let me carry it agax̲satee let him/her carry it gax̲sateech I carry it (every time) aksateech s/he carries it (every time) tlél gux̲sateech I haven't carried it yet tlél agoosteech s/he hasn't carried it yet tlél aadé agux̲siteeyi yé no way can s/he carry it agux̲sateeyín s/he would have carried it agastéeni if/when s/he carries it kei asteech s/he carries it (regularly) I léelk'u jeeyís gastí wé gwéil! Carry the bag for your grandmother! A daakeidí een gastí wé óonaa. Carry the gun with its case. Ax̲ dáanaa daakagwéili yaa nax̲satéen. I'm carrying my money bag. Wéi x'óow daakagwéil yaa nax̲satéen. I'm carrying the blanket bag. install it there, hang it there P-x̲ O-S-ø-teeʰ~ (g̲a motion) for S to install, hang, place O at P ya-tee Áx̲ g̲atí! Install it there! Áx̲ g̲aytí! You all install it there! Líl áx̲ yei eeteejík̲! Don't install it there! Líl áx̲ yei yiteejík̲! Don't you all install it there! [does not occur] áx̲ x̲waatee I installed it there áx̲ aawatee s/he installed it there tlél áx̲ x̲watee I didn't install it there tlél áx̲ awutee s/he didn't install it there áx̲ yei kk̲watée I will install it there áx̲ yei akg̲watée s/he will install it there tlél áx̲ yei kk̲watee I won't install it there tlél áx̲ yei akg̲watee s/he won't install it there áx̲ k̲aak̲atee let me install it there áx̲ ag̲aag̲atee let him/her install it there áx̲ k̲ateech I install it there (every time) áx̲ ag̲ateech s/he installs it there (every time) tlél áx̲ k̲wateech I haven't installed it there yet tlél áx̲ oog̲ateech s/he hasn't installed it there yet tlél aadé áx̲ k̲aak̲waateeyi yé no way can I install it there tlél aadé áx̲ ag̲aag̲waateeyi yé no way can s/he install it there áx̲ k̲aak̲wateeyín I would have installed it there áx̲ ag̲aag̲wateeyín s/he would have installed it there áx̲ k̲atéeni if/when I install it there áx̲ ag̲atéeni if/when s/he installs it there áx̲ yei x̲ateech I am trying to install it there; I install it there (regularly) áx̲ yei ateech s/he is trying to install it there; s/he installs it there (regularly) Yées aa x̲aawag̲éi áx̲ aawatee. He installed a new window. hang it up there (esp. to dry) P-x̲ O-sha-ya-S-ø-teeʰ~ (ø motion) for S to hang up O at P (esp. to dry) A- + sha-ya-ya-tee Áx̲ shayatí! Hang it there! Áx̲ shayaytí! You all hang it there! Líl áx̲ shayitéek̲! Don't hang it there! Líl áx̲ shayeeytéek̲! Don't you all hang it there! [does not occur] áx̲ shayax̲waatée I hung it there áx̲ ashayaawatée s/he hung it there tlél áx̲ shayax̲watí I didn't hang it there tlél áx̲ ashayawutí s/he didn't hang it there áx̲ shayakk̲watée I will hang it there áx̲ ashayakg̲watée s/he will hang it there tlél áx̲ shayakk̲watee I won't hang it there tlél áx̲ ashayakg̲watee s/he won't hang it there áx̲ shayak̲atee let me hang it there áx̲ ashayag̲atee let him/her hang it there áx̲ shayoox̲atéeych I hang it there (every time) áx̲ ashawootéeych s/he hangs it there (every time) tlél áx̲ shayoox̲atéeych I haven't hung it there yet tlél áx̲ ashawootéeych s/he hasn't hung it there yet tlél aadé áx̲ ashayoog̲aateeyi yé no way can s/he hang it there áx̲ ashayoog̲ateeyín s/he would have hung it there áx̲ ashayatéeni if/when s/he hangs it there áx̲ ashayateex̲ s/he hangs it there (regularly) stormy, rough (of weather) a-ya-d-teeʰ~ (g̲a event) for the weather to be stormy, rough a-ya-di-tee [does not occur] yei ayandatéen it's getting stormy ayawditee it's stormy tlél ayawdatee it's not stormy yei ayagux̲datée it will be stormy tlél yei ayagux̲datee it won't be stormy ayag̲aax̲datee let it be stormy ayax̲dateech it gets stormy (every time) tlél ayux̲dateech it hasn't gotten stormy yet tlél aadé (yáax') ayag̲aax̲wditeeyi yé no way can it get stormy (here) ayag̲aax̲wdateeyín it would have gotten stormy ayax̲datéeni if/when it's stormy yei ayadateech it's stormy (regularly) K'eeljáa yei ayagux̲dateeyín, tlél k̲wá ayawdatee. It was supposed to get stormy, but it didn't. give, take, hand it to him/her (round, spherical object) N jee-t~ O-ka-S-teeʰ~ (ø motion) for S to give, take, hand O (round object) to N k̲aa jee- + ka-ya-tee Du jeet katí! Give it to him/her! Du jeet kaytí! You all give it to him/her! Líl du jeex̲ keeteegík̲! Don't give it to him/her! Líl du jeex̲ kayteegík̲! Don't you all give it to him/her! [does not occur] du jeedé yaa kanx̲atéen I'm giving it to him/her du jeedé yaa akanatéen s/he's giving it to him/her du jeet kax̲waatée I gave it to him/her du jeet akaawatée s/he gave it to him/her tlél du jeet kax̲watí I didn't give it to him/her tlél du jeet akawutí s/he didn't give it to him/her du jeedé kakk̲watée I will give it to him/her du jeedé akakg̲watée s/he will give it to him/her tlél du jeedé kakk̲watee I won't give it to him/her tlél du jeedé akakg̲watee s/he won't give it to him/her du jeet kak̲atee let me give it to him/her du jeet akg̲atee let him/her give it to him/her du jeet koox̲atéeych I give it to him/her (every time) du jeet akootéeych s/he gives it to him/her (every time) tlél du jeet koox̲atéeych I haven't given it to him/her yet tlél du jeet akootéeych s/he hasn't given it to him/her yet tlél aadé du jeet kak̲waateeyi yé no way can I give it to him/her tlél aadé du jeet akg̲waateeyi yé no way can s/he give it to him/her du jeet kakk̲wateeyín I would have given it to him/her du jeet akg̲wateeyín s/he would have given it to him/her du jeet kax̲atéeni if/when I give it to him/her du jeet akatéeni if/when s/he gives it to him/her du jeex̲ kax̲atee I give it to him/her (regularly) du jeex̲ akatee s/he gives it to him/her (regularly) blame it on him/her; bring it (shame, joy) onto him/her P-t~ O-shu-S-ø-teeʰ~ (ø motion) for S to bring O (abstract, esp. shame, blame, joy) onto P shu-ya-tee This verb can be used with nouns such as "joy" or "shame", but note that when no noun is explicitly given, the reading is "blame" for this verb. For example: haa kát ashuwatée "he blamed it on us" BUT, kadéix' haa kát ashuwatée "he brought shame on us". N éet~ can replace N kát~ to give the same meaning. For example, du éet ashuwatée "s/he blamed it on him/her". To blame someone for eating something, use N x̲'éit~, as in: du x̲'éit shux̲waatée "I blamed him for eating it". To blame someone for doing something with the hands, use N jeet~, as in: du jeet shux̲waatée "I blamed him for doing it". Du kát shutí! Blame it on him/her! Du kát shuytí! You all blame it on him/her! Líl du káx̲ shuteeyík̲! Don't blame it on him/her! Líl du káx̲ shuyteeyík̲! Don't you all blame it on him/her! [does not occur] du kát shux̲waatée I blamed it on him/her du kát ashuwatée s/he blamed it on him/her tlél du kát shux̲watí I didn't blame it on him/her tlél du kát ashuwutí s/he didn't blame it on him/her du kaadé shukk̲watée I will blame it on him/her du kaadé ashukg̲watée s/he will blame it on him/her tlél du kaadé shukk̲watee I won't blame it on him/her tlél du kaadé ashukg̲watee s/he won't blame it on him/her (ch'a) du kát shuk̲atee (dé) (just) let me blame it on him/her (now) (ch'a) du kát ashug̲atee (dé) (just) let him/her blame it on him/her (now) du kát shoox̲atéeych I blame it on him/her (every time) du kát ashootéeych s/he blames it on him/her (every time) tlél du kát shoox̲atéeych I haven't blamed it on him/her yet tlél du kát ashootéeych s/he hasn't blamed it on him/her yet tlél aadé du kát shuk̲waateeyi yé no way can I blame it on him/her tlél aadé du kát ashug̲waateeyi yé no way can s/he blame it on him/her du kát shuk̲wateeyín I would have blamed it on him/her du kát ashug̲wateeyín s/he would have blamed it on him/her du kát shux̲atéeni if/when I blame it on him/her du kát ashutéeni if/when s/he blames it on him/her du káx̲ shux̲atee I blame it on him/her (regularly) du káx̲ ashutee s/he blames it on him/her (regularly) feed it to him/her/it; give it to him/her/it to eat N x̲'éix̲ O-S-ø-teeʰ~ (na event) for S to feed O to N; for S to give O to N to eat k̲aa x̲'éi + ya-tee Du x̲'éix̲ natí! Feed it to him/her/it! Du x̲'éix̲ naytí! You all feed it to him/her/it! Líl du x̲'eíx̲ eeteex̲ík̲! Don't feed it to him/her/it! Líl du x̲'eíx̲ yiteex̲ík̲! Don't you all feed it to him/her/it! [does not occur] du x̲'éix̲ x̲waatee I fed it to him/her/it du x̲'éix̲ aawatee s/he fed it to him/her/it tlél du x̲'éix̲ x̲watee I didn't feed it to him/her/it tlél du x̲'éix̲ awutee s/he didn't feed it to him/her/it du x̲'éix̲ kuk̲atée I will feed it to him/her/it du x̲'éix̲ akg̲watée s/he will feed it to him/her/it tlél du x̲'éix̲ kuk̲atee I won't feed it to him/her/it tlél du x̲'éix̲ akg̲watee s/he won't feed it to him/her/it du x̲'éix̲ nak̲atee let me feed it to him/her/it du x̲'éix̲ nag̲atee let him/her feed it to him/her/it du x̲'éix̲ nax̲ateech I feed it to him/her/it (every time) du x̲'éix̲ anateech s/he feeds it to him/her/it (every time) tlél du x̲'éix̲ nax̲wateech I haven't fed it to him/her/it yet tlél du x̲'éix̲ oonateech s/he hasn't fed it to him/her/it yet tlél aadé du x̲'éix̲ ang̲waateeyi yé no way can s/he feed it to him/her/it du x̲'éix̲ ang̲wateeyín s/he would have fed it to him/her/it du x̲'éix̲ anatéeni if/when s/he feeds it to him/her/it du x̲'éix̲ ateex̲ s/he feeds it to him/her/it (regularly) feed him/her/it N x̲'éix̲ at S-ø-teeʰ~ (na event) for S to feed N, give food to N (for immediate consumption) k̲aa x̲'éi + ya-tee Du x̲'éix̲ at natí! Feed him/her/it! Du x̲'éix̲ at naytí! You all feed him/her/it! Líl du x̲'éix̲ at eeteex̲ík̲! Don't feed him/her/it! Líl du x̲'éix̲ at yiteex̲ík̲! Don't you all feed him/her/it! [does not occur] du x̲'éix̲ yaa at nax̲atéen I'm feeding him/her/it du x̲'éix̲ yaa at natéen s/he's feeding him/her/it du x̲'éix̲ at x̲waatee I fed him/her/it du x̲'éix̲ at wootee s/he fed him/her/it tlél du x̲'éix̲ at x̲watee I didn't feed him/her/it tlél du x̲'éix̲ at wutee s/he didn't feed him/her/it du x̲'éix̲ at kuk̲atée I will feed him/her/it du x̲'éix̲ at gug̲atée s/he will feed him/her/it tlél du x̲'éix̲ at kuk̲atee I won't feed him/her/it tlél du x̲'éix̲ at gug̲atee s/he won't feed him/her/it du x̲'éix̲ at nak̲atee let me feed him/her/it du x̲'éix̲ at nag̲atee let him/her feed him/her/it du x̲'éix̲ at nax̲ateech I feed him/her/it (every time) du x̲'éix̲ at nateech s/he feeds him/her/it (every time) tlél du x̲'éix̲ at nax̲wateech I haven't fed him/her/it yet tlél du x̲'éix̲ at unateech s/he hasn't fed him/her/it yet tlél aadé du x̲'éix̲ at nak̲waateeyi yé no way can I feed him/her/it tlél aadé du x̲'éix̲ at ung̲waateeyi yé no way can s/he feed him/her/it du x̲'éix̲ at nak̲wateeyín I would have fed him/her/it du x̲'éix̲ at ung̲wateeyín s/he would have fed him/her/it du x̲'éix̲ at nax̲atéeni if/when I feed him/her/it du x̲'éix̲ at natéeni if/when s/he feeds him/her/it du x̲'éix̲ at x̲ateex̲ I feed him/her/it (regularly) du x̲'éix̲ at teex̲ s/he feeds him/her/it (regularly) baptize him/her héen-t~ O-ya-S-ø-teeʰ~ (ø motion) for S to baptize, immerse (singular) O in water or pour water upon O as a religious rite héen- + ya-ya-tee While the 3rd person perfective habitual negative form: tlél héent ayawootéeych is grammatical, it is a little semantically odd, meaning "s/he hasn't baptized him/her yet". Speakers prefer the 4th person form: tlél héent yadutéeych "s/he hasn't been baptized yet". Héent yatí! Baptize him/her! Líl héent yayeetéek̲! Don't baptize him/her! [does not occur] héent yax̲waatée I baptized him/her héent ayaawatée s/he baptized him/her tlél héent yax̲watí I didn't baptize him/her tlél héent ayawutí s/he didn't baptize him/her héende yakk̲watée I will baptize him/her héende ayakg̲watée s/he will baptize him/her tlél héende yakk̲watee I won't baptize him/her tlél héende ayakg̲watee s/he won't baptize him/her héent yak̲atee let me baptize him/her héent ayag̲atee let him/her baptize him/her tlél héent yax̲watéeych I haven't baptized him/her yet tlél héent ayawootéeych s/he hasn't baptized him/her yet tlél héent yadutéeych s/he hasn't been baptized yet tlél aadé héent ayag̲waateeyi yé no way can s/he baptize him/her héent ayag̲wateeyín s/he would have baptized him/her héent ayatéeni if/when s/he baptizes him/her héenx̲ ayatee s/he baptizes him/her (regularly) put it on (shirt, dress, etc.) káx̲ O-S-d-teeʰ~ (g̲a event) for S to put on O (shirt, dress, etc.) káx̲ + di-tee Káx̲ g̲idatí! Put it on! Káx̲ g̲aydatí! You all put it on! Líl káx̲ yei idateejík̲! Don't put it on! Líl káx̲ yei yidateejík̲! Don't you all put it on! [does not occur] káx̲ yei nax̲datéen I'm putting it on káx̲ yei nidatéen you're putting it on káx̲ yei ndatéen s/he's putting it on káx̲ yei ntudatéen we're putting it on káx̲ yei naydatéen you all are putting it on káx̲ yei (ha)s nadatéen they're putting it on káx̲ yei ndutéen someone is putting it on [does not occur] káx̲ x̲waditee I put it on káx̲ yiditee you put it on káx̲ awditee s/he put it on káx̲ wutuditee we put it on káx̲ yeeyditee you all put it on káx̲ has awditee they put it on káx̲ wuduwatee someone put it on tlél káx̲ x̲wadatee I didn't put it on tlél káx̲ yidatee you didn't put it on tlél káx̲ awdatee s/he didn't put it on tlél káx̲ wutudatee we didn't put it on tlél káx̲ yeeydatee you all didn't put it on tlél káx̲ has awdatee they didn't put it on tlél káx̲ wudutee nobody put it on káx̲ yei kk̲wadatée I will put it on káx̲ yei gag̲idatée you will put it on káx̲ yei agux̲datée s/he will put it on káx̲ yei gax̲tudatée we will put it on káx̲ yei gax̲yidatée you all will put it on káx̲ yei has agux̲datée they will put it on káx̲ yei gax̲dutée someone will put it on tlél káx̲ yei kk̲wadatee I won't put it on tlél káx̲ yei gag̲idatee you won't put it on tlél káx̲ yei agux̲datee s/he won't put it on tlél káx̲ yei gax̲tudatee we won't put it on tlél káx̲ yei gax̲yidatee you all won't put it on tlél káx̲ yei (ha)s agux̲datee they won't put it on tlél káx̲ yei gax̲dutee nobody will put it on káx̲ k̲aak̲adatee let me put it on káx̲ ag̲aax̲datee let him/her put it on g̲aax̲tudatee let us put it on [does not occur] tlél káx̲ k̲wadateech I haven't put it on yet tlél káx̲ g̲idateech you haven't put it on yet tlél káx̲ oox̲dateech s/he hasn't put it on yet tlél káx̲ g̲atudateech we haven't put it on yet tlél káx̲ g̲aydateech you all haven't put it on yet tlél káx̲ has oox̲dateech they haven't put it on yet tlél káx̲ g̲aduteech nobody has put it on yet tlél aadé káx̲ ag̲aax̲wditeeyi yé no way can s/he put it on káx̲ ag̲aax̲wdateeyín s/he would have put it on káx̲ g̲adatéeni if/when s/he puts it on káx̲ yéi adateech s/he puts it on (regularly) káx̲ yei agux̲datée s/he will put it on bring it out, unearth it; pick it up (general, often compact object) kei O-S-ø-teeʰ~ (ø motion) or S to bring out, unearth O (general, often compact object)(esp. from a box or other container or place which O is kept); for S to pick up, lift up O kei ya-tee Kei tí! Bring it out! Kei yití! You all bring it out! Líl kei eeteejík̲! Don't bring it out! Líl kei yiteejík̲! Don't you all bring it out! [does not occur] kei x̲waatée I brought it out kei aawatée s/he brought it out tlél kei x̲watee I didn't bring it out tlél kei awutee s/he didn't bring it out kei kk̲watée I will bring it out kei akg̲watée s/he will bring it out tlél kei kk̲watee I won't bring it out tlél kei akg̲watee s/he won't bring it out kei k̲atee let me bring it out kei ag̲atee let him/her bring it out kei x̲watéeych I bring it out (every time) kei ootéeych s/he brings it out (every time) tlél kei x̲watéeych I haven't brought it out yet tlél kei ootéeych s/he hasn't brought it out yet tlél aadé kei ag̲waateeyi yé no way can s/he bring it out kei ag̲wateeyín s/he would have brought it out kei atéeni if/when s/he brings it out kei ateech s/he brings it out (regularly) put it down, leave it (round, spherical object) yan O-ka-S-ø-teeʰ~ (ø motion) for S to put down, lay down, leave, place O (round object) ka-ya-tee Yan katí! Put it down! Yan kaytí! You all put it down! Líl yax̲ keetéek̲! Don't put it down! Líl yax̲ kaytéek̲! Don't you all put it down! [does not occur] yan kax̲waatée I put it down yan akaawatée s/he put it down tlél yan kax̲watí I didn't put it down tlél yan akawutí s/he didn't put it down yánde kakk̲watée I will put it down yánde kakg̲watée s/he will put it down tlél yánde kakk̲watee I won't put it down tlél yánde kakg̲watee s/he won't put it down yan kak̲atee let me put it down yan akg̲atee let him/her put it down yan koox̲atéeych I put it down (every time) yan akootéeych s/he puts it down (every time) tlél yan koox̲atéeych I haven't put it down yet tlél yan akootéeych s/he hasn't put it down yet tlél aadé yan kook̲aateeyi yé no way can I put it down tlél aadé yan akoog̲aateeyi yé no way can s/he put it down yan kook̲ateeyín I would have put it down yan akoog̲ateeyín s/he would have put it down yan kax̲atéeni if/when I put it down yan akatéeni if/when s/he puts it down yax̲ kax̲atee I put it down (regularly) yax̲ akatee s/he puts it down (regularly) K'idéin yan akg̲atee. Let her put it in a safe place. put it down (solid, often complex object) yan O-S-s-teeʰ~ (ø motion) for S to put down, lay down, leave, place O (solid, often complex object) yan si-tee Yan satí! Put it down! Yan yisatí! You all put it down! Líl yax̲ isatéek̲! Don't put it down! Líl yax̲ yisatéek̲! Don't you all put it down! [does not occur] yan x̲wasitée I put it down yan awsitée s/he put it down tlél yan x̲wasatí I didn't put it down tlél yan awustí s/he didn't put it down yánde kk̲wasatée I will put it down yánde agux̲satée s/he will put it down tlél yánde kk̲wasatee I won't put it down tlél yánde agux̲satee s/he won't put it down yan k̲asatee let me put it down yan ax̲satee let him/her put it down yan x̲wasatéeych I put it down (every time) yan oostéeych s/he puts it down (every time) tlél yan x̲wasatéeych I haven't put it down yet tlél yan oostéeych s/he hasn't put it down yet tlél aadé yan k̲wasiteeyi yé no way can I put it down tlél aadé yan oox̲siteeyi yé no way can s/he put it down yan k̲wasateeyín I would have put it down yan oox̲sateeyín s/he would have put it down yan x̲asatéeni if/when I put it down yan astéeni if/when s/he puts it down yax̲ x̲asatee I put it down (regularly) yax̲ astee s/he puts it down (regularly) barbecue tseek cook, barbecue, broil barbecue it; broil it O-S-l-tseek~ (ø act; CV́C Hort/Pot) for S to broil O slowly, cook O directly over live coals, barbecue li-tseek Latsík! Barbecue it! Yilatsík! You all barbecue it! Líl ilatsíkx̲ik̲! Don't barbecue it! Líl yilatsíkx̲ik̲! Don't you all barbecue it! altséek s/he's barbecueing it; s/he barbecues it tlél ooltseek s/he doesn't barbecue it awlitsík s/he barbecued it tlél awultseek s/he didn't barbecue it agux̲latséek s/he will barbecue it tlél agux̲latseek s/he won't barbecue it ax̲latsík let him/her barbecue it ooltsíkch s/he barbecues it (every time) tlél ooltseekch / tlél ooltsíkch s/he hasn't barbecued it yet tlél aadé oox̲litsígi yé no way can s/he barbecue it oox̲latsígin s/he would have barbecued it altsíkni if/when s/he barbecues it altsíkx̲ s/he barbecues it (regularly) bark shaa2 (4) bark bark (of dog) (esp. begin barking) The first person perfective form: ax̲washaa "I started barking" is included here to show that this theme contains the a- thematic prefix as opposed to the a- third person object prefix, which would not be present with a first person subject. a-S-ø-shaa~ (ga act) for S (dog) to bark (esp. begin barking) ya-shaa Leer 1973: 10/6-8 Agashá! Start barking! Líl kei eeshéijik̲! Don't start barking! asháa it's barking tlél ooshaa it isn't barking ax̲washaa I started barking aawashaa it started barking tlél ax̲washaa I didn't start barking tlél awushaa it didn't start barking kei akg̲washáa it will start barking tlél kei akg̲washaa it won't start barking (ch'a) akg̲ashaa (just) let it start barking agashéich it starts barking (every time) tlél agooshéich it hasn't started barking yet tlél aadé akg̲waashaayi yé no way can it start barking akg̲washaayín it would have started barking agashéini if/when it starts barking kei ashéich it starts barking (regularly) Ch'a tlákw ts'ootaat keijín gaawx' áwé agashéich wé keitl. Every morning the dog starts barking at five o'clock. bark (of dog) The first person perfective form: ax̲washáa "I barked" is included here to show that this theme contains the a- thematic prefix as opposed to the a- third person object prefix, which would not be present with a first person subject. a-S-ø-shaa~ (Ø act) for S (dog) to bark ya-shaa Leer 1973: 10/6-8 Ashá! Bark! Líl eeshéix̲ik̲! Don't bark! Líl eeshaak̲! Don't bark! asháa it's barking tlél ooshaa it isn't barking ax̲waasháa I barked aawasháa it barked tlél ax̲washá I didn't bark tlél awushá it didn't bark akg̲washáa it will bark tlél akg̲washaa it won't bark (ch'a) ag̲ashaa (just) let it bark oosháaych it barks (every time) tlél oosháaych it hasn't barked yet tlél aadé oog̲aashaayi yé no way can it bark oog̲ashaayín it would have barked ashéini if/when it barks ashéix̲ it barks (regularly) Du keidlí kei aawasháa. His dog barked at him. [Story & Naish 1973: 25] Yan wudu.aax̲ú wé keitl oosháaych. When the dog is tied up it barks. bark at him/her/it (of dog) Note in the example sentence the ergative marker (-ch) on ax̲ keidlích "my dog". When the ergative marker directly precedes the verb, the third person object prefix (a-) is dropped from the verb. This is why the form in the sentence is: yagux̲lasháa, whereas in the paradigm it's given as: ayagux̲lasháa "it will bark at him/her/it". O-ya-S-l-shaa~ (na act) for S (dog) to bark at O ya-li-shaa Leer 1973: 10/6-8 Yanalshá! Bark at him/her/it! Líl yoo ilashéigik̲! Don't bark at him/her/it! ayalasháa it is barking at him/her/it yaa ayanalshéin it is running along barking at him/her/it ayawlishaa it barked at him/her/it tlél ayawulshaa it didn't bark at him/her/it ayagux̲lasháa it will bark at him/her/it tlél ayagux̲lashaa it won't bark at him/her/it ayanax̲lashaa let it bark at him/her/it ayanalshéich it barks at him/her/it (every time) tlél awunalshéich it hasn't barked at him/her/it yet tlél aadé awunax̲lishaayi yé no way can it bark at him/her/it awunax̲lashaayín it would have barked at him/her/it ayanalshéini if/when it barks at him/her/it yoo ayalishéik it barks at him/her/it (regularly) Haat gútni ax̲ keidlích yagux̲lasháa. If he comes here, my dog is going to bark at him. Ch'a tlákw ash yalasháa. It always barks at him. bark at him/her/it (of dog) (esp. begin barking) O-ya-S-l-shaa~ (ga act) for S (dog) to bark at O (esp. begin barking) ya-li-shaa Leer 1973: 10/6-8 Yagalshá! Start barking at him/her/it! Líl kei yeelashájik̲! Don't start barking at him/her/it! ayalasháa it is barking at him/her/it kei ayanalshéin it is starting to bark at him/her/it ayawlishaa it barked at him/her/it tlél ayawulshaa it didn't bark at him/her/it kei ayagux̲lasháa it will start barking at him/her/it tlél kei ayagux̲lashaa it won't start barking at him/her/it ayagax̲lashaa let it start barking at him/her/it ayaklashéich it starts barking at him/her/it (every time) tlél ayagoolshéich it hasn't started barking at him/her/it yet tlél aadé ayagoox̲lishaayi yé no way can it start barking at him/her/it ayagoox̲lashaayín it would have started barking at him/her/it ayaklashéini if/when it starts barking at him/her/it kei ayalashách it starts barking at him/her/it (regularly) Ash yaklashéini a nák̲ kei ayagux̲daháan. If it starts barking at him, he will run away from it. Has du x̲ánde yaa ana.ádi ayaklashéich. When people walk by, it always starts barking at them. bath oos' (5) wash, bath wash it O-S-ø-.óos'~ (na act) for S to wash O ya-.oos' Leer 1973: 02/328-331 Na.óos'! Wash it! Nay.óos'! You all wash it! Líl yoo ee.ús'guk̲! Don't wash it! Líl yoo yi.ús'guk̲! Don't you all wash it! a.ús'k s/he is washing it tlél oo.ús'k s/he isn't washing it yaa ana.ús' s/he is going along washing it a.ús' nooch s/he always washed it aawa.óos' s/he washed it tlél awu.óos' s/he didn't wash it akg̲wa.óos' s/he will wash it tlél akg̲wa.óos' s/he won't wash it ang̲a.óos' let him/her wash it ana.ús'ch s/he washes it (every time) tlél oona.ús'ch s/he hasn't washed it yet tlél aadé oong̲aa.óos'i yé no way can s/he wash it oong̲a.óos'in s/he would have washed it ana.ús'ni if/when s/he washes it yoo aya.ús'k s/he washes it (regularly) wash it (surface of pot, table, etc.) O-ka-S-ø-.óos'~ (na act) for S to wash O (usually surface of pot, table, etc.) ka-ya-.oos' Leer 1973: 02/328-331 Kana.óos'! Wash it! Kanay.óos'! You all wash it! Líl yoo kee.óos'guk̲! Don't wash it! Líl yoo kay.óos'guk̲! Don't you all wash it! kax̲a.ús'k I'm washing it aka.ús'k s/he's washing it tlél koox̲a.ús'k I'm not washing it tlél akoo.ús'k s/he's not washing it yaa akana.ús' s/he is going along washing it kax̲waa.óos' I washed it akaawa.óos' s/he washed it tlél kax̲wa.óos' I didn't wash it tlél akawu.óos' s/he didn't wash it kakk̲wa.óos' I will wash it akakg̲wa.óos' s/he will wash it tlél kakk̲wa.óos' I won't wash it tlél akakg̲wa.óos' s/he won't wash it kank̲a.óos' let me wash it akang̲a.óos' let him/her wash it kanx̲a.ús'ch I wash it (every time) akana.ús'ch s/he washes it (every time) tlél koonx̲a.ús'ch I haven't washed it yet tlél akoona.ús'ch s/he hasn't washed it yet tlél aadé akung̲aa.óos'i yé no way can s/he wash it akung̲a.óos'in s/he would have washed it akana.ús'ni if/when s/he washes it yoo akaa.ús'k s/he washes it (regularly) wash (often meat or feet) O-S-l-.óos'~ (na act) for S to wash O (often meat or feet) li-.oos' Leer 1973: 02/328-331 Nal.óos'! Wash it! Líl yoo ila.ús'gik̲! Don't wash it! x̲ala.ús'kw I'm washing it al.ús'kw s/he is washing it yaa anal.ús' s/he is starting to wash it x̲wali.óos' I washed it awli.óos' s/he washed it tlél x̲wala.óos' I didn't wash it tlél awul.óos' s/he didn't wash it agux̲la.óos' s/he is going to wash it tlél agux̲la.óos' s/he isn't going to wash it (ch'a) anax̲la.óos' (just) let him/her wash it anal.ús'ch s/he washes it (every time) tlél oonal.ús'ch s/he hasn't washed it yet tlél aadé oonax̲li.óos'i yé no way can s/he wash it oonax̲la.óos'in s/he would have washed it anal.ús'ni if/when s/he washes it yoo ali.ús'k s/he washes it (regularly) Dleey agux̲la.óos'. He's going to wash meat. [Story & Naish 1973: 242] Ax̲ x̲'oos x̲ala.ús'kw. I'm washing my feet. [Story & Naish 1973: 242] bath (take a bath) The reflexive prefix: sh seems to be optional here, as Story & Naish (1973) document the verb with the prefix: daa sh wdi.óos' while a speaker consulted for this project uses the verb without the prefix: daa wdi.óos'. daa S-d-.óos'~ (na act) for S to take a bath sh daa + di-.oos' Leer 1973: 02/328-331 Daa nida.óos'! Take a bath! Daa nayda.óos'! You all take a bath! Líl yoo daa ida.ús'gik̲! Don't take a bath! Líl yoo daa yida.ús'gik̲! Don't you all take a bath! daa da.ús'k s/he is taking a bath daa x̲wdi.óos' I took a bath daa wdi.óos' s/he took a bath tlél daa x̲wda.óos' I didn't take a bath tlél daa wda.óos' s/he didn't take a bath daa gux̲da.óos' s/he will take a bath tlél daa gux̲da.óos' s/he won't take a bath (ch'a) daa nax̲da.óos' (just) let him/her take a bath daa nda.ús'ch s/he takes a bath (every time) tlél daa unda.ús'ch s/he hasn't taken a bath yet tlél aadé daa unax̲di.óos'i yé no way can s/he take a bath daa unax̲da.óos'in s/he would have taken a bath daa nda.ús'ni if/when s/he takes a bath yoo daa di.ús'k s/he takes a bath (regularly) Sh daa kk̲wada.óos'. I'm going to take a bath. [Story & Naish 1973: 26] Daa nda.ús'ni yei agux̲dagáan. If he takes a bath the sun will shine. wash hair sha-S-d-.óos'~ (na act) for S to wash hair sha-di-.oos' Shinda.óos'! Wash your hair! Líl yoo sheeda.ús'guk̲! Don't wash your hair! shax̲da.ús'kw I'm washing my hair shada.ús'kw s/he is washing his/her hair yaa shanda.ús' s/he is starting to wash his/her hair shax̲wdi.óos' I washed my hair shawdi.óos' s/he washed his/her hair tlél shax̲wda.óos' I didn't wash my hair tlél shawda.óos' s/he didn't wash his/her hair shagux̲da.óos' s/he will wash his/her hair tlél shagux̲da.óos' s/he won't wash his/her hair shanax̲da.óos' let him/her wash his/her hair shanda.ús'ch s/he washes his/her hair (every time) tlél shoonda.ús'ch s/he hasn't washed his/her hair yet tlél aadé shunax̲di.óos'i yé no way can s/he wash his/her hair shunax̲da.óos'in s/he would have washed his/her hair shanda.ús'ni if/when s/he washes his/her hair yoo shadi.ús'k s/he washes his/her hair (regularly) Shada.ús'kw. She's washing her hair. [Story & Naish 1973: 242] Tlél shax̲wda.óos'. I haven't washed my hair (yet). [Story & Naish 1973: 242] bathe shooch bathe bathe oneself S-d-shooch~ (ø act) for S to bathe, take a bath di-shooch Idashúch! Bathe! Yeedashúch! You all bathe! Líl idashúchx̲ik̲! Don't bathe! Líl yidashúchx̲ik̲! Don't you all bathe! x̲adashóoch I bathe; I am bathing idashóoch you bathe; you are bathing dashóoch s/he bathes; s/he is bathing tudashóoch we bathe; we are bathing yidashóoch you all bathe; you all are bathing has dashóoch they bathe; they are bathing dushóoch people bathe tlél ux̲dashooch I don't bathe tlél idashooch you don't bathe tlél udashooch s/he doesn't bathe tlél tudashooch we don't bathe tlél yidashooch you all don't bathe tlél has udashooch they don't bathe tlél dushooch nobody bathes [does not occur] x̲wadishúch I bathed yidishúch you bathed wudishúch s/he bathed wutudishúch we bathed yeeydishúch you all bathed has wudishúch they bathed wuduwashúch someone bathed tlél x̲wadashooch I didn't bathe tlél yidashooch you didn't bathe tlél wudashooch s/he didn't bathe tlél wutudashooch we didn't bathe tlél yeeydashooch you all didn't bathe tlél has wudashooch they didn't bathe tlél wudushooch nobody bathed kuk̲adashóoch I will bathe gag̲idashóoch you will bathe gux̲dashóoch s/he will bathe gax̲tudashóoch we will bathe gax̲yidashóoch you all will bathe has gux̲dashóoch they will bathe gax̲dushóoch someone will bathe tlél kuk̲adashooch I won't bathe tlél gag̲idashooch you won't bathe tlél gux̲dashooch s/he won't bathe tlél gax̲tudashooch we won't bathe tlél gax̲yidashooch you all won't bathe tlél has gux̲dashooch they won't bathe tlél gax̲dushooch nobody will bathe k̲adashooch let me bathe g̲adashooch let him/her bathe g̲atudashooch let us bathe dashuch nooch s/he always bathes [does not occur] tlél ux̲dashoochch I haven't bathed yet tlél idashoochch you haven't bathed yet tlél udashoochch s/he hasn't bathed yet tlél tudashoochch we haven't bathed yet tlél yidashoochch you all haven't bathed yet tlél has udashoochch they haven't bathed yet tlél dushoochch nobody has bathed yet tlél aadé g̲wadishooji yé no way can s/he bathe g̲wadashoojín s/he would have bathed dashúchni if/when s/he bathes dashúchx̲ s/he bathes (regularly) be teeʰ1 (13) be, born, care, think, need, busy, want, feel care about it; think about it, consider it; have an opinion about it N daa O-tu-ø-teeʰ~ (na state) for O to care about N; for O to think about, consider N; for O to have an opinion about N a daa + tu-ya-tee This verb has several connotations, as demonstrated by this sentence: K'idéin du daa tuwatee, which can mean any of the following: "He thinks good of him"; "He's really thinking aobut him"; or "He really cares about him." A daa itunatí! Care about it! A daa yee tunatí! You all care about it! [does not occur] a daa x̲at tuwatee I care about it a daa tuwatee s/he cares about it tlél a daa x̲at tootí I don't care about it tlél a daa tootí s/he doesn't care about it [does not occur] a daa x̲at tukg̲watée I will care about it a daa tukg̲watée s/he will care about it tlél a daa x̲at tukg̲watee I won't care about it tlél a daa tukg̲watee s/he won't care about it a daa x̲at tung̲atee let me care about it a daa tung̲atee let him/her care about it a daa x̲at tunateech I care about it (every time) a daa tunateech s/he cares about it (every time) tlél a daa x̲at tunateech I haven't cared about it yet tlél a daa tunateech s/he hasn't cared about it yet tlél aadé a daa x̲at tung̲aateeyi yé no way can I care about it tlél aadé a daa tung̲aateeyi yé no way can s/he care about it a daa x̲at tung̲ateeyín I would have cared about it a daa tung̲ateeyín s/he would have cared about it a daa x̲at tunatéeni if/when I care about it a daa tunatéeni if/when s/he cares about it [does not occur] Líl kayeeshóoguk̲, Chx̲ánk', ch'as eeshandéin du daa itunatí. Tlél duskweix̲ wáa sá yéi yan has kawdayaayí. Don't laugh at him, grandchild, have compassion for him. Nobody knows why they turned out that way. K'idéin a daa tuwatee wé at yátx'i. She really cares for the children. need, lack, require it N eetéenáx̲ O-ø-teeʰ~ (na state) for O to need, lack, require N a eetee-nax̲ + ya-tee a eetéenáx̲ yatee he/she/it needs it tlél a eetéenáx̲ utí he/she/it doesn't need it a eetéenáx̲ wootee he/she/it needed it tlél a eetéenáx̲ wutee he/she/it didn't need it a eetéenáx̲ gug̲atée he/she/it will need it tlél a eetéenáx̲ gug̲atee he/she/it won't need it a eetéenáx̲ nag̲atee let him/her/it need it a eetéenáx̲ nateech he/she/it needs it (every time) tlél a eetéenáx̲ unateech he/she/it hasn't needed it yet tlél aadé a eetéenáx̲ nag̲waateeyi yé no way can he/she/it need it a eetéenáx̲ nag̲wateeyín he/she/it would have needed it a eetéenáx̲ natéeni if/when he/she/it needs it a eetéenáx̲ yoo yateek he/she/it needs it (regularly) like, similar to him/her/it N yáx̲ O-ø-teeʰ~ (na state) for O to be like, similar to N a yáx̲ + ya-tee Du yáx̲ inatí! Be like him/her! Du yáx̲ yee natí! You all be like him/her! Líl du yáx̲ eetéek̲! Don't be like him/her! Líl du yáx̲ yee utéek̲! Don't you all be like him/her! a yáx̲ yatee he/she/it is like it tlél a yáx̲ utí he/she/it isn't like it a yáx̲ wootee he/she/it was like it tlél a yáx̲ wutee he/she/it wasn't like it a yáx̲ gug̲atée he/she/it will be like it tlél a yáx̲ gug̲atee he/she/it won't be like it a yáx̲ nag̲atee let him/her be like it a yáx̲ nateech he/she/it is like it (every time) tlél a yáx̲ unateech he/she/it hasn't become like it yet tlél aadé a yáx̲ ung̲aateeyi yé no way can he/she/it be like it a yáx̲ ung̲ateeyín he/she/it would have been like it a yáx̲ natéeni if/when he/she/it is like it [does not occur] busy N daat át k̲u-d-s-teeʰ~ (g̲a state) for N to be busy, occupied with things k̲u-dzi-tee ax̲ daat át k̲udzitee I'm busy du daat át k̲udzitee s/he's busy tlél ax̲ daat át k̲oostí I'm not busy tlél du daat át k̲oostí s/he isn't busy [does not occur] ax̲ daat át k̲oowdzitee I was busy du daat át k̲oowdzitee s/he was busy tlél ax̲ daat át k̲uwustee I wasn't busy tlél du daat át k̲uwustee s/he wasn't busy ax̲ daat át yei k̲ukg̲wastée I will be busy du daat át yei k̲ukg̲wastée s/he will be busy tlél ax̲ daat át yéi k̲ukg̲wastee I won't be busy tlél du daat át yéi k̲ukg̲wastee s/he won't be busy ax̲ daat át k̲ug̲aag̲astee let me be busy du daat át k̲ug̲aag̲astee let him/her be busy ax̲ daat át k̲ug̲asteech I get busy (every time) du daat át k̲ug̲asteech s/he gets busy (every time) tlél ax̲ daat át k̲ug̲asteech I haven't gotten busy yet tlél du daat át k̲ug̲asteech s/he hasn't gotten busy yet tlél aadé ax̲ daat át k̲oog̲aax̲dziteeyi yé no way can I be busy tlél aadé du daat át k̲oog̲aax̲dziteeyi yé no way can s/he be busy ax̲ daat át k̲ug̲waag̲asteeyín I would have been busy du daat át k̲ug̲waag̲asteeyín s/he would have been busy ax̲ daat át k̲ug̲astéení if/when I am busy du daat át k̲ug̲astéení if/when s/he is busy ax̲ daat át yei k̲usteech I am busy (regularly) du daat át yei k̲usteech s/he is busy (regularly) appear before him/her; apparent to him/her N wak̲shiyeex' yéi O-ø-teeʰ~ (na state) for O to appear to N; for O to be apparent to N k̲aa wak̲sheeyee-x' + ya-tee du wak̲shiyeex' yéi yatee he/she/it is in front of his/her eyes tlél du wak̲shiyeex' yéi utí he/she/it isn't in front of his/her eyes du wak̲shiyeex' yéi wootee he/she/it appeared before him/her tlél du wak̲shiyeex' yéi wutee he/she/it didn't appear before him/her du wak̲shiyeex' yéi kg̲watée he/she/it will appear before him/her tlél du wak̲shiyeex' yéi kg̲watee he/she/it won't appear before him/her du wak̲shiyeex' yéi ng̲atee let him/her/it appear before him/her du wak̲shiyeex' yéi nateech he/she/it appears before him/her (every time) tlél du wak̲shiyeex' yéi unateech he/she/it hasn't appeared before him/her yet [does not occur] du wak̲shiyeex' yéi ng̲wateeyín he/she/it would have appeared before him/her du wak̲shiyeex' yéi natéeni if/when he/she/it appears before him/her du wak̲shiyeex' yéi teex̲ he/she/it appears before him/her (regularly) born; exist; live O-k̲u-d-s-teeʰ~ (g̲a state) for O to be, be in existence, live; for O to be born k̲u-dzi-tee [does not occur] k̲udzitee it exists; he/she/it is alive tlél k̲oostí it doesn't exist; he/she/it isn't alive k̲oowdzitee it existed; he/she/it was born tlél k̲uwustee it didn't exist; he/she/it wasn't born yéi k̲ukg̲wastée it will exist; he/she/it will be born tlél yéi k̲ukg̲wastee he/she/it won't be born k̲ug̲aag̲astee let it exist; let him/her/it be born k̲ug̲asteech it is (every time) tlél k̲ug̲asteech it doesn't exist yet; he/she/it hasn't been born yet tlél aadé k̲oog̲aax̲dziteeyi yé no way can he/she/it be born k̲ug̲waag̲asteeyín he/she/it would have been born k̲ug̲astéeni if/when he/she/it is born [does not occur] Tlél ax̲ yóo x̲'atángi k̲oostí I'm speechless. (Lit: My words don't exist) Yan x̲at wátni, daatg̲áa sáwé yéi k̲ukk̲wastée? Haa jinák̲ k̲ut kei shandulxíx yá toox̲áa nooch x̲áat. When I reach the peak of my age, what am I going to live on? They're killing off the salmon that we eat. A kaxéel'i k̲oowdzitee du yéi jineiyí daax̲. There was trouble over his work. grateful, thankful, satisfied sh tóog̲aa O-d-teeʰ~ (na state) for O to be grateful, thankful, satisfied sh tóo + g̲áa + di-tee Use yís to indicate thankfulness for something. For example: Ax̲ t'aakx'í yís sh tug̲áa x̲at ditee. "I am grateful/thankful for/to my family." Note that yís translates as both "(grateful) for" and "(grateful) to", even though these aren't the same thing. Sh tóog̲aa indatí! Be grateful! Sh tóog̲aa yee ndatí! You all be grateful! sh tóog̲aa ditee s/he is grateful [does not occur] sh tóog̲aa wditee s/he was grateful tlél sh tóog̲aa wdatee s/he wasn't grateful sh tóog̲aa gux̲datée s/he will be grateful tlél sh tóog̲aa gux̲datee s/he won't be grateful sh tóog̲aa nax̲datee let him/her be grateful sh tóog̲aa ndateech s/he is grateful (every time) [does not occur] [does not occur] sh tóog̲aa nax̲dateeyín s/he would have been grateful sh tóog̲aa nadatéeni if/when s/he is grateful sh tóog̲aa yoo diteek s/he is grateful (regularly) Sh tóog̲aa x̲at ditee woochx̲án yéi haa wdateeyí. I am grateful that we are together. still, quiet; stop functioning tleiyéi yéi O-ø-teeʰ~ (na state) for O to be still, quiet; for O to stop (car, clock, e.g.) tleiyéi + yéi + ya-tee Tleiyéi yéi inatí! Be still! Tleiyéi yéi yee natí! You all be still! [does not occur] tleiyéi yéi yatee he/she/it is still tlél tleiyéi yéi utí he/she/it isn't still tleiyéi yéi wootee he/she/it became still tlél tleiyéi yéi wutee he/she/it didn't become still tleiyéi yéi kg̲watée he/she/it will be still tlél tleiyéi yéi kg̲watee he/she/it won't be still tleiyéi yéi ng̲atee let him/her/it be still tleiyéi yéi nateech he/she/it become still (every time) tlél tleiyéi yéi unateech he/she/it hasn't become still yet tlél aadé tleiyéi yéi ng̲waateeyi yé no way can he/she/it be still tleiyéi yéi ng̲wateeyín he/she/it would have been still tleiyéi yéi natéení if/when he/she/it is still tleiyéi yéi teex̲ he/she/it is still (regularly) be (for the weather to be a certain way) (yéi) k̲u-ø-teeʰ~ (na state) for the weather to be (that way) A + k̲u-ya-tee To specify how the weather is, replace yéi with a weather term + yáx̲. For example: séew yáx̲ k̲uwatee "it looks like rain". In the negative, one can say: tlél áyáx̲ k̲ootí "the weather looks bad". yéi k̲uwatee the weather is that way tlél yéi k̲ootí the weather isn't that way yéi k̲oowatee the weather was that way tlél yéi k̲uwutee the weather wasn't that way yéi k̲ukg̲watée the weather will be that way [does not occur] [does not occur] yéi k̲unateech the weather is that way (every time) [does not occur] [does not occur] [does not occur] yéi k̲unatéeni if/when the weather is that way yéi yoo k̲uyateek the weather is that way (regularly) feel like doing, want to do; feel that way (yéi) O-tu-ø-teeʰ~ (na state) for O to want to do, feel like doing (that); for O to feel a certain way tu-ya-tee [does not occur] yéi x̲at tuwatee I feel like doing that yéi tuwatee s/he feels like doing that tlél yéi x̲at tootí I don't feel like doing that tlél yéi tootí s/he doesn't feel like doing that [does not occur] yéi x̲at tukg̲watée I will feel like doing that yéi tukg̲watée s/he will feel like doing that tlél yéi x̲at tukg̲watee I won't feel like doing that tlél yéi tukg̲watee s/he won't feel like doing that yéi x̲at tung̲atee let me feel like doing that yéi tung̲atee let him/her feel like doing that yéi x̲at tunateech I feel like doing that (every time) yéi tunateech s/he feels like doing that (every time) tlél yéi x̲at toonateech I haven't felt like doing that yet tlél yéi toonateech s/he hasn't felt like doing that yet tlél aadé yéi toong̲aateeyi yé no way can s/he feel like doing that yéi toong̲ateeyín s/he would have felt like doing that yéi tunatéeni if/when s/he feels like doing that [does not occur] Líl kayeeshóoguk̲, Chx̲ánk', ch'as eeshandéin du daa itunatí. Tlél duskweix̲ wáa sá yéi yan has kawdayaayí. Don't laugh at him, grandchild, have compassion for him. Nobody knows why they turned out that way. be (a certain way) yéi thus, that way (yéi) O-ø-teeʰ~ (na state) for O to be (that way) A + ya-tee Yéi inatí! Be that way! Yéi yee natí! You all be that way! Líl yéi eetéek̲! Don't be that way! Líl yéi yee utéek̲! Don't you all be that way! yéi x̲at yatee I'm that way yéi iyatee you're that way yéi yatee he/she/it is that way yéi haa yatee we're that way yéi yee yatee you all are that way yéi has yatee they're that way yéi k̲uyatee people are that way tlél yéi x̲at utí I am not that way tlél yéi eetí you aren't that way tlél yéi utí he/she/it isn't that way tlél yéi haa utí we aren't that way tlél yéi yee utí you all aren't that way tlél yéi has utí they aren't that way tlél yéi k̲utí nobody is that way yéi yateeyi aa the one who is that way yéi yaa x̲at nanein I am becoming that way yéi yaa inanein you are becoming that way yéi yaa nanein he/she/it is becoming that way yéi yaa haa nanein we are becoming that way yéi yaa yee nanein you all are becoming that way yéi yaa has nanein they are becoming that way yéi yaa k̲unanein people are becoming that way tlél yéi yaa x̲at unanein I'm not becoming that way tlél yéi yaa eenanein you're not becoming that way tlél yéi yaa unanein he/she/it is not becoming that way tlél yéi yaa haa unanein we're not becoming that way tlél yéi yaa yee unanein you all are not becoming that way tlél yéi yaa (ha)s unanein they're not becoming that way tlél yéi yaa k̲unanein nobody is becoming that way yéi téeyin he/she/it used to be that way tlél yéi utéeyin he/she/it didn't used to be that way yéi x̲at wootee I was/became that way yéi iwootee you were/became that way yéi wootee he/she/it was/became that way yéi haa wootee we were/became that way yéi yee wootee you all were/became that way yéi has wootee they were/became that way yéi k̲oowatee people became that way tlél yéi x̲at wutee I wasn't that way tlél yéi iwutee you weren't that way tlél yéi wutee he/she/it wasn't that way tlél yéi haa wutee we weren't that way tlél yéi yee wutee you all weren't that way tlél yéi has wutee they weren't that way tlél yéi k̲ootí nobody was that way yéi x̲at gug̲atée I will be that way yéi ikg̲watée you will be that way yéi kg̲watée he/she/it will be that way yéi haa kg̲watée we will be that way yéi yee kg̲watée you all will be that way yéi has gug̲atée they will be that way yéi k̲ukg̲watée people will be that way tlél yéi x̲at gug̲atee I won't be that way tlél yéi ikg̲watee you won't be that way tlél yéi kg̲watee he/she/it won't be that way tlél yéi haa kg̲watee we won't be that way tlél yéi yee kg̲watee you all won't be that way tlél yéi (ha)s gug̲atee they won't be that way tlél yéi k̲ukg̲watee people won't be that way yéi x̲at nag̲atee let me be that way, leave me be yéi ng̲atee let him/her/it be that way yéi haa ng̲atee let us be that way yéi tée nooch he/she/it is always that way yéi x̲at nateech I'm that way (every time) yéi inateech you're that way (every time) yéi nateech he/she/it is that way (every time) yéi haa nateech we're that way (every time) yéi yee nateech you all are that way (every time) yéi has nateech they're that way (every time) yéi k̲unateech people are that way (every time) tlél yéi x̲at unateech I've never been that way tlél yéi eenateech you've never been that way tlél yéi unateech he/she/it has never been that way tlél yéi haa unateech we've never been that way tlél yéi yee unateech you all have never been that way tlél yéi (ha)s unateech they've never been that way tlél yéi k̲oonateech people haven't been that way tlél aadé yéi ng̲waateeyi yé no way can he/she/it be that way yéi ng̲wateeyín he/she/it would have been that way yéi natéeni if/when he/she/it is that way yéi teex̲ / yóo yateek that's the way it is (regularly) ch'a wáa sá yatee whichever way Tlél wáa sá utí. S/he is fine; It's OK. A-x' + yéi + ya-tee be at, stay, remain; dwell, live at Sheet'káx' yéi yatee. He lives in Sitka. Sgóonx' yéi x̲at gug̲watée seig̲án. I will be in school tomorrow. k̲aa + wak̲sheeyee-x' + yéi + ya-tee appear k̲aa tóo-x' + yéi + ya-tee remember, bear in mind k̲oon + ya-tee affect k̲aa tóon + ya-tee care about, be concerned about, be affected by a yáx̲ + ya-tee be like a eetee-náx̲ + ya-tee need, lack, require k̲aa tóo + g̲áa + ya-tee be acceptable, satisfactory, well-liked k̲aa x̲'éi + g̲áa + ya-tee obey, be obedient tleiyéi + yéi + ya-tee wait Du dís néegu du jeex' yéi wootee. She got her period. be, stay, remain there; live, dwell there N-x' yéi O-ø-teeʰ~ (na state) for O to be, stay, remain at N; for O to dwell, live at N A-x' + yéi + ya-tee Du x̲ánx' yéi inatí! Stay with him/her! Du x̲ánx' yéi yee natí! You all stay with him/her! Líl du x̲ánx' yéi eetéek̲! Don't stay with him/her! Líl du x̲ánx' yéi yee utéek̲! Don't you all stay with him/her! du x̲ánx' yéi yatee s/he is staying with him/her tlél du x̲ánx' yéi utí s/he isn't staying with him/her du x̲ánx' yéi wootee s/he stayed with him/her tlél du x̲ánx' yéi wutee s/he didn't stay with him/her du x̲ánx' yéi kg̲watée s/he will stay with him/her tlél du x̲ánx' yéi kg̲watee s/he won't stay with him/her du x̲ánx' yéi ng̲atee let him/her stay with him/her du x̲ánx' yéi nateech s/he stays with him/her (every time) tlél du x̲ánx' yéi unateech s/he hasn't stayed with him/her yet tlél aadé du x̲ánx' yéi ng̲waateeyi yé no way can s/he stay with him/her du x̲ánx' yéi ng̲wateeyín s/he would have stayed with him/her du x̲ánx' yéi natéeni if/when s/he stays with him/her du x̲ánx' yéi teex̲ s/he stays with him/her (regularly) Tlél wuduskú wáa yéi koowáat' sá áa yéi has wooteeyí. Nobody knew how long they were there. be, become P-x̲ O-s-teeʰ~ (na state) for O to be P (a member of a group); for O to become P A-x̲ + si-tee This verb requires that the preceding noun phrase have the -x̲ postposition. In the forms given here, (noun) can be replaced by any noun which makes sense. An example is the name of a profession such as: asg̲eiwú "seiner" as in: asg̲eiwúx̲ wusitee "s/he became a seiner". Another example is the name of a moiety such as: ch'áak' naa "eagle moiety" in the common phrase: Ch'áak' naax̲ x̲at sitee "I am of the Eagle moiety". Please see the example sentences for more options. (Noun)-x̲ inastí! Be a (noun)! (Noun)-x̲ yee nastí! You all be a (noun)! Líl (noun)-x̲ yoo eesteegík̲! Don't become a (noun)! Líl (noun)-x̲ yoo yee steegík̲! Don't you all become a (noun)! (noun)-x̲ sitee s/he is a (noun) tlél (noun)-x̲ ustí s/he isn't a (noun) (noun)-x̲ wusitee s/he became a (noun) tlél (noun)-x̲ wustee s/he didn't become a (noun) (noun)-x̲ gux̲satée s/he will be a (noun) tlél (noun)-x̲ gux̲satee s/he won't be a (noun) (noun)-x̲ nax̲satee let him/her be a (noun) [does not occur] tlél (noun)-x̲ unasteech s/he hasn't become a (noun) yet tlél aadé (noun)-x̲ nax̲wsiteeyi yé no way can s/he be a (noun) (noun)-x̲ nax̲wsateeyín s/he would have been a (noun) (noun)-x̲ nastéeni if/when s/he becomes a (noun) [does not occur] Shaawátx̲ gux̲satée de, du dís néegu du jee yéi kg̲watée. She will become a woman now, she's going to get her period. beat gwaal (3) beat, ring, stab, hit beat it; ring it; stab it O-S-ø-gwaal~ (ga act) for S to beat O (esp. drum), ring (bell); for S to stab O ya-gwaal Gagwaal! Beat it! Gaygwaal! You all beat it! Líl eegwaalík̲! Don't beat it! Líl yigwaalík̲! Don't you all beat it! agwáal s/he beats it; s/he is beating it tlél oogwaal s/he doesn't beat it; s/he isn't beating it agwál nooch s/he always beats it aawagwaal s/he beat it tlél awugwaal s/he didn't beat it kei akg̲wagwáal s/he will beat it tlél kei akg̲wagwaal s/he won't beat it akg̲agwaal let him/her beat it agagwálch s/he beats it (every time) tlél agoogwálch s/he hasn't beat it yet tlél aadé akg̲waagwaali yé no way can s/he beat it akg̲wagwaalín s/he would have beat it agagwálni if s/he beats it [does not occur] hit him/her/it in the face; punch him/her O-ya-S-ø-gwaal~ (ø event) for S to hit O in the face (with fist), punch O ya-ya-gwaal Yagwál! Hit him/her in the face! Yaygwál! You all hit him/her in the face! Líl yeegwálx̲ik̲! Don't hit him/her in the face! Líl yaygwálx̲ik̲! Don't you all hit him/her in the face! [does not occur] yax̲waagwál I hit him/her in the face ayaawagwál s/he hit him/her in the face tlél yax̲wagwaal I didn't hit him/her in the face tlél ayawugwaal s/he didn't hit him/her in the face yakk̲wagwáal I will hit him/her in the face ayakg̲wagwáal s/he will hit him/her in the face tlél yakk̲wagwaal I won't hit him/her in the face tlél ayakg̲wagwaal s/he won't hit him/her in the face yak̲agwaal let me hit him/her in the face ayag̲agwaal let him/her hit him/her in the face yax̲wagwaalch I hit him/her in the face (every time) ayoogwaalch s/he hits him/her in the face (every time) tlél yax̲wagwaalch I haven't hit him/her in the face yet tlél ayoogwaalch s/he hasn't hit him/her in the face yet tlél aadé ayag̲waagwaali yé no way can s/he hit him/her in the face ayag̲wagwaalín s/he would have hit him/her in the face ayagwálni if/when s/he hits him/her in the face ayagwálx̲ s/he hits him/her in the face (regularly) Du x̲úx̲ kaawashoowú áwé tlei ash yagwálx̲. When her husband is drunk, he hits her. X'áant wunoogú áwé tlei ayagwálx̲. When she gets angry, she hits him. G̲alsháat i k'éek' kaawashoo, tlél ayoogwálx̲ik̲ wé du dlaak̲'. Grab your little brother, he's drunk - don't let him hit his sister. Sh kahaadíx̲ yaa nastéen tlél k̲uwugwálx̲ik̲. He's going crazy, don't let him hit anyone. ring (telephone or bell) sh da-gwaal~ (ø act) for a telephone or bell to ring ya-gwaal sh dagwáal it's ringing [does not occur] sh wudigwál it rang tlél sh wudagwaal it didn't ring sh gux̲dagwáal it will ring tlél sh gux̲dagwaal it won't ring [does not occur] sh udagwaalch it rings (every time) tlél sh udagwaalch it hasn't rung yet tlél aadé sh g̲wadigwaali yé no way can it ring sh g̲wadagwaalín it would have rung sh dagwálni if/when it rings sh dagwálx̲ it rings (regularly) beat up jaak̲w1 beat up, assault, attack beat him/her up; assault him/her; attack him/her O-S-ø-jáak̲w (na act) for S to beat up, assault, violently attack O ya-jaak̲w Najáak̲w! Beat him/her up! Nayjáak̲w! You all beat him/her up! Líl eejáag̲uk̲! Don't beat him/her up! Líl yijáag̲uk̲! Don't you all beat him/her up! x̲ajáak̲w I'm beating him/her up ajáak̲w s/he's beating him/her up tlél x̲wajáak̲w I'm not beating him/her up tlél oojáak̲w s/he's not beating him/her up yaa nx̲aják̲w I'm beating him/her up yaa anaják̲w s/he's beating him/her up x̲waajáak̲w I beat him/her up aawajáak̲w s/he beat him/her up tlél x̲wajáak̲w I didn't beat him/her up tlél awujáak̲w s/he didn't beat him/her up kuk̲ajáak̲w I will beat him/her up akg̲wajáak̲w s/he will beat him/her up tlél kuk̲ajáak̲w I won't beat him/her up tlél akg̲wajáak̲w s/he won't beat him/her up nak̲ajáak̲w let me beat him/her up nag̲ajáak̲w let him/her beat him/her up nax̲ajáak̲wch I beat him/her up (every time) anajáak̲wch s/he beats him/her up (every time) tlél nax̲wajáak̲wch I haven't beat him/her up yet tlél oonajáak̲wch s/he hasn't beat him/her up yet tlél aadé nak̲waajáag̲u yé no way can I beat him/her up tlél aadé oong̲aajáag̲u yé no way can s/he beat him/her up nak̲wajáag̲un I would have beat him/her up oong̲ajáag̲un s/he would have beat him/her up nax̲aják̲wni if/when I beat him/her up anaják̲wni if/when s/he beats him/her up yoo x̲aajáak̲wk I beat him/her up (regularly) yoo ayajáak̲wk s/he beats him/her up (regularly) Tlákw kaawashoowú áwé anajáak̲wch. Whenever he's drunk, he beats him up. Tlél x̲wajáak̲w, ch'a g̲óot k̲áach áwé woojáak̲w. I didn't beat him up, some other guy beat him up. bed taaʰ1 (2) bed put him/her to bed (singular) O-S-s-taaʰ~ (na event) for S to put (singular) O to bed si-taa Nastá! Put him/her to bed! Líl isateix̲ík̲! Don't put him to bed! [does not occur] x̲wasitaa I put him/her to bed aswitaa s/he put him/her to bed tlél x̲wasataa I didn't put him/her to bed tlél awustaa s/he didn't put him/her to bed agux̲satáa s/he will put him/her to bed tlél agux̲sataa s/he won't put him/her to bed (ch'a) anax̲sataa / anax̲sataayí let him/her put him/her to bed anasteich s/he puts him/her to bed (every time) tlél oonasteich s/he hasn't put him/her to bed yet tlél aadé oonax̲sitaayi yé no way can s/he put him/her to bed oonax̲sataayín s/he would have put him/her to bed anastéini if/when s/he puts him/her to bed asteix̲ s/he puts him/her to bed (regularly) Du sée anastéini ch'a yóok' k̲eex̲'éix' kei kg̲wasgéet. If she puts him to bed early, he'll wake up early. I yéet nastá! Put your son to bed (to sleep)! [Story & Naish 1973: 27]. sleep (singular subject) S-ø-taaʰ~ (na act) for (singular) S to sleep, sleep alone ya-taa Natá dé! Go to sleep now! Líl eeteex̲ík̲! Don't go to sleep! tá s/he is sleeping tlél utá s/he isn't sleeping wootaa s/he slept tlél wutaa s/he didn't sleep gug̲atáa s/he will sleep tlél gug̲ataa s/he won't sleep nag̲ataa let him/her sleep nateich s/he sleeps (every time) tlél unateich s/he hasn't slept yet tlél aadé ung̲aataayi yé no way can s/he sleep nag̲wataayín s/he would have slept natéini if/when s/he sleeps teix̲ s/he sleeps (regularly) bed x̲eix'w (2) bed put them to bed (plural) O-S-s-x̲éix'w~ (na event) for S to put (plural) O to bed si-x̲eix'w Nasx̲éix'w! Put them to bed! Naysax̲éix'w! You all put them to bed! Líl yoo isax̲éx'wguk̲! Don't put them to bed! Líl yoo yisax̲éx'wguk̲! Don't you all put them to bed! [does not occur] x̲wasix̲éix'w I put them to bed awsix̲éix'w s/he put them to bed tlél x̲wasax̲éix'w I didn't put them to bed tlél awusx̲éix'w s/he didn't put them to bed agux̲sax̲éix'w s/he will put them to bed tlél agux̲sax̲éix'w s/he won't put them to bed anax̲sax̲éix'w let him/her put them to bed anasx̲éx'wch s/he puts them to bed (every time) tlél oonasx̲éx'wch s/he hasn't put them to bed yet tlél aadé oonax̲six̲éix'u yé no way can s/he put them to bed oonax̲sax̲éix'un s/he would have put them to bed anasx̲éx'wni if/when s/he puts them to bed yoo asix̲éx'wk s/he tries to put them to bed Sík', i yátx'i nasx̲éix'w! Daughter, put your children to bed! [Story & Naish 1973: 27] sleep (plural subjects) S-ø-x̲éix'w~ (na act) for (plural) S to sleep, sleep in company with others, go to bed ya-x̲eix'w Nayx̲éix'w! You all go to bed! [does not occur] has x̲éx'w they're sleeping tlél has ux̲éx'w they're not sleeping has woox̲éix'w they slept tlél has wux̲éix'w they didn't sleep has gug̲ax̲éix'w they will go to sleep tlél has gug̲ax̲éix'w they won't go to sleep has nag̲ax̲éix'w let them sleep has nax̲éx'wch they sleep (every time) tlél has unax̲éx'wch they haven't slept yet tlél aadé has ung̲waax̲éix'wi yé no way can they sleep has ung̲wax̲éix'wun they would have slept has nax̲éx'wni if/when they sleep has x̲éx'wx̲ they sleep (regularly) believe heen1 (2) believe, trust believe him/her; trust him/her N éek' a-S-ø-heen (ga state) for S to believe, trust, believe in N A-k' + a-ya-heen Du éek' agaheen! Believe him/her! Du éek' agayheen! You all believe him/her! Líl du éek' eeheeník̲! Don't believe him/her! Líl du éek' yiheeník̲! Don't you all believe him/her! du éek' ayaheen s/he believes him/her tlél du éek' ooheen s/he doesn't believe him/her du éek' aawaheen s/he believed him/her tlél du éek' awuheen s/he didn't believe him/her du éek' kei akg̲waheen s/he will believe him tlél du éek' kei akg̲waheen s/he won't believe him [does not occur] [does not occur] [does not occur] tlél aadé du éek' akg̲waaheeni yé no way can s/he believe him/her du éek' akg̲waheenín s/he would have believed him/her du éek' agaheenní if s/he believes him/her [does not occur] trust oneself, have confidence in oneself sh tóok' a-S-d-heen (na state) for S to trust oneself, have confidence in oneself sh tóo-k' + a-di-heen Sh tóok' anidaheen! Have confidence in yourself! Sh tóok' anaydaheen! You all have confidence in yourselves! sh tóok' ax̲diheen I have confidence in myself sh tóok' adiheen s/he has confidence in himself/herself tlél sh tóok' oox̲daheen I don't have confidence in myself tlél sh tóok' oodaheen s/he doesn't have confidence in himself/herself sh tóok' awdiheen s/he had confidence in himself/herself tlél sh tóok' awdaheen s/he didn't have confidence in himself/herself sh tóok' agux̲daheen s/he will have confidence in himself/herself tlél sh tóok' agux̲daheen s/he won't have confidence in himself/herself (ch'a) sh tóok' anax̲daheen (just) let him/her have confidence in himself/herself sh tóok' andaheench s/he has confidence in himself/herself (every time) tlél sh tóok' oondaheench s/he doesn't have confidence in himself/herself yet tlél aadé sh tóok' anax̲wdiheeni yé no way can s/he have confidence in himself/herself sh tóok' anax̲wdaheenín s/he would have had confidence in himself/herself sh tóok' andaheenní if/when s/he has confidence in himself/herself sh tóok' yoo adiheenk s/he gets confident in himself/herself (regularly) Sh tóok' eedaheení yakg̲eedláak̲ wé Lingít yoo x̲'atángi. If you believe in yourself, you'll learn how to speak the Tlingit language. Tlél tlax̲ sh tóok' oox̲daheen. I don't ever trust myself. [Story & Naish 1973: 235] Tlax̲ a yáanáx̲ sh tóok' adiheen. He has more confidence in himself than in anybody. [Story & Naish 1973: 235] bend gwaatl (7) roll, rock, fold up, bend, astonished roll it (log, barrel, etc.) Note that the forms listed here have the ka- thematic prefix (akawligwáatl), while Story & Naish (1973) document it without this prefix (awligwáatl). According to speakers consulted for this project, both forms are acceptable and mean the same thing. O-ka-S-l-gwáatl~ (na motion) for S to roll O (log, barrel, etc.) li-gwaatl Kanalgwáatl! Roll it! Kanaylagwáatl! You all roll it! Líl yoo keelagwátlgik̲! Don't roll it! Líl yoo kaylagwátlgik̲! Don't you all roll it! [does not occur] yaa akanalgwátl s/he is rolling it kax̲wligwáatl I rolled it akawligwáatl s/he rolled it tlél kax̲wlagwáatl I didn't roll it tlél akawulgwáatl s/he didn't roll it akagux̲lagwáatl s/he will roll it tlél akagux̲lagwáatl s/he won't roll it akanax̲lagwáatl let him/her roll it akanalgwátlch s/he rolls it (every time) tlél akoonalgwátlch s/he hasn't rolled it yet tlél aadé akoonax̲ligwáadli yé no way can s/he roll it akoonax̲lagwáadlin s/he would have rolled it akanalgwátlni if/when s/he rolls it yoo akligwátlk s/he rolls it (regularly) Káast yaa nax̲lagwátl. I am rolling a barrel. [Story & Naish 1973: 175] Héent sh wudligwátl. He rolled himself into the water. [Story & Naish 1973: 175] bend limb (arm, leg); fold up (paper, etc.) in loose roll Note that although the translation given throughout the paradigm here is given as "bend a limb", this verb can also mean "fold something up in a loose roll." Just replace du t'eeyshú "his/her elbow" with x'úx' "paper" or some other flexible object to convey the meaning "fold up". O-ka-S-l-gwaatl~ (Ø act; CV́C Hort/Pot) for S to bend O (limb); for S to fold up O (paper, etc.) in a loose roll ka-li-gwaatl (I t'eeyshú) kalagwátl! Bend (your elbow)! Líl (i t'eeyshú) keelagwátlx̲ik̲! Don't bend (your elbow)! (du t'eeyshú) aklagwáatl s/he is bending (his/her elbow) (du t'eeyshú) yaa akanalgwátl s/he is starting to bend (his/her elbow) (ax̲ t'eeyshú) kax̲wligwátl I bent (my elbow) (du t'eeyshú) akawligwátl s/he bent (his/her elbow) tlél (ax̲ t'eeyshú) kax̲wlagwaatl I didn't bend (my elbow) tlél (du t'eeyshú) akawulgwaatl s/he didn't bend (his/her elbow) (du t'eeyshú) akagux̲lagwáatl s/he will bend (his/her elbow) tlél (du t'eeyshú) akagux̲lagwaatl s/he won't bend (his/her elbow) (du t'eeyshú) akax̲lagwátl let him/her bend (his/her elbow) (du t'eeyshú) akoolgwátlch s/he bends (his/her elbow) (every time) (du t'eeyshú) tlél akoolgwátlch s/he hasn't bent (his/her elbow) yet (du t'eeyshú) tlél aadé akoox̲ligwádli yé no way can s/he bend (his/her elbow) (du t'eeyshú) akoox̲lagwádlin s/he would have bent (his/her elbow) (du t'eeyshú) aklagwátlni if/when s/he bends (his/her elbow) (du t'eeyshú) aklagwátlx̲ s/he bends (his/her elbow) (regularly) Tléináx̲ aanáx̲ k̲u.aa ch'a aklagwátlx̲. He can bend one leg. [Story & Naish 1973: 28] Tlél du x̲eek akawulgwaatl. He didn't bend his arm. [Story & Naish 1973: 28] Du keeyshá akawligwátl. He bent his knee. Du t'eeyshú akawligwátl. She bent her elbow. Wé x'úx' akawligwátl. She folded up the paper in a loose roll. roll (of spherical object) P-t~ ka-ø-gwáatl~ (ø motion) for a spherical object to roll to P ka-ya-gwaatl [does not occur] aadé yaa kanagwátl it's rolling to it át kaawagwátl it rolled to it tlél át kawugwáatl it didn't roll to it aadé kakg̲wagwáatl it will roll to it tlél aadé kakg̲wagwáatl it won't roll to it át kag̲agwáatl let it roll to it át koogwáatlch it rolls to it (every time) tlél át koogwáatlch it hasn't rolled to it yet tlél aadé át koog̲waagwáadli yé no way can it roll to it át koog̲wagwáadlin it would have rolled to it át kagwátlni if/when it rolls to it áx̲ kagwáatl it rolls to it (regularly) astonished, flabbergasted, be left open-mouthed O-k̲'a-d-gwáatl~ (Ø event; CV́C Hort/Pot) for O to be astonished, flabbergasted, left open-mouthed k̲'a-di-gwaatl [does not occur] yaa k̲'andagwátl s/he is getting to be astonished x̲at k̲'awdigwátl I'm astonished k̲'awdigwátl s/he is astonished tlél x̲at k̲'awdagwáatl I'm not astonished tlél k̲'awdagwáatl she's not astonished k̲'agux̲dagwáatl s/he is going to be astonished tlél k̲'agux̲dagwáatl s/he isn't going to be astonished (ch'a) k̲'ax̲dagwátl (just) let him/her be astonished k̲'eidagwátlch s/he is astonished (every time) tlél k̲'eidagwátlch s/he hasn't been astonished yet tlél aadé k̲'eix̲digwádli yé no way can s/he be astonished k̲'eix̲dagwádlin s/he would have been astonished k̲'adagwátlni if/when s/he is astonished k̲'adagwátlch s/he is astonished (regularly) X̲at k̲'awdigwátl wé i shkalneegí. I'm very surprised at what you are telling me. [Story & Naish 1973: 23] capsize, overturn (of canoe, boat) III áa yax̲ ø-gwáatl~ (Ø motion) for a boat to capsize, overturn áa + yax̲ ya-gwaatl [does not occur] áa yax̲ yaa nagwátl it's starting to capsize áa yax̲ uwagwátl it capsized tlél áa yax̲ wugwáatl it didn't capsize áa yax̲ gug̲wagwáatl it's going to capsize tlél áa yax̲ gug̲wagwáatl it's not going to capsize (ch'a) áa yax̲ g̲agwáatl (just) let it capsize áa yax̲ ugwáatlch it capsizes (every time) tlél áa yax̲ ugwáatlch it hasn't capsized yet tlél aadé áa yax̲ g̲waagwáadli yé no way can it capsize áa yax̲ g̲wagwáadlin it would have capsized áa yax̲ gwátlni if/when it capsizes áa yax̲ gwátlx̲ it capsizes (regularly) Áa yax̲ gwátlni yánde has kagux̲dat'áach. When it capsizes, they'll swim ashore. Du yaagú du een áa yax̲ uwagwátl. His boat capsized with him. [Story & Naish 1973: 41] rock, roll it (canoe, boat) Note that this verb theme has two ka- prefixes. However the future verb form that was provided by the consultant has only one ka- prefix (át akagux̲lagwáatl), possibly because two ka- prefixes are expecially awkward to pronounce in the future form. P-t O-ka-ka-S-l-gwáatl~ (na motion) for S to rock, roll O (boat) at P ka-ka-li-gwaatl Át kakanalgwáatl! Rock the boat! Át kakanaylagwáatl! You all rock the boat! Líl át kakaylagwáadlik̲! Don't rock the boat! Líl át kakayeeylagwáadlik̲! Don't you all rock the boat! [does not occur] át kakax̲wligwáatl I am rocking the boat; I rocked the boat át akakawligwáatl s/he is rocking the boat; s/he rocked the boat tlél át kakax̲wlagwáatl I'm not rocking the boat; I didn't rock the boat tlél át akakawulgwáatl s/he isn't rocking the boat át akagux̲lagwáatl s/he will rock the boat tlél át akagux̲lagwáatl s/he won't rock the boat (ch'a) át akakanax̲lagwáatl (just) let him/her rock the boat át akakanalgwátlch s/he rocks the boat (every time) tlél át akakoonalgwátlch s/he hasn't rocked the boat yet tlél aadé át akakoonax̲ligwáadli yé no way can s/he rock the boat át akakoong̲algwáadlin s/he would have rocked the boat át akakanalgwátlni if/when s/he rocks the boat át yoo akakligwátlk s/he rocks the boat (regularly) Tlél ushk'é yaakw át kakawdulgwáadli. It's bad to roll or rock the boat. [Story & Naish 1973: 175] Yaakw át akakawligwáatl. He's making the boat roll. [Story & Naish 1973: 175] rock, roll (of canoe, boat) Note that this verb theme has two ka- prefixes. However the future verb form that was provided by the consultant has only one ka- prefix (át kakg̲wagwáatl), possibly because two ka- prefixes are expecially awkward to pronounce in the future form. P-t ka-ka-ø-gwáatl~ (na motion) for a canoe, boat to rock, roll around ka-ka-ya-gwaatl [does not occur] át kakaawagwáatl it's rolling around; it rolled around tlél át kakawugwáatl it's not rolling around; it didn't roll around át kakg̲wagwáatl it will roll around tlél át kakg̲wagwáatl it won't roll around (ch'a) át kakang̲agwáatl (just) let it roll around át kakanagwátlch it rolls around (every time) tlél át kakoonagwátlch it hasn't rolled around yet tlél aadé át kakoong̲aagwáadli yé no way can it roll around át kakoong̲agwáadlin it would have rolled around át kakanagwátlni if/when it rolls around át yoo kakayagwátlk it rolls around (regularly) Teet jiwustaaní yaakw át kakanagwátlch. When the waves are beating hard, the boat really rolls. [Story & Naish 1973: 175] bend taan (29) think, feel, give, take, carry, cover, bend, habit, end, rain, snow, speak, rough, rely think over, consider, make up one's mind about (singular subject) N daa yoo tu-S-ø-taan~ (ø act) for (singular) S to think over, consider, make up one's mind about N a daa + tu-ya-taan A daa yoo tutánk! Think about it! Líl a daa yoo teetángik̲! Don't think about it! a daa yoo tux̲aatánk I think about it; I am thinking about it a daa yoo teeyatánk you think about it; you are thinking about it a daa yoo tuwatánk s/he thinks about it; s/he is thinking about it a daa yoo tuduwatánk someone thinks about it; someone is thinking about it tlél a daa yoo tux̲watánk I don't think about it; I'm not thinking about it tlél a daa yoo teetánk you don't think about it; you're not thinking about it tlél a daa yoo tutánk s/he doesn't think about it; she's not thinking about it wé yoo tuwatangi aa the one who thinks about it; the one who is thinking about it [does not occur] a daa yoo tutángin s/he used to think about it a daa yoo tux̲waatán I thought about it a daa yoo teeyatán you thought about it a daa yoo toowatán s/he thought about it tlél a daa yoo tux̲wataan I didn't think about it tlél a daa yoo tuyitaan you didn't think about it tlél a daa yoo tuwutaan s/he didn't think about it a daa yoo tukk̲watáan I will think about it a daa yoo tukg̲eetáan you will think about it a daa yoo tukg̲watáan s/he will think about it tlél a daa yoo tukk̲wataan I won't think about it tlél a daa yoo tukg̲eetaan you won't think about it tlél a daa yoo tukg̲wataan s/he won't think about it a daa yoo tuk̲ataan let me think about it a daa yoo tug̲ataan let him/her think about it a daa yoo tutangi nooch s/he always thinks about it [does not occur] tlél a daa yoo toox̲ataanch I haven't thought about it yet tlél a daa yoo teetaanch you haven't thought about it yet tlél a daa yoo tootaanch s/he hasn't thought about it yet tlél aadé a daa yoo tug̲waataani yé no way can s/he think about it a daa yoo tug̲wataanín s/he would have thought about it a daa yoo tutánni if/when s/he thinks about it a daa yoo tuwatánk s/he thinks about it (regularly) Tlél k̲údáx̲ ch'áakw a daa yoo teetángik̲, héent eeshk'én! Don't think about it too much, just jump in the water! change one's mind; think it over and reconsider, be converted (singular subject) N daatx̲ k̲ux̲ tu-S-d-taan~ (Ø motion)