aa1 (3) sit seated (to have live creature seated there) P-t O-S-s-.aa~ (position) for S to have O (live creature) seated at P si-.aa This verb only occurs in the imperfective. Note that this verb could be used to indicate that one has a child or animal seated, but would generally not be used to refer to an adult. át as.áa s/he has him/her seated there tlél át oos.áa s/he doesn't have him/her seated there [does not occur] [does not occur] situated there (of a building) P-t l-.áa (position) for a building to be situated at P li-.aa This verb only occurs in the imperfective. át la.áa it's situated there tlél át ul.aa it's not situated there [does not occur] [does not occur] sit (for singular subject to be seated) S-ø-.aa~ (position) for (singlular) S to be seated ya-.aa This verb only occurs in the imperfective. Note that a noun phrase with (-t) postposition is used to indicate where one is sitting, but this noun phrase is not required by the verb. For example, one could say: .áa "s/he is sitting", or: át .áa "s/he is sitting there." The plural verb stem is used when indicating that one person is sitting with another, even though the subject is singular. For example, du een k̲éen "s/he is sitting with him/her" or du een x̲ak̲éen "I am sitting with him/her". [does not occur] Líl ee.aayík̲! Don't be sitting! x̲a.áa I sit; I am sitting ee.áa you sit; you are sitting .áa s/he sits; s/he is sitting a.áa someone sits; someone is sitting tlél x̲wa.aa I don't sit; I am not sitting tlél ee.aa you don't sit; you aren't sitting tlél u.aa s/he doesn't sit; s/he isn't sitting wé aa aa the one who sits; the one who is sitting .aayín s/he was sitting tlél oo.aayín s/he wasn't sitting aa2 (2) examine, kiss, consider, think over, come to senses examine, inspect it; judge, assess it N daa ya-S-d-s-.aa~ (na act) for S to examine, inspect, look into, judge, assess N a daa + ya-dzi-.aa A daa yanees.á! Examine it! A daa yanayis.á! You all examine it! Líl a daa yees.éix̲ik̲! Don't examine it! Líl a daa yayis.éix̲ik̲! Don't you all examine it! a daa yas.éix̲ s/he is examining it tlél a daa yoos.éix̲ s/he isn't examining it a daa yawdzi.aa s/he examined it tlél a daa yawus.aa s/he didn't examine it a daa yakg̲was.áa s/he will examine it tlél a daa yakg̲was.aa s/he won't examine it a daa yang̲as.aa let him/her examine it a daa yanas.éich s/he examines it (every time) tlél a daa yoonas.éich s/he hasn't examined it yet tlél aadé a daa yanax̲dzi.aayi yé no way can s/he examine it a daa yang̲was.aayín s/he would have examined it a daa yanas.éini if/when s/he examines it a daa yas.éix̲ s/he examines it (regularly) kiss him/her N x̲'éi-t~ ya-S-d-s-.aa~ (ø motion) for S to kiss N x̲'éi- + ya-dzi-.aa Ax̲ x̲'éit yees.á! Kiss me! Ax̲ x̲'éit yayis.á! You all kiss me! Líl ax̲ x̲'éix̲ yees.aayéek̲! Don't kiss me! Líl ax̲ x̲'éix̲ yayis.aayéek̲! Don't you all kiss me! [does not occur] [does not occur] du x̲'éit yax̲wdzi.áa I kissed him/her ax̲ x̲'éit yaydzi.áa you kissed me ax̲ x̲'éit yawdzi.áa s/he kissed me du x̲'éit yawtudzi.áa we kissed him/her ax̲ x̲'éit yayeeydzi.áa you all kissed me ax̲ x̲'éit has yawdzi.áa they kissed me ax̲ x̲'éit yawdudzi.áa I was kissed tlél du x̲'éit yax̲was.á I didn't kiss him/her tlél ax̲ x̲'éit yayis.á you didn't kiss me tlél ax̲ x̲'éit yawus.á s/he didn't kiss me tlél du x̲'éit yawtoos.á we didn't kiss him/her tlél ax̲ x̲'éit yayeeys.á you all didn't kiss me tlél ax̲ x̲'éit has yawus.á they didn't kiss me tlél ax̲ x̲'éit yawdus.á I wasn't kissed ax̲ x̲'éit yawus.aayín s/he had kissed me; s/he kissed me (but...) tlél ax̲ x̲'éit yawus.aayín s/he hadn't kissed me; s/he didn't kiss me (at the time, but...) wé ax̲ x̲'éit yawdzi.aayi aa the one who kissed me du x̲'éide yakk̲was.áa I will kiss him/her ax̲ x̲'éide yakg̲ees.áa you will kiss me ax̲ x̲'éide yakg̲was.áa s/he will kiss me du x̲'éide yagax̲toos.áa we will kiss him/her ax̲ x̲'éide yagax̲yis.áa you all will kiss me ax̲ x̲'éide has yakg̲was.áa they will kiss me ax̲ x̲'éide yagax̲dus.áa I will be kissed tlél du x̲'éide yakk̲was.aa I won't kiss him/her tlél ax̲ x̲'éide yakg̲is.aa you won't kiss me tlél ax̲ x̲'éide yakg̲was.aa s/he won't kiss me tlél du x̲'éide yagax̲toos.aa we won't kiss him/her tlél ax̲ x̲'éide yagax̲yis.aa you all won't kiss me tlél ax̲ x̲'éide has yakg̲was.aa they won't kiss me tlél ax̲ x̲'éide yagax̲dus.aa I won't be kissed du x̲'éit yak̲as.aa let me kiss him/her ax̲ x̲'éit yag̲as.aa let him/her kiss me du x̲'éit yax̲toos.aa let us kiss him/her du x̲'éit woox̲as.áaych I kiss him/her (every time) ax̲ x̲'éit yees.áaych you kiss me (every time) ax̲ x̲'éit woos.áaych s/he kisses me (every time) du x̲'éit yatoos.áaych we kiss him/her (every time) ax̲ x̲'éit yayis.áaych you all kiss me (every time) ax̲ x̲'éit has woos.áaych they kiss me (every time) ax̲ x̲'éit wudus.áaych I am kissed (every time) tlél du x̲'éit woox̲as.áaych I haven't kissed him/her yet tlél ax̲ x̲'éit yees.áaych you haven't kissed me yet tlél ax̲ x̲'éit woos.áaych s/he hasn't kissed me yet tlél du x̲'éit yatoos.áaych we haven't kissed him/her yet tlél ax̲ x̲'éit yayis.áaych you all haven't kissed me yet tlél ax̲ x̲'éit has woos.áaych they haven't kissed me yet tlél ax̲ x̲'éit wudus.áaych I haven't been kissed yet tlél aadé ax̲ x̲'éit wux̲dzi.aayi yé no way can s/he kiss me ax̲ x̲'éit wug̲as.aayín s/he would have kissed me ax̲ x̲'éit yas.éini if/when s/he kisses me ax̲ x̲'éix̲ yas.aa s/he kisses me (repeatedly) Ax̲ tuwáa sigóo ax̲ x̲'éit yawus.aayí. I want somebody to kiss me. Tlél du x̲'éit yax̲was.aa, ách áwé g̲áax̲. She's crying because I didn't kiss her. Yaa sh k̲'analyél áwé, hél du x̲'éit yax̲was.aa! He's lying, I didn't kiss him! Ax̲ x̲'éit yag̲as.aa x̲'ax̲waawóos' tlei ax̲ nák̲ wujixeex. I asked her to kiss me and she ran away from me. aa3 (7) grow, turn on, flow, run (fish), quake, daylight, celebrate grow it (plant); turn it on (hose) O-ka-S-s-.aa~ (na act) for S to cause O (plant) to grow; for S to turn on O (hose), cause O to flow ka-si-.aa Kanas.á! Grow it! Kanaysa.á! You all grow it! Líl keesa.éix̲ik̲! Don't grow it! Líl kaysa.éix̲ik̲! Don't you all grow it! aksa.éix̲ s/he grows it; s/he's growing it tlél akoos.éix̲ s/he doesn't grow it; s/he isn't growing it akawsi.aa s/he grew it tlél akawus.aa s/he didn't grow it akagux̲sa.áa s/he will grow it tlél akagux̲sa.aa s/he won't grow it akanax̲sa.aa let him/her grow it akanas.éich s/he grows it (every time) tlél akoonas.éich s/he hasn't grown it yet tlél aadé akunax̲si.aayi yé no way can s/he grow it akunax̲sa.aayín s/he would have grown it akanas.éini if/when s/he grows it yoo aksi.éik s/he grows it (regularly) celebrate, set apart (a particular day) Note that Story & Naish (1973) document this verb with the prefix k̲ee- while the speaker consulted here pronounces this k̲ei-. Both are acceptable. O-k̲ei-S-s-.aa~ (na event) for S to celebrate O, set apart O (a particular day) k̲ee-si-.aa O-k̲ee-S-s-.aa~ (na event) K̲einas.á! Celebrate it! K̲einaysa.á! You all celebrate it! Líl yoo k̲eesa.éigik̲! Don't celebrate it! Líl yoo k̲eeysa.éigik̲! Don't you all celebrate it! [does not occur] yaa ak̲einas.éin s/he is celebrating it k̲eix̲wsi.aa I celebrated it ak̲eiwsi.aa s/he celebrated it tlél k̲eix̲wsa.aa I didn't celebrate it tlél ak̲eiwus.aa s/he didn't celebrate it ak̲eigux̲sa.áa s/he will celebrate it tlél ak̲eigux̲sa.aa s/he won't celebrate it ak̲einax̲sa.aa let him/her celebrate it ak̲einas.éich s/he celebrates it (every time) tlél ak̲einas.éich s/he hasn't celebrated it yet tlél aadé ak̲einax̲si.aayi yé no way can s/he celebrate it ak̲einax̲sa.aayín s/he would have celebrated it ak̲einas.éini if/when s/he celebrates it yoo ak̲eisi.éik s/he celebrates it (regularly) Du kayageeyí k̲eewdudzi.aa. They celebrated his birthday. [Story & Naish 1973: 44] Christmas has ak̲eegux̲sa.áa. They are going to celebrate Christmas. [Story & Naish 1973: 44] Du yagiyeeyí k̲eiwdus.aayí a kaax̲ du toowú yak'éi. He was real happy that they celebrated his birthday. grow (of plant); flow, pour forth (of water) ka-ø-.aa~ (na act) for a plant to grow; for a stream of water to flow, pour forth ka-ya-.aa ka.éix̲ it grows; it's growing tlél koo.éix̲ it doesn't grow; it's not growing yaa kana.éin it's growing kaawa.aa it grew tlél kawu.aa it didn't grow kei kakg̲wa.áa it will grow tlél kei kakg̲wa.aa it won't grow kang̲a.aa let it grow kana.éich it grows (every time) tlél koona.éich it hasn't grown yet tlél aadé koong̲aa.aayi yé no way can it grow koong̲a.aayín it would have grown kana.éini if/when it grows yoo kaya.éik it grows (regularly) grow (of plant) ka-s-.aa~ (na act) for a plant to grow ka-si-.aa In classical Tlingit, this verb meant specifically for a plant with a long stalk to grow (the length of the plant indicated by the s- classifier), however this meaning has been lost for most current speakers, and now just means for a plant in general to grow. kasa.éix̲ it grows; it's growing tlél koos.éix̲ it doesn't grow; it's not growing kei kanas.éin it's growing kawsi.aa it grew tlél kawus.aa it didn't grow kagux̲sa.áa it will grow tlél kagux̲sa.aa it won't grow kanax̲sa.aa let it grow kanas.éich it grows (every time) tlél koonas.éich it hasn't grown yet tlél aadé kunax̲si.aayi yé no way can it grow kunax̲sa.aayín it would have grown kanas.éini if/when it grows yoo ksi.éik it grows (regularly) daylight (become daylight, dawn) k̲ei-ø-.aa (na event) for it to become daylight, dawn k̲ee-ya-.aa k̲ee-ø-.aa (na event) [does not occur] yaa k̲eina.éin it's getting to be daylight k̲eiwa.aa it's daylight tlél k̲eiwu.aa it's not daylight k̲eikg̲wa.áa it will be daylight tlél k̲eikg̲wa.aa it won't be daylight (ch'a) k̲eing̲a.aa (just) let it be daylight k̲eina.éich it's daylight (every time) (at 6:00 for example) tlél k̲eina.éich it's not daylight yet k̲eina.éini if/when it's daylight Tlél k̲eikg̲wa.aa déix̲ gaaw x̲'áanáx̲. It won't be daylight within the next two hours. Gu.aal k̲eiwa.aak̲. I hope it's daylight. Ch'a tlákw ts'ootaat k̲eina.éich tleidooshú gaawx'. Every morning it's daylight at six. K'idéin k̲eiwu.aayí gax̲too.áat. When it's daylight, we'll go. run, migrate (of fish) VII ya-ø-.aa~ (na motion) for fish to run, migrate --- Leer 1973: 02/14 [does not occur] yaa yana.éin the fish are running yaawa.aa the fish are running; the fish ran tlél yawu.aa the fish aren't running; the fish didn't run yakg̲wa.áa the fish will run tlél yakg̲wa.aa the fish won't run yang̲a.aa let the fish run yana.éich the fish run (every time) tlél woona.éich the fish haven't run yet tlél aadé woong̲aa.aayi yé no way can the fish run woong̲a.aayín the fish would have run yana.éini if/when the fish run yoo yaa.éik the fish run (regularly) Tsa yóok' yang̲a.aa yá x̲áat yéi has oolx̲éis'. Let the salmon run early, this is what they're wishing for. Taakw.eetíx' áwé yoo yaya.éik wé g̲aat. The sockeye run in the spring. run, migrate (of fish) II P-t~ ya-ø-.aa~ (Ø motion) for fish to run at P --- Leer 1973: 02/14 [does not occur] aadé yaa yana.éin the fish are running there át yaawa.áa the fish ran there tlél át yawu.á the fish didn't run there aadé yakg̲wa.áa the fish will run there tlél aadé yakg̲wa.aa the fish won't run there át yag̲a.aa let the fish run there át yoo.áaych the fish run there (every time) tlél át yoo.áaych the fish haven't run there yet tlél aadé át yag̲waa.aayi yé no way can the fish run there át yag̲wa.aayín the fish would have run there át ya.éini if/when the fish run there áx̲ ya.aa the fish run there (regularly) Wé x̲áat tlél át yawu.á a x̲'anaa has awsihát. The salmon didn't run there, they blocked it off. Haa x̲ánt yaawa.áa. The fish run came to our area. at yana.á fish run at yana.á dísi March (fish run month) aak1 fire build a fire shóo-t~ a-S-d-.aak~ (ø event) for S to build a fire (using wood) shóo- + a-di-.aak Shóot eeda.ák! Build a fire! Shóot ayda.ák! You all build a fire! Líl shóox̲ eeda.aagík̲! Don't build a fire! Líl shóox̲ ayda.aagík̲! Don't you all build a fire! [does not occur] [does not occur] shóot ax̲wdi.ák I built a fire shóot awdi.ák s/he built a fire tlél shóot ax̲wda.aak I didn't build a fire tlél shóot awda.aak s/he didn't build a fire shóode akk̲wada.áak I will build a fire shóode agux̲da.áak s/he will build a fire tlél shóode akk̲wada.aak I won't build a fire tlél shóode agux̲da.aak s/he won't build a fire shóot ak̲da.aak let me build a fire shóot ax̲da.aak let him/her build a fire shóot oox̲da.aakch I build a fire (every time) shóot ooda.aakch s/he builds a fire (every time) tlél shóot oox̲da.aakch I haven't built a fire yet tlél shóot ooda.aakch s/he hasn't built a fire yet tlél aadé shóot oox̲di.aagi yé no way can s/he build a fire shóot oox̲da.aagín s/he would have built a fire shóot ada.ákni if/when s/he builds a fire shóox̲ ada.aak s/he builds a fire (regularly) aak3 paralyzed paralyzed (with fright, shock, or surprise), panic, be incapable of action Note that Story & Naish (1973) document this verb as having the stem: .eik, while the speaker consulted for this project (from Kake) pronounces the verb with the stem: .aak. Leer (1973) documents both stem pronunciations in his notes, indicating that the .aak variant is used in Yakutat. Story & Naish (1973) provide an example sentence of this verb in the perfective form, having a long high vowel in the verb stem, which would indicate that the verb belongs to the na, ga, or g̲a conjugation category. For the speaker consulted here, the verb belongs to the Ø conjugation category. Leer (1973) documents two perfective forms: wudi.ék (Ø conjugation) and wudi.éik (na, ga, or g̲a conjugation). It appears that this is a dual conjugation verb, however more research is necessary to determine which of the conjugation categories it belongs to. O-d-.áak~ (Ø event; CV́C Hort/Pot) for O to be paralyzed with fright, shock or surprise; for O to panic, be incapable of action di-.eik Leer 1973: 02/210-212 O-d-.éik~ (Ø event; CV́C Hort/Pot) [does not occur] x̲at wudi.ák I was paralyzed with fear wudi.ák s/he was paralyzed with fear tlél x̲at wuda.áak I wasn't paralyzed with fear tlél wuda.áak s/he wasn't paralyzed with fear gux̲da.áak s/he will be paralyzed with fear tlél gux̲da.áak s/he won't be paralyzed with fear (ch'a) g̲ada.ák (just) let him/her be paralyzed with fear uda.ákch s/he is paralyzed with fear (every time) tlél uda.ákch s/he hasn't been paralyzed with fear yet tlél aadé ux̲di.ági yé no way can s/he be paralyzed with fear ux̲da.ágin s/he would have been paralyzed with fear da.ákni if/when s/he is paralyzed with fear da.ákx̲ s/he is paralyzed with fear (regularly) X̲at wudi.éik. It paralyzed me / I was so shocked I couldn't act. [Story & Naish 1973: 145] Áa wudi.ék. (While climbing a high ladder, e.g.) he became incapable of going any further. [Leer 1973: 02/211] aak̲w (7) give orders, decide, plan, try try it, attempt it Note that in classical Tlingit, this verb had a thematic prefix (u-) which seems to be falling out of modern day speech, especially in the imperative form for this verb. This is indicated in the theme as (u)-. Alternate forms given here show one form with the thematic (u)- and one without, both of which are acceptable in modern speech. O-ka-(u)-S-ø-.aak̲w (na act) for S to try, attempt O ka-ya-.aak̲w Kana.aak̲w! / Kuna.aak̲w! Try it! Kanay.aak̲w! / Kunay.aak̲w! You all try it! Líl kee.aag̲úk̲! Don't try it! Líl keey.aag̲úk̲! Don't you all try it! kax̲wa.aak̲w I am trying it akoo.aak̲w s/he is trying it tlél kax̲wa.aak̲w I'm not trying it tlél akoo.aak̲w s/he isn't trying it yaa akuna.ák̲w s/he is starting to try it kax̲waa.aak̲w I tried it akaawa.aak̲w s/he tried it tlél kax̲wa.aak̲w I didn't try it tlél akawu.aak̲w s/he didn't try it akakg̲wa.aak̲w s/he will try it tlél akakg̲wa.aak̲w s/he won't try it akang̲a.aak̲w let him/her try it akuna.aak̲wch s/he tries it (every time) tlél akuna.aak̲wch s/he hasn't tried it yet tlél aadé akoong̲aa.aag̲u yé no way can s/he try it akoong̲a.aag̲ún s/he would have tried it akuna.aak̲wní if/when s/he tries it yoo akuya.aak̲wk s/he tries it (regularly) Akoo.aak̲w wé yéi jiné. He's giving the job a try. [Leer 1976:121.] plan it O-ka-S-ø-.aak̲w~ (Ø act) for S to plan O ka-ya-.aak̲w Ka.ák̲w! Plan it! Kay.ák̲w! You all plan it! Líl kayi.aag̲úk̲! Don't plan it! Líl kayeey.aag̲úk̲! Don't you all plan it! kax̲wa.aak̲w I am planning it akoo.aak̲w s/he is planning it yaa akana.ák̲w s/he is starting to plan it kax̲waa.ák̲w I planned it akaawa.ák̲w s/he planned it tlél kax̲wa.aak̲w I didn't plan it tlél akawu.aak̲w s/he didn't plan it akakg̲wa.áak̲w s/he will plan it tlél akakg̲wa.aak̲w s/he won't plan it akag̲a.aak̲w let him/her plan it akoo.aak̲wch s/he plans it (every time) tlél akoo.aak̲wch s/he hasn't planned it yet tlél aadé akoog̲aa.aag̲u yé no way can s/he plan it akoog̲a.aag̲ún s/he would have planned it aka.ák̲wni if/when s/he plans it aka.ák̲wx̲ s/he plans it Has du k̲u.éex'i has akaawa.ák̲w. They have all the plans set for their party. [Leer 1976:121.] order him/her, give him/her instructions (esp. concerning work) át O-ji-ka-u-S-ø-.aak̲w~ (na act) for S to give O orders, instructions (esp. concerning work) ji-ka-ya-.aak̲w Át jikuna.aak̲w! Give him/her things to do! Át jikunay.aak̲w! You all give him/her things to do! Líl át jikayi.aag̲úk̲! Don't give him/her things to do! Líl át jikayeey.aag̲úk̲! Don't you all give him/her things to do! át jikoox̲a.aak̲w I am giving him/her things to do; I give him/her things to do át ajikoo.aak̲w s/he is giving him/her things to do; s/he gives him/her things to do át yaa ajikuna.ák̲w s/he is starting to give him/her things to do át jikax̲waa.aak̲w I gave him/her things to do át ajikaawa.aak̲w s/he gave him/her things to do tlél át jikax̲wa.aak̲w I didn't give him/her things to do tlél át ajikawu.aak̲w s/he didn't give him/her things to do át ajikakg̲wa.áak̲w s/he will give him/her things to do tlél át ajikakg̲wa.aak̲w s/he won't give him/her things to do át ajikang̲a.aak̲w let him/her give him/her things to do át ajikuna.ák̲wch s/he gives him/her things to do (every time) tlél át ajikoona.ák̲wch s/he hasn't given him/her things to do yet tlél aadé át ajikung̲aa.aag̲u yé no way can s/he give him/her things to do át ajikung̲a.aag̲ún s/he would have given him/her things to do át ajikuna.ák̲wni if/when s/he gives him/her things to do át yoo ajikuya.ák̲wk s/he gives him/her things to do (regularly) Át ajikung̲a.aag̲ún tlél k̲wá haat wugoot. She would have given him things to do but he didn't come. give him/her orders; command, instruct him/her át O-ka-S-ø-.aak̲w~ (na event) for S to give orders to, command, instruct O át + ka-ya-.aak̲w Át kana.aak̲w! Give him/her orders! Át kanay.aak̲w! You all give him/her orders! Líl át kayi.aag̲úk̲! Don't give him/her orders! Líl át kayeey.aag̲úk̲! Don't you all give him/her orders! [does not occur] át kax̲waa.aak̲w I gave him/her orders át akaawa.aak̲w s/he gave him/her orders tlél át kax̲wa.aak̲w I didn't give him/her orders tlél át akawu.aak̲w s/he didn't give him/her orders át kakk̲wa.áak̲w I will give him/her orders át akakg̲wa.áak̲w s/he will give him/her orders tlél át kakk̲wa.aak̲w I won't give him/her orders tlél át akakg̲wa.aak̲w s/he won't give him/her orders át kank̲a.aak̲w let me give him/her orders át akang̲a.aak̲w let him/her give him/her orders át kanx̲a.ák̲wch I give him/her orders (every time) át akana.ák̲wch s/he gives him/her orders (every time) tlél át koonx̲a.ák̲wch I haven't given him/her orders yet tlél át akoona.ák̲wch s/he hasn't given him/her orders yet tlél aadé át akoong̲aa.aag̲u yé no way can s/he give him/her orders át akoong̲a.aag̲ún s/he would have given him/her orders át akana.ák̲wni if/when s/he gives him/her orders át yoo akaya.ák̲wk s/he gives him/her orders (regularly) Át akaawa.aak̲w wé yéi jiné. He's directing/supervising the job. [Leer 1976:121.] Át sh kawdi.aak̲w. He's telling himself to do it (being his own boss). give him/her an opportunity to speak; give him/her directions as to what to say This is one of a group of verb themes sharing the stem -.aak̲w which in classical Tlingit had the thematic prefix (u-). This prefix seems to be falling out of modern day speech in some of the forms, and is indicated in the theme as (u)-. Alternate forms given here show one form with the thematic (u)- and one without, both of which are acceptable in modern speech. O-x̲'a-ka-(u)-S-ø-.aak̲w (na act) for S to give O an opportunity to speak; for S to give O directions as to what to say --- X̲'akuna.aak̲w! / X̲'akana.aak̲w Give him/her an opportunity to speak! X̲'akunay.aak̲w! / X̲'akanay.aak̲w You all give him/her an opportunity to speak! Líl yoo x̲'akee.aag̲úk̲! Don't give him/her an opportunity to speak! Líl yoo x̲'akay.aag̲úk̲! Don't you all give him/her an opportunity to speak! ax̲'akoo.aak̲w s/he is giving him/her an opportunity to speak x̲'akax̲waa.aak̲w I gave him/her an opportunity to speak ax̲'akaawa.aak̲w s/he gave him/her an opportunity to speak tlél ax̲'akawu.aak̲w s/he didn't give him/her an opportunity to speak ax̲'akakg̲wa.aak̲w s/he will give him/her an opportunity to speak tlél ax̲'akakg̲wa.aak̲w s/he won't give him/her an opportunity to speak ax̲'akung̲a.aak̲w / ax̲'akang̲a.aak̲w let him/her give him/her an opportunity to speak ax̲'akuna.aak̲wch / ax̲'akana.aak̲wch s/he gives him/her an opportunity to speak (every time) tlél ax̲'akoona.aak̲wch s/he hasn't given him/her an opportunity to speak yet tlél aadé ax̲'akoong̲aa.aag̲u yé no way can s/he give him/her an opportunity to speak ax̲'akoong̲a.aag̲ún s/he would have given him/her an opportunity to speak ax̲'akuna.aak̲wní / ax̲'akana.aak̲wní if/when s/he gives him/her an opportunity to speak yoo ax̲'akaya.aak̲wk s/he gives him/her an opportunity to speak (regularly) Ax̲'akaawa.aak̲w yoo x̲'atánk k̲óot x̲'ag̲ataaní. He asked him to say a few words (to the other tribe). decide about it; plan it yan~ O-ka-S-ø-.aak̲w~ (ø motion) for S to make a decision about O; for S to finish planning O --- Yan ka.ák̲w (dé)! Make a decision (now)! Yan kay.ák̲w (dé)! You all make a decision (now)! Líl yan kayi.aag̲úk̲ (tsá)! Don't make a decision (yet)! Líl yan kayeey.aag̲úk̲ (tsá)! Don't you all make a decision (yet)! [does not occur] yánde yaa kanx̲a.ák̲w I'm making a decision yánde yaa akana.ák̲w s/he's making a decision yan kax̲waa.ák̲w I made a decision yan akaawa.ák̲w s/he made a decision tlél yan kax̲wa.aak̲w I didn't make a decision tlél yan akaawa.aak̲w s/he didn't make a decision yánde kakk̲wa.áak̲w I will make a decision yánde akakg̲wa.áak̲w s/he will make a decision tlél yánde kakk̲wa.aak̲w I won't make a decision tlél yánde akakg̲wa.aak̲w s/he won't make a decision yan kak̲a.aak̲w let me make a decision yan akag̲a.aak̲w let him/her make a decision yan koox̲a.aak̲wch I make a decision (every time) yan akoo.aak̲wch s/he makes a decision (every time) tlél yan koox̲a.aak̲wch I haven't made a decision yet tlél yan akoo.aak̲wch s/he hasn't made a decision yet tlél aadé yan kook̲aa.aag̲u yé no way can I make a decision tlél aadé yan akoog̲aa.aag̲u yé no way can s/he make a decision yan kook̲a.aag̲ún I would have made a decision yan akoog̲a.aag̲ún s/he would have made a decision yan kax̲a.ák̲wni if/when I make a decision yan aka.ák̲wni if/when s/he makes a decision [does not occur] order oneself to do it; make oneself do it át sh ji-ka-S-d-.aak̲w~ (na event) for S to make oneself do something --- Át sh jikanida.aak̲w! Make yourself do it! Át sh jikanayda.aak̲w! Make yourselves do it! Líl át sh jikayida.aag̲úk̲! Don't make yourself do it! Líl át sh jikayeeyda.aag̲úk̲! Don't make yourselves do it! [does not occur] át sh jikax̲wdi.aak̲w I made myself do it át sh jikawdi.aak̲w s/he made herself/himself do it tlél át sh jikawda.aak̲w s/he didn't make herself/himself do it át sh jikagux̲da.áak̲w s/he will make herself/himself do it tlél át sh jikagux̲da.aak̲w s/he won't make herself/himself do it át sh jikanax̲da.aak̲w let him/her make himself/herself do it át sh jikanda.ák̲wch s/he makes herself/himself do it (every time) tlél át sh jikoonda.ák̲wch s/he hasn't made herself/himself do it yet tlél aadé át sh jikoonax̲di.aag̲u yé no way can s/he make herself/himself do it át sh jikoonax̲da.aag̲ún s/he would have made herself/himself do it át sh jikunda.ák̲wní if/when s/he makes herself/himself do it át yoo sh jikadi.ák̲wk s/he makes herself/himself do it (regularly) Du ée kei kg̲wak'éi á́t sh jikunda.ák̲wní. It will be good for him if he makes himself do it. aan1 (2) kind, good-looking kind, gentle O-tu-l-.aan (ga state) for O to be kind, gentle tu-li-.aan Itukla.aan! Be kind! Yee tukla.aan! You all be kind! x̲at tuli.aan I am kind tuli.aan s/he is kind tlél x̲at tool.aan I'm not kind tlél tool.aan s/he isn't kind [does not occur] [does not occur] kei x̲at tugux̲la.aan I will be kind kei tugux̲la.aan s/he will be kind tlél kei x̲at tugux̲la.aan I won't be kind tlél kei tugux̲la.aan s/he won't be kind x̲at tugax̲la.aan let me be kind tugax̲la.aan let him/her be kind [does not occur] [does not occur] [does not occur] [does not occur] tukla.aanní if/when s/he is kind kei tula.aanch s/he is kind (regularly) attractive, good-looking, pleasant-faced To apply this verb to a non-human, remove the ya- thematic prefix, as in: kasi.aan du naa.ádi "his clothes are attractive". O-ya-ka-s-.aan (ga state) for O to be attractive, good-looking, pleasant-faced ya-ka-si-.aan x̲at yaksi.aan I am good-looking yaksi.aan s/he is good-looking tlél x̲at yakoos.aan I'm not good-looking tlél yakoos.aan s/he isn't good-looking kei yakanas.aan s/he is starting to become good-looking yakawsi.aan s/he became good-looking tlél yakawus.aan s/he didn't become good-looking kei yakagux̲sa.aan s/he will be good-looking tlél kei yakagux̲sa.aan s/he won't be good-looking tlél yakagoos.aanch s/he hasn't gotten to be good-looking yet yakagoox̲sa.aanín s/he would have been good-looking yakaksa.aanní if/when s/he becomes good-looking Du yáanáx̲ x̲at yaksi.aan. I'm better looking than he is. aat1 (18) go, walk, lead, gather together, go to bathroom, attack, appoint, let in, let out appoint, choose for a certain position (plural object) I a tóo daak O-S-s-.aat~ (Ø motion) for S to appoint (plural) O, choose O for a certain position a tóo + daak si-.aat A tóo daak has sa.á! Appoint them! Líl a tóo daak has isa.átjik̲! Don't appoint them! [does not occur] a tóo daak has x̲wasi.át I appointed them a tóo daak has awsi.át s/he appointed them tlél a tóo daak has x̲wasa.aat I didn't appoint them tlél a tóo daak has awus.aat s/he didn't appoint them a tóo daak has agux̲sa.áat s/he will appoint them tlél a tóo daak has agux̲sa.aat s/he won't appoint them a tóo daak has ax̲sa.aat let him/her appoint them a tóo daak has oos.aatch s/he appoints them (every time) tlél a tóo daak has oos.aatch s/he hasn't appointed them yet tlél aadé a tóo daak has oox̲si.aadi yé no way can s/he appoint them a tóo daak has oox̲sa.aadín s/he would have appointed them a tóo daak has as.átni if/when s/he appoints them a tóo daak has as.átch s/he appoints them (regularly) A tóo daak has wududzi.át. They were appointed. [Story & Naish 1973: 21] lead them yaa O-shu-S-ø-.aat~ (ga event) for S to lead (plural) O (especially by walking ahead) shu-ya-.aat Note that yaa occurs in every form except the perfective. This verb has a plural stem, meaning that multiple people or animals are being led. In the paradigm given here, the plural object pronoun has "them" is used. One could also use k̲aa "people", as in: k̲aa shoowa.aat "s/he led people". Another option is the object prefix k̲u- "people", as in: k̲ushoowa.aat "s/he led people". For both of these, note that the third person object pronoun a- on the verb is dropped. If you want to indicate that animals are being led, omit the has/k̲aa/k̲u- and use: ashoowa.aat "s/he led them (animals)". Yaa (ha)s shuga.á! Lead them! Yaa (ha)s shugay.á! You all lead them! Líl has shuyi.aadík̲! Don't lead them! Líl has shuyeey.aadík̲! Don't you all lead them! [does not occur] yaa (ha)s shunx̲a.át I am leading them yaa (ha)s ashuna.át s/he is leading them has shux̲waa.aat I led them has ashoowa.aat s/he led them tlél has shux̲wa.aat I didn't lead them tlél has ashuwu.aat s/he didn't lead them yaa (ha)s shukk̲wa.áat I will lead them yaa (ha)s ashukg̲wa.áat s/he will lead them tlél yaa (ha)s shukk̲wa.aat I won't lead them tlél yaa (ha)s ahsukg̲wa.aat s/he won't lead them yaa (ha)s shukk̲a.aat let me lead them yaa (ha)s ashukg̲a.aat let him/her lead them yaa (ha)s shukx̲a.átch I lead them (every time) yaa (ha)s ashuga.átch s/he leads them (every time) tlél yaa (ha)s shukx̲a.átch I haven't led them yet tlél yaa (ha)s ashuga.átch s/he hasn't led them yet tlél aadé yaa (ha)s ashukg̲waa.aadi yé no way can s/he lead them yaa (ha)s ashukg̲wa.aadín s/he would have led them yaa (ha)s ashuga.átni if/when s/he leads them kei (ha)s ashu.átch s/he leads them (regularly) go on foot (plural subject) II P-t~ S-ø-.aat~ (ø motion) for (plural) S to walk, go (by walking or as a general term) to P ya-.aat Direction of Motion - The following are adverbial phrases that can be used with this particular conjugation of the verb 'go on foot' to specify the direction of motion. Replace át/áx̲/aadé 'arriving at P' in the paradigm below with any of the following adverbs to change the direction of motion. P-t (~x̲~dei) arriving at P, coming to P yan (~yax̲~yándei) moving ashore, coming to rest, to a stop, setting down P-náx̲ yan (~yax̲~yándei) moving across P, to the other side of P neil (~neilx̲~neildéi) moving inside, coming home haat (~haax̲~haa(n)déi) coming here yóot (~yóox̲~yóodei) going away As seen in the paradigm below, forms ending in -x̲ are used in the repetetive imperfective; forms ending in -de are used in the progressive imperfective; and forms ending in -t / -0(plain) are used elsewhere. Át yi.á! You all go there! Líl áx̲ yi.aadík̲! Don't you all go there! Líl át yeey.aadík̲! Don't you all go there! [does not occur] aadé yaa ntoo.át we are going there aadé yaa nay.át you all are going there aadé yaa (ha)s na.át they are going there aadé yaa ana.át people are going there tlél aadé yaa ntoo.át we're not going there tlél aadé yaa nay.át you all are not going there tlél aadé (ha)s yaa una.át they're not going there tlél aadé yaa oona.át nobody is going there át wutuwa.át we arrived there át yeey.át you all arrived there át has uwa.át they arrived there át aawa.át people arrived there tlél át wutoo.aat we didn't arrive there tlél át yeey.aat you all didn't arrive there tlél át has wu.aat they didn't arrive there tlél át awu.aat nobody arrived there wé át has wu.aadi aa the ones who arrived there aadé gax̲too.áat we will go there aadé gax̲yi.áat you all will go there aadé (ha)s gug̲a.áat they will go there aadé akg̲wa.áat people will go there tlél aadé gax̲too.aat we won't go there tlél aadé gax̲yi.aat you all won't go there tlél aadé (ha)s gug̲a.aat they won't go there tlél aadé akg̲wa.aat people won't go there át g̲atoo.aat let us go there át has g̲a.aat let them go there át too.aatch we go there (every time) át yeey.aatch you all go there (every time) át has u.aatch they go there (every time) át oo.aatch people go there (every time) tlél át too.aatch we haven't arrived there yet tlél át yeey.aatch you all haven't arrived there yet tlél át has u.aatch they haven't arrived there yet tlél át oo.aatch nobody has arrived there yet tlél aadé át has g̲waa.aadi yé no way can they get there át has g̲wa.aadín they would have gone there át has .átni if/when they go there áx̲ has .aat they go there (regularly) Tlél át awu.aat. Nobody arrived there; They (regular crowd) weren't there. Yax̲ ilt'éex', t'éex' kát aa uwa.át. When it froze, they walked over ice. Ch'a yeisú l unaliyéit has u.aatjí tsu x̲áaw tsu át yatán. They hadn't been going far when another log was lying there. Ách áwé du x̲ándáx̲ yóot aawa.át. This was why they left her. walking, going along there (of plural subjects) This is an example of a progressive epiaspectual paradigm (Leer, 91), which basically means that all forms are based on the progressive aspect. The progressive epiaspect is characterized by: 1)having the yaa preverb in all forms, 2)having no perfective form, and 3)denotes semantically a continuous transition from one location or state to another. P-x̲ yaa S-ø-.aat~ (ga motion) for (plural) S to be walking, going (by foot or as general term) along P (basically plural; see goot for singular) ya-.aat Áx̲ yaa gay.á! You all be walking along there! Líl áx̲ yaa yi.átjik̲ Don't you all be walking along there! [does not occur] áx̲ yaa ntoo.át we're walking along there áx̲ yaa (ha)s na.át they are walking along there [does not occur] áx̲ yaa (ha)s gug̲a.áat they will be walking along there tlél áx̲ yaa (ha)s gug̲a.aat they won't be walking along there á́x̲ yaa (ha)s gag̲a.aat let them be walking along there áx̲ yaa (ha)s ga.átch they are walking along there (every time) tlél áx̲ yaa (ha)s goo.átch they haven't been walking along there yet tlél aadé áx̲ yaa (ha)s goog̲aa.aadi yé no way can they be walking along there áx̲ yaa (ha)s goog̲a.aadín they would have been walking along there áx̲ yaa (ha)s ga.átni if/when they are walking along there áx̲ yaa (ha)s ga.átch they are walking along there (regularly) Kag̲ít tóox̲ yaa s gag̲a.aat. Let them be walking through the darkness. Wé kag̲ít tóox̲ yaa ntoo.ádi awdlidées. As we walked along in the darkness, the moon shined bright. Wé dzísk'u tlein ítx̲ yaa na.át wé g̲ooch. The wolves are following behind the big moose. go on foot (plural subject) IX P-x̲ S-ø-.aat~ (g̲a motion) for (plural) S to walk, go (by walking or as a general term) down along P ya-.aat Direction of Motion - The following are adverbial phrases that can be used with this particular conjugation of the verb 'go on foot' to specify the direction of motion. Replace yaa 'down' in the paradigm below with any of the following adverbs to change the direction of motion. yaa (deletes before aspect marker yei) moving down yaax̲ getting into canoe, boat, or other vehicle P-x̲ moving down along héenx̲ moving into the water P-náx̲ moving down by way of P, through P Áx̲ yaa g̲ay.á! You all walk down along it! Líl áx̲ yei yi.átjik̲! Don't you all walk down along it! [does not occur] áx̲ yei ntoo.át we are walking down along it áx̲ yei nay.át you all are walking down along it áx̲ yei (ha)s na.át they are walking down along it áx̲ yei ana.át people are walking down along it tlél áx̲ yei ntoo.át we're not walking down along it tlél áx̲ yei nay.át you all are not walking down along it tlél áx̲ yei (ha)s una.át they're not walking down along it tlél áx̲ yei oona.át nobody is walking down along it áx̲ wtuwa.aat we walked down along it áx̲ yeey.aat you all walked down along it áx̲ (ha)s woo.aat they walked down along it áx̲ aawa.aat people walked down along it tlél áx̲ wtoo.aat we didn't walk down along it tlél áx̲ yeey.aat you all didn't walk down along it tlél áx̲ (ha)s wu.aat they didn't walk down along it tlél áx̲ awu.aat nobody walked down along it wé áx̲ yaa (ha)s woo.aadi aa (has) the ones who walked down along it áx̲ yei gax̲too.áat we will walk down along it áx̲ yei gax̲yi.áat you all will walk down along it áx̲ yei has gug̲a.áat they will walk down along it áx̲ yei akg̲wa.áat people will walk down along it tlél áx̲ yei gax̲too.aat we won't walk down along it tlél áx̲ yei gax̲yi.aat you all won't walk down along it tlél áx̲ yei (ha)s gug̲a.aat they won't walk down along it tlél áx̲ yei akg̲wa.aat nobody will walk down along it áx̲ yaa g̲aax̲too.aat let us walk down along it áx̲ yaa (ha)s g̲aag̲a.aat let them walk down along it áx̲ yaa g̲atoo.átch we walk down along it (every time) áx̲ yaa g̲ay.átch you all walk down along it (every time) áx̲ yaa (ha)s g̲a.átch they walk down along it (every time) áx̲ yaa ag̲a.átch people walk down along it (every time) tlél áx̲ yaa g̲atoo.átch we haven't walked down along it yet tlél áx̲ yaa g̲ay.átch you all haven't walked down along it yet tlél áx̲ yaa (ha)s g̲wa.átch they haven't walked down along it yet tlél áx̲ yaa ag̲wa.átch nobody has walked down along it yet tlél aadé áx̲ yaa (ha)s g̲waag̲aa.aadi yé no way can they walk down along it áx̲ yaa (ha)s g̲waag̲a.aadín they would have walked down along it áx̲ yaa (ha)s g̲a.átni if/when they walk down along it áx̲ yei (ha)s .átch they walk down along it (regularly) Anax̲ áyá yaa ag̲a.átjeen yóo aan tayeedéi. This is what they came down on to go underneath the village. S'ootaat áwé yaax̲ has woo.aat. At dawn they went aboard. go on foot (plural subject) V N jikaadáx̲ ya-u-S-ø-.aat~ (ø motion) for (plural) S to get out of N's way ya-.aat Direction of Motion - The following are adverbial phrases that can be used with this particular conjugation of the verb 'go on foot' to specify the direction of motion. Replace du jikaadáx̲ 'getting out of his/her way' in the paradigm below with any of the following adverbs to change the direction of motion. P-x̲ moving circuitously, obliquely along P N daax̲ circling around N haandéi moving over this way (toward speaker) héidei moving over that way (away from speaker) N jikaadáx̲ / N jikaax̲ getting out of N's way P-náx̲ moving circuitously, obliquely through P N eetíx̲ taking N's place; trading places with N; missing N Du jikaadáx̲ yay.á! You all get out of his/her way! Líl du jikaadáx̲ yaa yi.átjik̲! Don't you all get out of his/her way! [does not occur] du jikaadáx̲ yaa ntoo.át we are getting out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ yaa nay.át you all are getting out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ yaa (ha)s na.át they are getting out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ yaa ana.át people are getting out of his/her way [does not occur] du jikaadáx̲ yawtuwa.át we got out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ yayeey.át you all got out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ has yaawa.át they got out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ ayaawa.át people got out of his/her way tlél du jikaadáx̲ yawtoo.aat we didn't get out of his/her way tlél du jikaadáx̲ yayeey.aat you all didn't get out of his/her way tlél du jikaadáx̲ has yawu.aat they didn't get out of his/her way tlél du jikaadáx̲ ayawu.aat nobody got out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ yagax̲too.áat we will get out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ yagax̲yee.áat you all will get out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ has yakg̲wa.áat they will get out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ ayakg̲wa.áat people will get out of his/her way tlél du jikaadáx̲ yagax̲too.aat we won't get out of his/her way tlél du jikaadáx̲ yagax̲yi.aat you all won't get out of his/her way tlél du jikaadáx̲ has yakg̲wa.aat they won't get out of his/her way tlél du jikaadáx̲ ayakg̲wa.aat people won't get out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ yax̲too.aat let us get out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ has yag̲a.aat let them get out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ yatoo.átch we get out of his/her way (every time) du jikaadáx̲ yay.átch you all get out of his/her way (every time) du jikaadáx̲ has woo.átch they get out of his/her way (every time) du jikaadáx̲ awoo.átch people get out of his/her way (every time) tlél du jikaadáx̲ yatoo.aatch we haven't gotten out of his/her way yet tlél du jikaadáx̲ yay.aatch you all haven't gotten out of his/her way yet tlél du jikaadáx̲ has woo.aatch they haven't gotten out of his/her way yet tlél du jikaadáx̲ awoo.aatch people haven't gotten out of his/her way yet tlél aadé du jikaadáx̲ has yag̲waa.aadi yé no way can they get out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ has woog̲a.aadín they would have gotten out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ has ya.átni if/when they get out of his/her way du jikaadáx̲ yaa (ha)s .átch they get out of his/her way (regularly) Ch'u tle tláakw áwé k̲a wé áx̲ ayaawa.adi yéix̲ yaa nagút. She went quickly and along where people had walked. Tle a kanax̲ has yaawa.át. They went over it. Nas'giyeekáx' a kaanáx̲ has yaawa.át. They walked for three days. go on foot (plural subject) III gági S-ø-.aat~ (ø motion) for (plural) S to emerge, walk out into the open ya-.aat Direction of Motion - The following are adverbial phrases that can be used with this particular conjugation of the verb 'go on foot' to specify the direction of motion. Replace gági 'coming out' in the paradigm below with any of the following adverbs to change the direction of motion. N yáa coming up to N N g̲unayáa separating from N N shukáx' getting ahead of N gági emerging, coming out into the open dáag̲i coming out of the water héeni going to the sea; getting into the water g̲unayéi / g̲unéi starting off, beginning to go P-x̲ moving in place at P, trying to move while stuck at P Gági yi.á! You all come out! Líl gági yeey.aadík̲! Don't you all come out! [does not occur] gági yaa ntoo.át we are coming out gági yaa nay.át you all are coming out gági yaa (ha)s na.át they are coming out gági yaa ana.át people are coming out tlél gági yaa ntoo.át we're not coming out tlél gági yaa nay.át you all are not coming out tlél gági (ha)s yaa una.át they're not coming out tlél gági oona.át nobody is coming out gági wutuwa.át we came out gági yeey.át you all came out gági has uwa.át they came out gági aawa.át people came out tlél gági wutoo.aat we didn't come out tlél gági yeey.aat you all didn't come out tlél gági (ha)s woo.aat they didn't come out tlél gági awu.aat nobody came out wé gági (ha)s wu.aadi aa the ones who came out gági gax̲too.áat we will come out gági gax̲yi.áat you all will come out gági (ha)s gug̲a.áat they will come out gági akg̲wa.áat people will come out tlél gági gax̲too.aat we won't come out tlél gági gax̲yi.aat you all won't come out tlél gági (ha)s gug̲a.aat they won't come out tlél gági akg̲wa.aat nobody will come out gági g̲atoo.aat let us come out gági (ha)s g̲a.aat let them come out gági too.aatch we come out (every time) gági yeey.aatch you all come out (every time) gági (ha)s u.aatch they come out (every time) gági oo.aatch people come out (every time) tlél gági too.aatch we haven't come out yet tlél gági yeey.aatch you all haven't come out yet tlél gági has u.aatch they haven't come out yet tlél gági oo.aatch nobody has come out yet tlél aadé gági (ha)s g̲waa.aadi yé no way can they come out gági (ha)s g̲wa.aadín they would have come out gági (ha)s .átni if/when they come out gági (ha)s .átx̲ they come out (repeatedly) Du daadéi g̲unayéi a.áat. They began to gather around him. go to the bathroom (plural subject) VII Much like the English phrase "go to the bathroom", gánde (ha)s woo.aat is a euphemism for urinating and/or defecating. gánde S-ø-.aat~ (na motion) for (plural) S to go to the bathroom ya-.aat Gánde nay.á! You all go to the bathroom! Líl gánde yoo yi.átgik̲! Don't you all go to the bathroom! Líl gánde yeey.aadík̲! Don't you all go to the bathroom! [does not occur] gánde yaa (ha)s na.át they are going to the bathroom gánde wtuwa.aat we went to the bathroom gánde (ha)s woo.aat they went to the bathroom tlél gánde wtoo.aat we didn't go to the bathroom tlél gánde (ha)s wu.aat they didn't go to the bathroom wé gánde (ha)s wu.aadi aa the ones who went to the bathroom gánde (ha)s gug̲a.áat they will go to the bathroom tlél gánde (ha)s gug̲a.aat they won't go to the bathroom gánde (ha)s nag̲a.aat let them go to the bathroom gánde (ha)s na.átch they go to the bathroom (every time) tlél gánde (ha)s una.átch they haven't gone to the bathroom yet tlél aadé gánde (ha)s nag̲waa.aadi yé no way can they go to the bathroom gánde (ha)s nag̲wa.aadín they would have gone to the bathroom gánde (ha)s na.átni if/when they go to the bathroom gánde yoo (ha)s ya.átk they go to the bathroom (regularly) go on foot (plural subject) VI a-ya-u-S-d-.aat~ (ø motion) for (plural) S to turn back, go back (by walking or as general term) a-ya-di-.aat -- turn back, return, retreat, go back kei escape, flee Ayeeda.á! You all turn back! Líl ayeeda.átx̲ik̲ Don't you all turn back! [does not occur] yaa ayantuda.át we are turning back yaa ayanayda.át you all are turning back yaa (ha)s ayanda.át they are turning back yaa ayandu.át people are turning back [does not occur] ayawtudi.át we turned back ayaydi.át you all turned back has ayawdi.át they turned back ayawduwa.át people turned back tlél ayawtuda.aat we didn't turn back tlél ayayda.aat you all didn't turn back tlél has ayawda.aat they didn't turn back tlél ayawdu.aat (check prefix combos) nobody turned back wé has ayawdi.adi aa the ones who turned back ayagax̲tuda.áat we will turn back ayagax̲yida.áat you all will turn back has ayagux̲da.áat they will turn back ayagux̲du.áat people will turn back tlél ayagax̲tuda.aat we won't turn back tlél ayagax̲yida.aat you all won't turn back tlél has ayagux̲da.aat they won't turn back tlél ayagax̲du.aat nobody will turn back ayax̲tuda.aat let us turn back has ayax̲da.aat let them turn back ayatuda.átch we turn back (every time) ayayda.átch you all turn back (every time) has ayada.átch they turn back (every time) ayadu.átch people turn back (every time) tlél ayawtuda.aatch we haven't turned back yet tlél ayayda.aatch you all haven't turned back yet tlél has awooda.aatch they haven't turned back yet tlél awoodu.aatch nobody has turned back yet tlél aadé has awux̲di.aadi yé no way can they turn back has awux̲da.aadín they would have turned back has ayada.átni if/when they turn back has ayada.átx̲ they turn back (regularly) Dé du nák̲ ayagux̲da.at aa du x̲oonx'í áwé át nák̲ wé a yeex' du nák̲ akg̲wa.at hídi. The relatives who were going to leave her were standing by her in the house they were lieaving her in. go on foot (plural subject) VII P-dé S-ø-.aat~ (na motion) for (plural) S to walk, go (by walking or as a general term) to P ya-.aat Note that -g̲aa takes the opposite tone of the final syllable of the noun that it attaches to. Hence: kanat'ág̲aa "(going) after blueberries", but shaawg̲áa "(going) after gumboots". Direction of Motion - The following are adverbial phrases that can be used with this particular conjugation of the verb 'go on foot' to specify the direction of motion. Replace aadé 'toward there' in the paradigm below with any of the following adverbs to change the direction of motion. -- moving (along) P-t moving around, about P P-dé(i) moving toward P P-dáx̲ moving away from P P-náx̲ moving by way of P yux̲ moving out of house P-nák̲ leaving P behind P-g̲aa going to get P Aadé nay.á! You all go there! Líl aadé yoo yi.átgik̲! Don't you all go there! Líl aadé yeey.aadík̲! Don't you all go there! [does not occur] aadé yaa ntoo.át we are going there aadé yaa nay.át you all are going there aadé yaa (ha)s na.át they are going there aadé yaa ana.át people are going there tlél aadé yaa ntoo.át we're not going there tlél aadé yaa nay.át you all are not going there tlél aadé yaa (ha)s una.át they're not going there tlél aadé yaa oona.át nobody is going there [does not occur] aadé wtuwa.aat we went there aadé yeey.aat you all went there aadé (ha)s woo.aat they went there aadé aawa.aat people went there tlél aadé wtoo.aat we didn't go there tlél aadé yeey.aat you all didn't go there tlél aadé (ha)s wu.aat they didn't go there tlél aadé awu.aat nobody went there wé aadé (ha)s wu.aadi aa the ones who went there aadé gax̲too.áat we will go there aadé gax̲yi.áat you all will go there aadé (ha)s gug̲a.áat they will go there aadé akg̲wa.áat people will go there tlél aadé gax̲too.aat we won't go there tlél aadé gax̲yi.aat you all won't go there tlél aadé (ha)s gug̲a.aat they won't go there tlél aadé akg̲wa.aat nobody will go there aadé nax̲too.aat let us go there aadé (ha)s nag̲a.aat let them go there aadé ntoo.átch we go there (every time) aadé nay.átch you all go there (every time) aadé (ha)s na.átch they go there (every time) aadé ana.átch people go there (every time) tlél aadé ntoo.átch we haven't gone there yet tlél aadé nay.átch you all haven't gone there yet tlél aadé (ha)s una.átch they haven't gone there yet tlél aadé oona.átch nobody has gone there yet tlél aadé aadé (ha)s nag̲waa.aadi yé no way can they go there aadé (ha)s nag̲wa.aadín they would have gone there aadé (ha)s na.átni if/when they go there aadé yoo (ha)s ya.átk they go there (regularly) Ch'u tle, ch'u yaa has na.ádi áwé, ch'u tle k̲aa x̲oot has uwa.át. Then, while they were walking along then they came upon people. A daat aawa.aat. People are walking around on it. Lingítch aadéi s at in yé, yú heentak ádi tsu aadéi kéi s ashátji yé k̲a yá át woo.aadi át, yá héen x̲ukaanáx̲ aa aadéi s a.eeni yé áwé wdudzikóo k̲a yú dáak̲t woo.aadi át x̲á. Tlingits knew how to hunt things, those sea mammals too, and how to catch those animals that walked, how to harvest those on the sea and those that walked inland. Yá aan tayeedéi, téil kagánee káax' áyú ana.átch, yá aan tayeedéi. They would go underneath the village in a grotto, by the light of sapwood, underneath the village. Sagú yáx̲ k̲aa yayík du.ax̲ji nuch héendei yáa ana.ádi. Their voices would sound happy when they went to the sea. Dleeyg̲áa áwé aadéi aawa.aat. They went for meat. Tlél tsu naliyéidei s wu.aadí áwé x̲áaw át yatán. They hadn't gone very far when a log was lying there. go on foot (plural subject) I kei S-ø-.aat~ (ø motion) for (plural) S to walk up, go up (by walking or as a general term) ya-.aat Note that there is no "yaa" preverb in the progressive imperfective form with this particular group of adverbs. Direction of Motion - The following are adverbial phrases that can be used with this particular conjugation of the verb 'go on foot' to specify the direction of motion. Replace kei "up" in the paradigm below with any of the following adverbs to change the direction of motion. kei moving up ux̲ kei moving out of control, blindly, amiss; going the wrong way yei getting out of a canoe, boat, vehicle yeek̲ / yeik̲ / eek̲ moving down; moving toward beach, shore daak̲ moving up from beach, back away from open, inland daak moving out to sea, into open, onto fire k̲ux̲ / k̲úx̲dei (requires d- element) returning, going/coming back Kei yi.á! You all go up! Líl kei yi.átjik̲! Don't you all go up! Líl kei yeey.aadík̲! Don't you all go up! [does not occur] kei ntoo.át we are going up kei nay.át you all are going up kei (ha)s na.át they are going up kei ana.át people are going up tlél kei ntoo.át we're not going up tlél kei nay.át you all are not going up tlél kei (ha)s una.át they're not going up tlél kei oona.át nobody is going up kei wutuwa.át we went up kei yeey.át you all went up kei (ha)s uwa.át they went up kei aawa.át people went up tlél kei wutoo.aat we didn't go up tlél kei yeey.aat you all didn't go up tlél kei (ha)s wu.aat they didn't go up tlél kei awu.aat nobody went up wé kei (ha)s wu.aadi aa the ones who went up kei gax̲too.áat we will go up kei gax̲yi.áat you all will go up kei (ha)s gug̲a.áat they will go up kei akg̲wa.áat people will go up tlél kei gax̲too.aat we won't go up tlél kei gax̲yi.aat you all won't go up tlél kei (ha)s gug̲a.aat they won't go up tlél kei akg̲wa.aat nobody will go up kei g̲atoo.aat let us go up kei (ha)s g̲a.aat let them go up kei too.aatch we go up (every time) kei yeey.aatch you all go up (every time) kei has u.aatch they go up (every time) kei oo.aatch people go up (every time) tlél kei too.aatch we haven't gone up yet tlél kei yeey.aatch you all haven't gone up yet tlél kei (ha)s u.aatch they haven't gone up yet tlél kei oo.aatch nobody has gone up yet tlél aadé kei (ha)s g̲waa.aadi yé no way can they go up kei (ha)s g̲wa.aadín they would have gone up kei (ha)s .átni if/when they go up kei (ha)s .átch they go up (regularly) Ách áwé áa kei has uwa.át tsu. So they moved up there again. K̲ux̲ yawdi.át tsu. They left again. Daak ana.át. People are coming out. attack someone ji-S-d-.aat~ (ø motion) for (plural) S to attack, assault, fall upon ji-di-.aat To indicate who is being attacked, use: N éet~ 'to N'. For example: Haa éet has jiwdi.át. 'They attacked us'. It is also acceptable to use this verb without specifying who was attacked. For example: Has jiwdi.át 'They attacked'. Therefore, the N éet~ is not given in the theme above. K̲aa éet jeeyda.á! You all attack someone! Líl k̲aa éex̲ jeeyda.aadík̲! Don't you all attack anyone! [does not occur] k̲aa éede yaa jintuda.át we're attacking someone k̲aa éede yaa (ha)s jinda.át they're attacking people k̲aa éet jiwtudi.át we attacked someone k̲aa éet has jiwdi.át they attacked someone tlél k̲aa éet jiwtuda.aat we didn't attack anyone tlél k̲aa éet has jiwda.aat they didn't attack anyone k̲aa eedé jigax̲tuda.áat we will attack someone k̲aa eedé has jigux̲da.áat they will attack someone tlél k̲aa eedé jigax̲tuda.aat we won't attack anyone tlél k̲aa eedé (ha)s jigux̲da.aat they won't attack anyone k̲aa éet jix̲tuda.aat let us attack someone k̲aa éet has jix̲da.aat let them attack someone [does not occur] tlél k̲aa éet jituda.aatch we haven't attacked anyone yet tlél k̲aa éet has jeeda.aatch they haven't attacked anyone yet tlél aadé k̲aa éet jix̲tudi.aadi yé no way can we attack someone tlél aadé k̲aa éet has jeex̲di.aadi yé no way can they attack someone k̲aa éet jix̲tuda.aadín we would have attacked someone k̲aa éet has jeex̲da.aadín they would have attacked someone k̲aa éex̲ jituda.aat we attack people (regularly) k̲aa éex̲ has jida.aat they attack people (regularly) k̲aa éet has jida.átni if/when they attack people X'wás teen k̲aa éet has jiwdi.át. They attacked people with clubs. go on foot (plural subject) VIII k̲ut S-ø-.aat~ (ga motion) for (plural) S to get lost (on foot) ya-.aat -- taking off, starting off P-dáx̲ taking off from P; starting off from P k̲ut going astray, getting lost [does not occur] Líl k̲ut kei yi.átjik̲! Don't you all get lost! [does not occur] k̲ut kei ntoo.át we are getting lost k̲ut kei nay.át you all are getting lost k̲ut kei (ha)s na.át they are getting lost k̲ut kei ana.át people are getting lost [does not occur] [does not occur] k̲ut wutuwa.aat we got lost k̲ut yeey.aat you all got lost k̲ut has woo.aat they got lost k̲ut aawa.aat people got lost tlél k̲ut wutoo.aat we didn't get lost tlél k̲ut yeey.aat you all didn't get lost tlél k̲ut has wu.aat they didn't get lost tlél k̲ut aawu.aat nobody got lost k̲ut kei gax̲too.áat we will get lost k̲ut kei gax̲yi.áat you all will get lost k̲ut kei (ha)s gug̲a.áat they will get lost k̲ut kei akg̲wa.áat people will get lost tlél k̲ut kei gax̲too.aat we won't get lost tlél k̲ut kei gax̲yi.aat you all won't get lost tlél k̲ut kei (ha)s gug̲a.aat they won't get lost tlél k̲ut kei akg̲wa.aat nobody will get lost k̲ut gax̲too.aat let us get lost k̲ut has gag̲a.aat let them get lost k̲ut gatoo.átch we get lost (every time) k̲ut gay.átch you all get lost (every time) k̲ut has ga.átch they get lost (every time) k̲ut aga.átch people get lost (every time) tlél k̲ut gatoo.átch we haven't gotten lost yet tlél k̲ut gay.átch you all haven't gotten lost yet tlél k̲ut has goo.átch they haven't gotten lost yet tlél k̲ut agoo.átch nobody has gotten lost yet tlél aadé k̲ut has gag̲waa.aadi yé no way can they get lost k̲ut has gag̲wa.aadín they would have gotten lost k̲ut has ga.átni if/when they get lost k̲ut kei (ha)s .átch they get lost (regularly) go back (plural subject) I k̲ux̲~ S-d-.aat~ (Ø motion) for (plural) S to go back, return --- K̲ux̲ yida.á! You all go back! Líl k̲ux̲ yida.átjík̲! Don't you all go back! [does not occur] k̲úx̲de yaa (ha)s nada.át they are beginning to go back k̲ux̲ wutudi.át we went back k̲ux̲ has wudi.át they went back tlél k̲ux̲ wutuda.aat we didn't go back tlél k̲ux̲ has wuda.aat they didn't go back k̲úx̲de has gux̲da.áat they are going to go back tlél k̲úx̲de has gux̲da.aat they aren't going to go back (ch'a) k̲ux̲ has g̲ada.aat (just) let them go back k̲ux̲ has uda.aatch they go back (every time) tlél k̲ux̲ has uda.aatch they haven't gone back yet tlél aadé k̲ux̲ has ux̲di.aadi yé no way can they go back k̲ux̲ has ux̲da.aadín they would have gone back k̲ux̲ has da.átni if/when they go back k̲ux̲ has da.átch they go back (regularly) K̲ux̲ has wuda.aadí has jigax̲duk̲éi. If they go back, they'll get paid. let in (esp. animal); welcome in, receive (plural object) II neil~ O-S-s-.aat~ (Ø motion) for S to let in, welcome in (plural) O si-.aat Neil has sa.á! Let them in! Líl neilx̲ has isa.aadík̲! Don't let them in! [does not occur] neil has x̲wasi.át I let them in neil has awsi.át s/he let them in tlél neil has x̲wasa.aat I didn't let them in tlél neil has awus.aat s/he didn't let them in neildé has agux̲sa.áat s/he will let them in tlél neildé has agux̲sa.aat s/he won't let them in neil has ax̲sa.aat let him/her let them in neil has oos.aatch s/he lets them in (every time) tlél neil has oos.aatch s/he hasn't let them in yet tlél aadé neil has oox̲si.aadi yé no way can s/he let them in neil has oox̲sa.aadín s/he would have let them in neil has as.átni if/when s/he lets them in neilx̲ has as.aat s/he lets them in (regularly) Keitlx' neil wududzi.át. They let the dogs in. [Story & Naish 1973: 124] gather together, assemble, congregate (esp. for meetings) woosh kaanáx̲ S-d-.aat~ (ga event) for (plural) S to assemble, congregate, gather together (for meetings) woosh kaa-nax̲ + di-.aat Woosh kaanáx̲ gayda.á! You all gather together! Líl woosh kaanáx̲ kei yda.átjik̲! Don't you all gather together! [does not occur] woosh kaanáx̲ kei ntuda.át we are beginning to gather together woosh kaanáx̲ kei (ha)s nada.át they are beginning to gather together woosh kaanáx̲ wutudi.aat we gathered together woosh kaanáx̲ has wudi.aat they gathered together tlél woosh kaanáx̲ wutuda.aat we didn't gather together tlél woosh kaanáx̲ has wuda.aat they didn't gather together woosh kaanáx̲ kei gax̲tuda.áat we will gather together woosh kaanáx̲ kei (ha)s gug̲a.áat they will gather together tlél woosh kaanáx̲ kei gax̲tuda.aat we won't gather together tlél woosh kaanáx̲ kei (ha)s gug̲a.aat they won't gather together woosh kaanáx̲ gax̲tuda.aat let us gather together woosh kaanáx̲ has gax̲da.aat let them gather together woosh kaanáx̲ gatuda.átch we gather together (every time) woosh kaanáx̲ has gada.átch they gather together (every time) tlél woosh kaanáx̲ gatuda.átch we haven't gathered together yet tlél woosh kaanáx̲ has gada.átch they haven't gathered together yet tlél aadé woosh kaanáx̲ gax̲tudi.aadi yé no way can we gather together tlél aadé woosh kaanáx̲ has gux̲di.aadi yé no way can they gather together woosh kaanáx̲ gax̲tuda.aadín we would have gagthered together woosh kaanáx̲ has gux̲da.aadín they would have gagthered together woosh kaanáx̲ gatuda.átni if/when we gather together woosh kaanáx̲ has gada.átni if/when they gather together woosh kaanáx̲ kei tuda.átch we gather together (regularly) woosh kaanáx̲ kei (ha)s da.átch they gather together (regularly) gather, assemble, congregate (esp. for meetings) II woosh x̲oo-t~ S-d-.aat~ (ø motion) for S to assemble, congregate, gather together (for meetings) --- Woosh and wooch seem to be interchangeable here. Woosh x̲oot yida.á! You all come together! Líl woosh x̲oox̲ yida.aadík̲! Don't you all come together! [does not occur] woosh x̲oodé yaa ntuda.át we are coming together woosh x̲oodé yaa (ha)s nada.át they are coming together woosh x̲oot wutudi.át we came together woosh x̲oot has wudi.át they came together tlél woosh x̲oot wutuda.aat we didn't come together tlél woosh x̲oot has wuda.aat they didn't come together woosh x̲oodé gax̲tuda.áat we will come together woosh x̲oodé has gux̲da.áat they will come together tlél woosh x̲oodé gax̲tuda.aat we won't come together tlél woosh x̲oodé has gux̲da.aat they won't come together woosh x̲oot g̲atuda.aat let us come together woosh x̲oot has g̲ada.aat let them come together woosh x̲oot tuda.aatch we come together (every time) woosh x̲oot has uda.aatch they come together (every time) tlél woosh x̲oot tuda.aatch we haven't come together yet tlél woosh x̲oot has uda.aatch they haven't come together yet tlél aadé woosh x̲oot g̲atudi.aadi yé no way can we come together tlél aadé woosh x̲oot has ux̲di.aadi yé no way can they come together woosh x̲oot g̲atuda.aadín we would have come together woosh x̲oot has ux̲da.aadín they would have come together woosh x̲oot tuda.átni if/when we come together woosh x̲oot has da.átni if/when they come together woosh x̲oox̲ tuda.aat we come together (regularly) woosh x̲oox̲ has da.aat they come together (regularly) bend over, lean down (plural subject) yínde sh ka-S-l-.aat~ (na motion) for (plural) S to bend over, lean down --- Yínde sh kanayil.á! You all bend over! Líl yínde yoo sh kayil.átgik̲! Don't you all bend over! [does not occur] yínde yaa has sh kanal.át they are bending over slowly yínde sh kawtudli.aat we bent over yínde has sh kawdli.aat they bent over tlél yínde sh kawtool.aat we didn't bend over tlél yínde has sh kawul.aat they didn't bend over yínde has sh kakg̲wal.áat they will bend over tlél yínde has sh kakg̲wal.aat they won't bend over yínde has sh kang̲al.aat let them bend over yínde has sh kanal.átch they bend over (every time) tlél yínde has sh koonal.átch they haven't bent over yet tlél aadé yínde has sh koonax̲dli.aadi yé no way can they bend over yínde has sh koong̲al.aadín they would have bent over yínde has sh kanal.átni if/when they bend over yínde yoo has sh kadli.átk they bend over (regularly) Wóosh tin yínde sh kawtool.aadí woosh yát sh kawtudit'íx̲'. We bent over at the same time and knocked heads. aat2 (17) think, give, take, carry, lie2, speak, turn, change mind think over, consider, make up one's mind about (plural subject) N daa yoo tu-S-l-.aat~ (ø act) for (plural) S to think over, consider, make up one's mind about N a daa + tu-yali-.aat A daa yoo teeyla.át! You all think about it! Líl a daa yoo tuyla.átgik̲! Don't you all think about it! a daa yoo tutuli.átk we think about it; we are thinking about it a daa yoo tuyli.átk you all think about it; you all are thinking about it a daa yoo (ha)s tuli.átk they think about it; they are thinking about it [does not occur] tlél a daa yoo tutula.átk we don't think about it; we're not thinking about it tlél a daa yoo tuyla.átk you all don't think about it; you all are not thinking about it tlél a daa yoo (ha)s tool.átk they don't think about it; they aren't thinking about it tlél a daa yoo tudul.átk nobody thinks about it; nobody is thinking about it [does not occur] a daa yoo tuwtuli.át we thought about it a daa yoo tuyeeyli.át you all thought about it a daa yoo (ha)s tuwli.át they thought about it a daa yoo tuwdudli.át people thought about it tlél a daa yoo tuwtula.aat we didn't think about it tlél a daa yoo tuyeeyla.aat you all didn't think about it tlél a daa yoo (ha)s tuwul.aat they didn't think about it tlél a daa yoo tuwdul.aat nobody thought about it a daa yoo tugax̲tula.áat we will think about it a daa yoo tugax̲yila.áat you all will think about it a doo yoo (ha)s tugux̲la.áat they will think about it a daa yoo tugax̲dul.áat people will think about it tlél a daa yoo tugax̲tula.aat we won't think about it tlél a daa yoo tugax̲yila.aat you all won't think about it tlél a daa yoo (ha)s tugux̲la.aat they won't think about it tlél a daa yoo tugax̲dul.aat people won't think about it a daa yoo tux̲tula.aat let us think about it [does not occur] tlél a daa yoo tutula.aatch we haven't thought about it yet tlél a daa yoo tuyla.aatch you all haven't thought about it yet tlél a daa yoo (ha)s tool.aatch they haven't thought about it yet tlél a daa yoo tudul.aatch nobody has thought about it yet tlél aadé a daa yoo (ha)s toox̲li.aadi yé no way can they think about it a daa yoo toox̲la.aadín they would have thought about it a daa yoo (ha)s tula.átni if/when they think about it a daa yoo (ha)s tuli.átk they think about it (regularly) change one's mind; think it over and reconsider, be converted (plural subject) N daatx̲ k̲ux̲ tu-S-d-l-.aat~ (Ø motion) for (plural) S to change mind about N; for (plural) S to think over and reconsider N k̲ux̲ tu-dli-.aat Leer 1973: 06/51 A daatx̲ k̲ux̲ tuyil.át! Change your minds about it! Líl a daatx̲ k̲ux̲ tuyil.átjik̲! Don't change your minds about it! [does not occur] a daatx̲ k̲ux̲ tuwtudli.át we changed our minds about it a daatx̲ k̲ux̲ has tuwdli.át they changed their minds about it tlél a daatx̲ k̲ux̲ tuwtool.aat we didn't change our minds about it tlél a daatx̲ k̲ux̲ has tuwul.aat they didn't change their minds about it a daatx̲ k̲úx̲de has tukg̲wal.áat they will change their minds about it tlél a daatx̲ k̲úx̲de has tukg̲wal.aat they won't change their minds about it (ch'a) a daatx̲ k̲ux̲ has tug̲al.aat (just) let them change their minds about it a daatx̲ k̲ux̲ has tool.aatch they change their minds about it (every time) tlél a daatx̲ k̲ux̲ has tool.aatch they haven't changed their minds about it yet tlél aadé a daatx̲ k̲ux̲ has tux̲wdli.aadi yé no way can they change their minds about it a daatx̲ k̲ux̲ has tug̲wal.aadín they would have changed their minds about it a daatx̲ k̲ux̲ has tul.átni if/when they change their minds about it a daatx̲ k̲ux̲ has tul.átch they change their minds about it (regularly) K̲ux̲ has toowdli.át. They were converted (changed their thinking). [Story & Naish 1973: 55] Al'óon has gug̲ak̲oox̲ú a daatx̲ k̲ux̲ has toowdli.át. When they were going to go hunting, they changed their minds. button it up aanáx̲ O-ka-S-l-.aat~ (Ø act) for S to button up O A-nax̲ + ka-li-.aat Aanáx̲ kala.á! Button it up! Aanáx̲ kayla.á! You all button it up! Líl aanáx̲ keela.átx̲ik̲! Don't button it up! Líl aanáx̲ kayla.átx̲ik̲! Don't you all button it up! aanáx̲ akla.aat s/he is buttoning it up tlél aanáx̲ akool.aat s/he isn't buttoning it up aanáx̲ kax̲wli.át I buttoned it up aanáx̲ akawli.át s/he buttoned it up tlél aanáx̲ kax̲wal.aat I didn't button it up tlél aanáx̲ akawul.aat s/he didn't button it up aanáx̲ akagux̲la.áat s/he will button it up tlél aanáx̲ akagux̲la.aat s/he won't button it up (ch'a) aanáx̲ akax̲la.aat (just) let him/her button it up aanáx̲ akool.aatch s/he buttons it up (every time) tlél aanáx̲ akool.aatch s/he hasn't buttoned it up yet tlél aadé aanáx̲ akoox̲li.aadi yé no way can s/he button it up aanáx̲ akoox̲la.aadín s/he would have buttoned it up aanáx̲ akla.átni if/when s/he buttons it up aanáx̲ akla.átx̲ s/he buttons it up (regularly) I k'oodás'i aanáx̲ kala.á! Button up your shirt! Aanáx̲ akawli.át wé k̲aayak'óot'i. She buttoned up the buttons. lying there (to have small objects lying there) P-t O-ka-S-l-.át (position) for S to have O (small objects) lying at P --- This verb only occurs in the imperfective. Note that in the example sentence, the classifier in the verb: waak̲t akal.át is l- and NOT la- . For some common nouns such as waak̲ "eye", it is possible to leave off the overt possessor du "his/her". The D- element of the classifier (in this case l-) replaces the overt possessor. Therefore, in the sentence below there is no overt possessor of waak̲, and the verb has the D- component of the classifier (l-), producing the phrase: waak̲t akal.át. át akla.át s/he has them lying there tlél át akool.át s/he doesn't have them lying there [does not occur] [does not occur] Wak̲dáanaa waak̲t akal.át. She has eyeglasses on. (Lit: She has glasses lying on her eyes.) lie there (of small objects) P-t ka-l-.át (position) for small objects to lie at P --- This verb only occurs in the imperfective. át kala.át they are lying there tlél át kool.át they're not lying there [does not occur] [does not occur] lie there (of several things; of dead or unconscious persons or animals) P-t l-.át (position) for several things to lie at P; for several persons or animals to lie dead, unconscious, or incapacitated at P li-.aat This verb only occurs in the imperfective. át la.át they're lying there tlél át ul.át they're not lying there [does not occur] [does not occur] carry them, take them (esp. baggage) VII P-dé O-S-l-.aat~ (na motion) for S to carry, take (plural) O (esp. baggage) to P li-.aat -- carrying it (along) P-t carrying it around, about P (no repetitive imperfective form) P-dei carrying it toward P P-dáx̲ picking it up off of P P-náx̲ stopping over at P with it; dropping it off at P yux̲ carrying it out of house Aadé nal.aat! Carry them there! Aadé nayla.aat! You all carry them there! Líl aadé yoo ila.átgik̲! Don't carry them there! Líl aadé yoo yila.átgik̲! Don't you all carry them there! [does not occur] aadé yaa nax̲la.át I am carrying it there aadé yaa anal.át s/he is carrying them there aadé x̲wali.aat I carried them there aadé awli.aat s/he carried them there tlél x̲wala.aat I didn't carry them there tlél aadé awul.aat s/he didn't carry them there aadé kk̲wala.áat I will carry them there aadé agux̲la.áat s/he will carry them there tlél aadé kk̲wala.aat I won't carry them there tlél aadé agux̲la.aat s/he won't carry them there aadé nak̲ala.aat let me carry them there aadé anax̲la.aat let him/her carry them there aadé nax̲ala.átch I carry them there (every time) aadé anal.átch s/he carries them there (every time) tlél aadé nax̲wala.átch I haven't carried them there yet tlél aadé oonal.átch s/he hasn't carried them there yet tlél aadé aadé nak̲wali.aadi yé no way can I carry them there tlél aadé aadé anax̲wli.aadi yé no way can s/he carry them there aadé nak̲wala.aadín I would have carried them there aadé anax̲wla.aadín s/he would have carried them there aadé nax̲la.átni if/when I carry them there aadé anal.átni if/when s/he carries them there aadé yoo x̲ali.átk I carry them there (regularly) aadé yoo ali.átk s/he carries them there (regularly) speak, talk to him/her (plural subject) N ée-t~ x̲'a-S-l-.aat~ (ø motion) for (plural) S to speak, talk to N x̲'a-li-.aat In classical Tlingit, the verb stem -taan refered to a singular subject and the verb stem -.aat was used to indicate a plural subject. In modern Tlingit however, this distinction is being lost. Many speakers use the verb stem -taan for both singular and plural subject, as in: du éet has x̲'eiwatán "they spoke to him/her". Speakers also use: du éet has x̲'awli.át "they spoke to him/her". Both options for the plural subjects are correct. Du éet x̲'ayla.á! You all speak to him/her! Líl du éex̲ x̲'ayla.aadík̲! Don't you all speak to him/her! [does not occur] [does not occur] du éet x̲'awtuli.át we spoke to him/her du éet x̲'ayeeyli.át you all spoke to him/her du éet has x̲'awli.át they spoke to him/her du éet x̲'awdudli.át someone spoke to him/her tlél du éet x̲'awtula.aat we didn't speak to him/her tlél du éet x̲'ayeeyla.aat you all didn't speak to him/her tlél du éet has x̲'awul.aat they didn't speak to him/her tlél du éet x̲'awdul.aat nobody spoke to him/her du eedé x̲'agax̲tula.áat we will speak to him/her du eedé x̲'agax̲yila.áat you all will speak to him/her du eedé (ha)s x̲'agux̲la.áat they will speak to him/her du eedé x̲'agax̲dul.áat someone will speak to him/her tlél du eedé x̲'agax̲tula.aat we won't speak to him/her tlél du eedé x̲'agax̲yila.aat you all won't speak to him/her tlél du eedé (ha)s x̲'agux̲la.aat they won't speak to him/her tlél du eedé x̲'agax̲dul.aat nobody will speak to him/her du éet x̲'ax̲tula.aat let us speak to him/her du éet has x̲'ax̲la.aat let them speak to him/her du éet x̲'atool.aatch we speak to him/her (every time) du éet x̲'ayil.aatch you all speak to him/her (every time) du éet has x̲'eil.aatch they speak to him/her (every time) du éet x̲'adul.aatch someone speaks to him/her (every time) tlél du éet x̲'atool.aatch we haven't spoken to him/her yet tlél du éet x̲'ayil.aatch you all haven't spoken to him/her yet tlél du éet has x̲'eil.aatch they haven't spoken to him/her yet tlél du éet x̲'adul.aatch nobody has spoken to him/her yet tlél aadé du éet has x̲'eix̲li.aadi yé no way can they speak to him/her du éet has x̲'eix̲la.aadín they would have spoken to him/her du éet has x̲'ala.átni if/when they speak to him/her du éex̲ has x̲'ala.aat they speak to him/her (regularly) give, take, hand it to him/her (small, round or hoop-like objects) N jee-t~ O-ka-S-l-.aat~ (ø event) for S to give, take, hand O (small, round or hoop-like objects) to N k̲aa jee- + ka-li-.aat Du jeet kala.á! Give them to him/her! Du jeet kayla.á! You all give them to him/her! Líl du jeex̲ keela.aadík̲! Don't give them to him/her! Líl du jeex̲ kayla.aadík̲! Don't you all give them to him/her! [does not occur] du jeet kax̲wli.át I gave them to him/her du jeet akawli.át s/he gave them to him/her tlél du jeet kax̲wla.aat I didn't give them to him/her tlél du jeet akawul.aat s/he didn't give them to him/her du jeedé kakk̲wala.áat I will give them to him/her du jeedé akagux̲la.áat s/he will give them to him/her tlél du jeedé kakk̲wala.aat I won't give them to him/her tlél du jeedé akagux̲la.aat s/he won't give them to him/her du jeet kak̲ala.aat / du jeet kak̲ala.aadí let me give them to him/her du jeet akax̲la.aat / du jeet akax̲la.aadí let him/her give them to him/her du jeet koox̲la.aatch I give them to him/her (every time) du jeet akool.aatch s/he gives them to him/her (every time) tlél du jeet koox̲la.aatch I haven't given them to him/her yet tlél du jeet akool.aatch s/he hasn't given them to him/her yet tlél aadé du jeet kook̲ali.aadi yé no way can I give them to him/her tlél aadé du jeet akoox̲li.aadi yé no way can s/he give them to him/her du jeet kook̲ala.aadín I would have given them to him/her du jeet akoox̲la.aadín s/he would have given them to him/her du jeet kax̲la.átni if/when I give them to him/her du jeet akla.átni if/when s/he gives them to him/her du jeex̲ kax̲la.aat I give them to him/her (regularly); I am trying to give them to him/her du jeex̲ akla.aat s/he gives them to him/her (regularly); s/he is trying to give them to him/her give, take, hand them to him/her (esp. baggage and personal belongings) N jee-t~ O-S-l-.aat~ (ø motion) for S to give, take, hand (plural) O (esp. baggage and personal belongings) to N k̲aa jee- + li-.aat (basically plural; see taan for singular) Du jeet la.át! Give them to him/her Du jeet yila.át! You all give them to him/her Líl du jeex̲ ila.aadík̲! Don't give them to him/her! Líl du jeex̲ yila.aadík̲! Don't you all give them to him/her! [does not occur] du jeet x̲wali.át I gave them to him/her du jeet awli.át s/he gave them to him/her tlél du jeet x̲wala.aat I didn't give them to him/her tlél du jeet awul.aat s/he didn't give them to him/her du jeedé kk̲wala.áat I will give them to him/her du jeedé agux̲la.áat s/he will give them to him/her tlél du jeedé kk̲wala.aat I won't give them to him/her tlél du jeedé agux̲la.aat s/he won't give them to him/her du jeet k̲ala.aat / du jeet k̲ala.aadí let me give them to him/her du jeet ax̲la.aat / du jeet ax̲la.aadí let him/her give them to him/her du jeet x̲wala.aatch I give them to him/her (every time) du jeet ool.aatch s/he gives them to him/her (every time) tlél du jeet x̲wala.aatch / tlél du jeet ux̲la.aatch I haven't given them to him/her yet tlél du jeet ool.aatch s/he hasn't given them to him/her yet tlél aadé du jeet k̲wali.aadi yé no way can I give them to him/her tlél aadé du jeet oox̲li.aadi yé no way can s/he give them to him/her du jeet k̲wala.aadín I would have given them to him/her du jeet oox̲la.aadín s/he would have given them to him/her du jeet x̲ala.átni if/when I give them to him/her du jeet al.átni if/when s/he gives them to him/her du jeex̲ x̲ala.aat I give them to him/her (regularly); I am trying to give them to him/her du jeex̲ al.aat s/he gives them to him/her (regularly); s/he is trying to give them to him/her lying down (of human) (plural subject) (P-t) sh S-d-l-.át (position) for (plural) S to be lying down (at P) sh dli-.aat sh tool.át we are lying down has sh il.át they are lying down tlél sh tool.át we aren't lying down tlél has sh ul.át they aren't lying down Yee.át kát has sh il.át. They are lying on the bed. Dei s sh il.át. They are already lying down. [Story & Naish 1973: 125] speak, talk, make speech (plural subject) x̲'a-S-l-.aat~ (na event) or (plural) S to speak, talk, make a speech x̲'a-li-.aat In classical Tlingit, the verb stem -taan refered to a singular subject and the verb stem -.aat was used to indicate a plural subject. In modern Tlingit however, this distinction is being lost. Many speakers use the verb stem -taan for both singular and plural subject, as in: has x̲'awditaan "they spoke". Speakers also use: has x̲'awli.aat "they spoke". Both options for the plural subjects are correct. X̲'anayil.á! You all speak! Líl yoo x̲'ayla.átgik̲! Don't you all speak! [does not occur] yaa x̲'antula.át we're speaking yaa x̲'anayla.át you all are speaking yaa (ha)s x̲'anal.át they are speaking yaa x̲'andul.át soemone is speaking [does not occur] x̲'awtuli.aat we spoke x̲'ayeeyli.aat you all spoke has x̲'awli.aat they spoke x̲'awdudli.aat someone spoke tlél x̲awtula.aat we didn't speak tlél x̲'ayeeyla.aat you all didn't speak tlél has x̲'awul.aat they didn't speak tlél x̲'awdul.aat nobody spoke x̲'agax̲tula.áat we will speak x̲'agax̲yila.áat you all will speak has x̲'agux̲la.áat they will speak x̲'agax̲dul.áat someone will speak tlél x̲'agax̲tula.aat we won't speak tlél x̲'agax̲yila.aat you all won't speak tlél has x̲'agux̲la.aat they won't speak tlél x̲'agax̲dul.aat nobody will speak x̲'anax̲tula.aat let us speak has x̲'anax̲la.aat let them speak x̲'antula.átch we speak (every time) x̲'anayla.átch you all speak (every time) has x̲'anal.átch they speak (every time) x̲'andul.átch someone speaks (every time) tlél x̲'antula.átch we haven't spoken yet tlél x̲'anayla.átch you all haven't spoken yet tlél has x̲'einal.átch they haven't spoken yet tlél x̲'andul.átch nobody has spoken yet tlél aadé (ha)s x̲'anax̲wli.aadi yé no way can they speak has x̲'anax̲wla.aadín they would have spoken has x̲'anal.átni if/when they speak yoo (ha)s x̲'ali.átk they speak (regularly) turn the wheel (boat, car) I kei O-ya-S-l-.aat~ (ø motion) for S to turn O (boat, car) kei + ya-li-.aat Kei yala.á! Turn the wheel! Líl kei yeela.átjik̲! Don't turn the wheel! [does not occur] kei yaa ayanal.át s/he is turning the wheel kei ayawli.át s/he turned the wheel tlél kei ayawul.aat s/he didn't turn the wheel kei ayagux̲la.áat s/he will turn the wheel tlél kei ayagux̲la.aat s/he won't turn the wheel kei ayax̲la.aat let him/her turn the wheel kei awul.aatch s/he turns the wheel (every time) tlél kei awul.aatch s/he hasn't turned the wheel yet tlél aadé kei awux̲li.aadi yé no way can s/he turn the wheel kei awux̲la.aadín s/he would have turned the wheel kei ayala.átni if/when s/he turns the wheel kei ayala.átch s/he turns the wheel (regularly); s/he is trying to turn the wheel put it down, leave it (esp. baggage and personal belongings) yan~ O-S-l-.aat~ (ø motion) for S to put down, lay down, leave (plural) O (esp. baggage and personal belongings) li-.aat Yan la.át! Put them down! Yan yila.át! You all put them down! Líl yax̲ ila.aadík̲! Don't put them down! Líl yax̲ yila.aadík̲! Don't you all put them down! [does not occur] yan x̲wali.át I put them down yan awli.át s/he put them down tlél yan x̲wala.aat I didn't put them down tlél yan awul.aat s/he didn't put them down yánde kk̲wala.áat I will put them down yánde agux̲la.áat s/he will put them down tlél yánde kk̲wala.aat I won't put them down tlél yánde agux̲la.aat s/he won't put them down yan k̲ala.aat let me put them down yan ax̲la.aat let him/her put them down yan x̲wala.aatch I put them down (every time) yan ool.aatch s/he puts them down (every time) tlél yan x̲wala.aatch I haven't put them down yet tlél yan ool.aatch s/he hasn't put them down yet tlél aadé yan k̲wali.aadi yé no way can I put them down tlél aadé yan oox̲li.aadi yé no way can s/he put them down yan k̲wala.aadín I would have put them down yan oox̲la.aadín s/he would have put them down yan x̲ala.átni if/when I put them down yan al.átni if/when s/he puts them down yax̲ x̲ala.aat I put them down (regularly) yax̲ al.aat s/he puts them down (regularly) lie down (of human) (plural subject) yan~ sh S-d-l-.aat~ (Ø motion) for (plural) S to lie down sh dli-.aat Leer 1973: 02/84 Yan sh yil.á! You all lie down! Líl yax̲ sh yil.aadík̲! Don't you all lie down! [does not occur] yan sh wutudli.át we lay down yan has sh wudli.át they lay down tlél yan sh wutool.aat we didn't lie down tlél yan has sh wul.aat they didn't lie down yánde has sh gug̲wal.áat they will lie down tlél yánde has sh gug̲wal.aat they won't lie down (ch'a) yan has sh g̲al.aat (just) let them lie down yan has sh ul.aatch they lie down (every time) tlél yan has sh ul.aatch they haven't lain down yet tlél aadé yan has sh ux̲dli.aadi yé no way can they lie down yan has sh g̲wal.aadín they would have lain down yan has sh il.átni if/when they lie down yax̲ has sh il.aat they lie down (regularly) T'aa káx' yan has sh wudli.át nisdaat. They lay on the floor last night. stop speaking, stop talking (plural subject) II yan~ x̲'a-S-l-.aat~ (Ø motion) for (plural) S to stop talking --- Yan x̲'ayla.á! You all stop talking! Líl yan x̲'ayla.aadík̲! Don't you all stop talking! [does not occur] yan x̲'awtuli.át we stopped talking yan has x̲'awli.át they stopped talking tlél yan has x̲'awul.aat they didn't stop talking yánde has x̲'agux̲la.áat they will stop talking tlél yánde has x̲'agux̲la.aat they won't stop talking (ch'a) yan has x̲'ax̲la.aat (dé) (just) let them stop talking (now) yan has x̲'eil.aatch they stop talking (every time) tlél yan has x̲'eil.aatch they haven't stopped talking yet tlél aadé yan has x̲'eix̲li.aadi yé no way can they stop talking yan has x̲'eix̲la.aadín they would have stopped talking yan has x̲'ala.átni if/when they stop talking yax̲ has x̲'ala.aat they stop talking (regularly) speak to, talk to, converse (plural subject) yoo x̲'a-S-l-.aat~ (ø act) for (plural) S to speak, talk, converse x̲'a-li-.aat Yoo x̲'ayla.á! You all converse! Líl yoo x̲'ayla.átgik̲! Don't you all converse! yoo x̲'atuli.átk we converse; we are conversing yoo x̲'ayeeli.átk you all converse; you all are conversing yoo (ha)s x̲'ali.átk they converse; they are conversing yoo x̲'adudli.átk people converse; people are conversing tlél yoo x̲'atula.átk we don't converse; we're not conversing tlél yoo x̲'ayla.átk you all don't converse; you all are not conversing tlél yoo (ha)s x̲'eil.átk they don't converse; they're not conversing tlél yoo x̲'adul.átk nobody converses; nobody is conversing (yeisú) yaa x̲'antula.át we are (still) conversing (yeisú) yaa x̲'anayla.át you all are (still) conversing (yeisú) yaa (ha)s x̲'anal.át they are (still) conversing (yeisú) yaa x̲'andul.át people are (still) conversing [does not occur] yoo x̲'awtuli.át we conversed yoo x̲'ayeeyli.át you all conversed yoo (ha)s x̲'awli.át they conversed yoo x̲'awdudli.át people conversed tlél yoo x̲'awtula.aat we didn't converse tlél yoo x̲'ayeeyla.aat you all didn't converse tlél yoo (ha)s x̲'awul.aat they didn't converse tlél yoo x̲'awdul.aat nobody conversed yoo x̲'agax̲tula.áat we will converse yoo x̲'agax̲yila.áat you all will converse yoo (ha)s x̲'agux̲la.áat they will converse yoo x̲'agax̲dul.áat people will converse tlél yoo x̲'agax̲tula.aat we won't converse tlél yoo x̲'agax̲yila.aat you all won't converse tlél yoo (ha)s x̲'agux̲la.aat they won't converse tlél yoo x̲'agax̲dul.aat nobody will converse yoo x̲'ax̲tula.aat let us converse yoo (ha)s x̲'ax̲la.aat let them converse [does not occur] tlél yoo x̲'atula.aatch we haven't conversed yet tlél yoo x̲'ayla.aatch you all haven't conversed yet tlél yoo (ha)s x̲'eil.aatch they haven't conversed yet tlél yoo x̲'adul.aatch nobody has conversed yet tlél aadé yoo (ha)s x̲'eix̲li.aadi yé no way can they converse yoo (ha)s x̲'eix̲la.aadín they would have conversed yoo (ha)s x̲'ala.átni if/when they converse yoo (ha)s x̲'ali.átk they converse (regularly) aatl' insufficient insufficient, not enough ya-ka-u-ø-.áatl' (na state) for something to be insufficient, not enough ya-ka-ya-.aatl' yakoo.áatl' it's insufficient yakaawa.áatl' it was insufficient yakakg̲wa.áatl' it will be insufficient yakoona.áatl'ch it's insufficient (every time) tlél aadé yakoong̲aa.áatl'i yé no way can it be insufficient yakoong̲a.áatl'in it would have been insufficient yakoona.áatl'ni if it's insufficient Yakoo.áatl' k̲aa x̲oox' yéi shukg̲waxéex. It's insufficient, it won't be enough for everyone. K̲aa jee x̲oox̲ kei kandulgéini yakoo.áatl' k̲aa x̲oox̲ shuwaxeex. There isn't enough to give to everyone, it ran out. Yakawu.áatl'i tsu aa kk̲wa.oo. If it's not enough, I'll buy more. Yakoona.áatl'ni yís yáat'aa yéi na.oo. If it's insufficient use this one. I toowóoch ágé yakakg̲wa.áatl'? Do you think it's going to be insufficient? [Story & Naish 1973: 115] Yáa atx̲á yagoo.áatl'. This food is not enough This food is not enough. [Story & Naish 1973: 115] aat' (5) cold, cool, chill chill it; make it cold O-S-s-.áat'~ (ø act) for S to make O cold, cool si-.aat' The form: as.át'x̲ gives both a basic imperfective meaning "s/he is chilling it" and a repetitive imperfective meaning "s/he chills it (regularly)". Sa.át'! Chill it! Yisa.át'! You all chill it! Líl isa.át'x̲ik̲! Don't chill it! Líl yisa.át'x̲ik̲! Don't you all chill it! x̲asa.át'x̲ I am chilling it as.át'x̲ s/he is chilling it tlél x̲wasa.át'x̲ I'm not chilling it tlél oos.át'x̲ s/he's not chilling it yaa ana.ús' s/he is (in the process of) chilling it x̲wasi.át' I chilled it awsi.át' s/he chilled it tlél x̲wasa.áat' I didn't chill it tlél awus.áat' s/he didn't chill it kk̲wasa.áat' I will chill it agux̲sa.áat' s/he will chill it tlél kk̲wasa.áat' I won't chill it tlél agux̲sa.áat' s/he won't chill it k̲asa.áat' let me chill it ax̲sa.áat' let him/her chill it ux̲sa.át'ch I chill it (every time) oos.át'ch s/he chills it (every time) tlél x̲wasa.át'ch I haven't chilled it yet tlél oos.át'ch s/he hasn't chilled it yet tlél aadé oox̲si.áat'i yé no way can s/he chill it oox̲sa.áat'in s/he would have chilled it as.át'ni if/when s/he chills it as.át'x̲ s/he chills it (regularly) cold (of weather) k̲u-s-.áat' (ga state) for the weather to be cold k̲u-si-.aat' k̲usi.áat' the weather is cold tlél k̲oos.áat' the weather isn't cold kei k̲unas.áat' the weather is getting cold k̲usa.áat'in the weather used to be cold tlél k̲oos.áat'in the weather didn't used to be cold k̲uwsi.áat' the weather got cold tlél k̲uwus.áat' the weather didn't get cold k̲uwsa.áat'in the weather had been cold; the weather was cold (but...) tlél k̲uwsa.áat'in the weather hadn't been cold; the weather wasn't cold (at the time, but...) kei k̲ugux̲sa.áat' the weather will be cold tlél kei k̲ugux̲sa.áat' the weather won't be cold k̲ugux̲sa.áat'i let the weather be cold k̲usa.áat' nooch the weather is always cold k̲uksa.áat'ch the weather gets cold (every time) tlél k̲ugus.áat'ch the weather hasn't gotten cold yet tlél aadé k̲ugux̲si.áat'i yé no way can the weather be cold k̲ugux̲sa.áat'in the weather would have been cold k̲ugas.áat'ni if/when the weather gets cold kei k̲usa.áat'ch the weather gets cold (regularly) Táakwx' k̲usi.áat'. Winters are cold. cold (feel cold, of person) O-sa-ø-.áat'~ (Ø event) for O (person) to feel cold sa-ya-.aat' I sa.át' tsáa! See that you don't get cold! Yee sa.át' tsáa! See that you all don't get cold! [does not occur] yaa sana.át' s/he is starting to get cold x̲at seiwa.át' I'm cold seiwa.át' s/he is cold tlél x̲at sawu.áat' I'm not cold tlél sawu.áat' s/he isn't cold x̲at sakg̲wa.áat' I will be cold sakg̲wa.áat' s/he will be cold tlél x̲at sakg̲wa.áat' I won't be cold tlél sakg̲wa.áat' s/he won't be cold (ch'a) sag̲a.áat' (just) let him/her be cold sei.áat'ch s/he gets cold (every time) tlél sei.áat'ch s/he isn't cold yet tlél aadé sag̲waa.áat'i yé no way can s/he be cold sag̲wa.áat'in s/he would have been cold sa.át'ni if/when s/he is cold sa.át'x̲ s/he gets cold (regularly) Sa.át'ni x'óow du kináax̲ yei kagax̲tooyáa. If she is cold, we'll spread a blanket over her. cold (of inanimate object) s-.áat' (Ø state) for an inanimate object to be cold si.-aat' si.áat' it's cold tlél us.áat' it isn't cold wé si.áat'i aa the cold one yaa nas.át' it is getting cold tlél yaa unas.át' it's not getting cold sa.áat'in it used to be cold tlél us.áat'in it didn't used to be cold wusi.áat' it got cold tlél wus.áat' it didn't get cold gug̲as.áat' it will be cold tlél gug̲as.áat' it won't be cold g̲as.áat' let it be cold sa.áat' nooch it's always cold us.áat'ch it gets cold (every time) tlél us.áat'ch it hasn't gotten cold yet tlél aadé ux̲dzi.áat'i yé no way can it be cold g̲was.áat'in it would have been cold sa.áat'ni if/when it is cold [does not occur] cold (of face) O-ya-d-s-.áat'~ (Ø event) for O's face to be cold ya-dzi-.aat' I yas.át' tsáa! See that your face doesn't get cold! Yee yas.át' tsáa! See that your faces don't get cold! [does not occur] yaa yanas.át' his/her face is getting cold x̲at yawdzi.át' my face is cold yawdzi.át' his/her face is cold tlél x̲at yawus.áat' my face isn't cold tlél yawus.áat' his/her face isn't cold yakg̲was.áat' his/her face will be cold tlél yakg̲was.áat' his/her face won't be cold (ch'a) yag̲as.áat' (just) let his/her face be cold woos.áat'ch his/her face gets cold (every time) tlél woos.áat'ch his/her face isn't cold yet tlél aadé woox̲dzi.áat'i yé no way can his/her face be cold woog̲as.áat'in his/her face would have been cold yas.át'ni if/when his/her face is cold yas.át'x̲ his/her face gets cold (regularly) K̲usa.áat' tóo yux̲ wugoodí tle yas.át'x̲. His face gets cold if he goes out into the cold. aaw tie tie up with a string, put a strap on it O-ya-S-s-.áaw~ (Ø event) for S to tie up O with a string, put a strap on O --- Leer 1973: 02/48 Yasa.áw! Tie it up with a string! Líl yeesa.áwx̲uk̲! Don't tie it up with a string! [does not occur] yaa ayanas.áw s/he is tying it up with a string yax̲wsi.áw I tied it up with a string ayawsi.áw s/he tied it up with a string tlél yax̲wsa.áaw I didn't tie it up with a string tlél ayawus.áaw s/he didn't tie it up with a string ayagux̲sa.áaw s/he will tie it up with a string tlél ayagux̲sa.áaw s/he won't tie it up with a string ayax̲sa.áaw let him/her tie it up with a string awoos.áwch s/he ties it up with a string (every time) tlél awoos.áwch s/he hasn't tied it up with a string yet tlél aadé awux̲si.áawu yé no way can s/he tie it up with a string awux̲sa.áawun s/he would have tied it up with a string ayasa.áwni if/when s/he ties it up with a string ayasa.áwx̲ s/he ties it up with a string (regularly) Atk'átsk'ux̲ x̲at sateeyí ax̲ tuk̲'atáali tíx' tin woox̲sa.áwch. When I was a little boy I used to tie my pants up with a string. Séek eetíx' tíx' tin ayawsi.áw du tuk̲'atáali. In place of a belt he tied his pants up with a string. Yax̲wsi.áaw. I strapped it. [Leer 1973: 02/48] Ayasa.áwx̲. He is putting a strap on it. [Leer 1973: 02/48] aax'w1 bitter, spicy bitter, spicy O-s-.áax'w (ga state) for O to be bitter; for O to be spicy hot si-.aax'w si.áax'w it's bitter tlél us.áax'w it's not bitter wé si.áax'u aa the one that is bitter kei nas.áax'w it's getting bitter sa.áax'un it used to be bitter tlél us.áax'un it didn't used to be bitter wusi.áax'w it got bitter tlél wus.áax'w it didn't get bitter kei gux̲sa.áax'w it will be bitter tlél kei gux̲sa.áax'w it won't be bitter gax̲sa.áax'w let it be bitter gasa.áax'wch it gets bitter (every time) tlél goos.áax'wch it hasn't gotten bitter yet tlél aadé gux̲si.áax'u yé no way can it be bitter gux̲sa.áax'un it would have been bitter gasa.áax'wni if/when it is bitter kei sa.áax'wch it gets bitter (regularly) Wusi.áax'w du yóo x̲'atángi, ch'a aan áwé du x̲'éit k̲oodudzi.áx̲. His words were biting, yet people listened to him. K̲útx̲ kei nas.áax'w. It's getting too spicy. aax̲1 (9) listen listen for him/her/it VII P-g̲aa k̲u-S-s-.aax̲~ (na motion) for S to listen for P --- A kayéikg̲aa k̲unees.aax̲! Listen for the sound of it! A kayéikg̲aa k̲unayis.aax̲! You all listen for the sound of it! [does not occur] a kayéikg̲aa k̲ux̲wdzi.aax̲ I listened for the sound of it a kayéikg̲aa k̲oowdzi.aax̲ s/he listened for the sound of it tlél a kayéikg̲aa k̲ux̲was.aax̲ I didn't listen for the sound of it tlél a kayéikg̲aa k̲uwus.aax̲ s/he didn't listen for the sound of it a kayéikg̲aa k̲ukg̲was.áax̲ s/he will listen for the sound of it tlél a kayéikg̲aa k̲ukg̲was.aax̲ s/he won't listen for the sound of it a kayéikg̲aa k̲unas.áx̲ch s/he listens for the sound of it (every time) tlél a kayéikg̲aa k̲oonas.áx̲ch s/he hasn't listened for the sound of it yet tlél aadé a kayéikg̲aa k̲oonax̲dzi.aax̲i yé no way can s/he listen for the sound of it a kayéikg̲aa k̲oong̲as.aax̲ín s/he would have listened for the sound of it a kayéikg̲aa k̲unas.áx̲ni if/when s/he listens for the sound of it a kayéikg̲aa yoo k̲udzi.áx̲k s/he listens for the sound of it (regularly) A kayéikg̲aa k̲unees.áx̲ni, gag̲ee.áax̲. If you listen for the sound of it, you'll hear it. Tlél aadé a kayéikg̲aa k̲oonax̲dzi.aax̲i yé wé washéen yaa kanajíx wé t'éix'. There's no way he can listen for the sound of it, the machine is running at the back. hear it O-S-ø-.aax̲~ (ø event) for S to hear O ya-.aax̲ .Áx̲! Hear it! Yi.áx̲! You all hear it! [does not occur - see aya.áx̲ch] [does not occur - see aya.áx̲ch] x̲waa.áx̲ I heard it iya.áx̲ you heard it aawa.áx̲ s/he heard it wutuwa.áx̲ we heard it yeey.áx̲ you all heard it has aawa.áx̲ they heard it wuduwa.áx̲ it was heard tlél x̲wa.aax̲ I didn't hear it tlél yi.aax̲ you didn't hear it tlél awu.aax̲ s/he didn't hear it tlél wutoo.aax̲ we didn't hear it tlél yeey.aax̲ you all didn't hear it tlél has awu.aax̲ they didn't hear it tlél wudu.aax̲ it wasn't heard kuk̲a.áax̲ I will hear it gag̲ee.áax̲ you will hear it akg̲wa.áax̲ s/he will hear it gax̲too.áax̲ we will hear it gax̲yi.áax̲ you all will hear it has akg̲wa.áax̲ they will hear it gax̲du.áax̲ it will be heard tlél kuk̲a.aax̲ I won't hear it tlél gag̲ee.aax̲ you won't hear it tlél akg̲wa.aax̲ s/he won't hear it tlél gax̲too.aax̲ we won't hear it tlél gax̲yi.aax̲ you all won't hear it tlél has akg̲wa.aax̲ they won't hear it tlél gax̲du.aax̲ it won't be heard k̲a.aax̲ let me hear it ag̲a.aax̲ let him/her hear it g̲atoo.aax̲ let us hear it x̲waa.aax̲ch I hear it (every time) iya.aax̲ch you hear it (every time) oo.aax̲ch s/he hears it (every time) tuwa.aax̲ch we hear it (every time) yeey.aax̲ch you all hear it (every time) has oo.aax̲ch they hear it (every time) duwa.aax̲ch it can be heard (every time) tlél x̲wa.aax̲ch I haven't heard it yet tlél ee.aax̲ch you haven't heard it yet tlél oo.aax̲ch s/he hasn't heard it yet tlél too.aax̲ch we haven't heard it yet tlél yi.aax̲ch you all haven't heard it yet tlél has oo.aax̲ch they haven't heard it yet tlél du.aax̲ch it hasn't been heard it yet tlél aadé k̲waa.aax̲i yé no way can I hear it tlél aadé oog̲aa.aax̲i yé no way can s/he hear it k̲wa.aax̲ín I would have heard it oog̲a.aax̲ín s/he would have heard it x̲a.áx̲ni if/when I hear it a.áx̲ni if/when s/he hears it x̲a.áx̲ I'm hearing it (strange sounds, e.g.) a.áx̲ s/he's hearing it (strange sounds, e.g.) Ts'ootaatx' shakk̲wadanóok ch'a l Yéil du.aax̲jí. I'm going to get up in the morning before Raven is heard. K̲wa.aax̲ín wé washéen k̲u yaa kanajúx. I would have heard it, but that machine is running. hear him/her/it (usually voice) sa-S-ø-.aax̲~ (ø event) for S to hear O (a voice, esp. singing) sa-ya-.aax̲ [does not occur] sax̲waa.áx̲ I heard a voice aseiwa.áx̲ s/he heard a voice tlél sax̲wa.aax̲ I didn't hear a voice tlél asawu.aax̲ s/he didn't hear a voice sakk̲wa.áax̲ I will hear a voice asakg̲wa.áax̲ s/he will hear a voice tlél sakk̲wa.aax̲ I won't hear a voice tlél asakg̲wa.aax̲ s/he won't hear a voice sak̲a.aax̲ let me hear a voice asag̲a.aax̲ let him/her hear a voice sax̲wa.áx̲ch I hear a voice (every time) asei.áx̲ch s/he hears a voice (every time) tlél seix̲wa.aax̲ch I haven't heard a voice yet tlél asei.aax̲ch s/he hasn't heard a voice yet tlél aadé seik̲waa.aax̲i yé no way can I hear a voice tlél aadé aseig̲waa.aax̲i yé no way can s/he hear a voice seik̲wa.aax̲ín I would have heard a voice aseig̲wa.aax̲ín s/he would have heard a voice sax̲a.áx̲ni if/when I hear a voice asa.áx̲ni if/when s/he hears a voice sax̲aa.áx̲ch I hear a voice (regularly) asaya.áx̲ch s/he hears a voice (regularly) Tlél iseix̲a.áx̲ch. I can't hear you. Núkt sax̲wa.áx̲. I heard a grouse. listen to it P-t~ S-s-.aax̲~ (ø motion) for S to listen to P A- + si-.aax̲ Át sa.áx̲! Listen to it! Át yisa.áx̲! You all listen to it! Líl áx̲ isa.aax̲ík̲! Don't listen to it! Líl áx̲ yisa.aax̲ík̲! Don't you all listen to it! [does not occur] át x̲wasi.áx̲ I'm listening to it; I listened to it át wusi.áx̲ s/he's listening to it; s/he listened to it tlél át x̲wasa.aax̲ I'm not listening to it; I didn't listen to it tlél át wus.aax̲ s/he's not listening to it; s/he didn't listen to it aadé kk̲wasa.áax̲ I will listen to it aadé gux̲sa.áax̲ s/he will listen to it tlél aadé kk̲wasa.aax̲ I won't listen to it tlél aadé gux̲sa.aax̲ s/he won't listen to it át k̲asa.aax̲ let me listen to it át g̲asa.aax̲ let him/her listen to it át x̲wasa.aax̲ch I listen to it (every time) át us.aax̲ch s/he listens to it (every time) tlél át x̲wasa.aax̲ch I haven't listened to it yet tlél át us.aax̲ch s/he hasn't listened to it yet tlél aadé át ux̲si.aax̲i yé no way can s/he listen to it át ux̲sa.aax̲ín s/he would have listened to it át sa.áx̲ni if/when s/he listens to it áx̲ sa.aax̲ s/he listens to it (regularly) Wéi a tóode sh kadulnik át k'idéin át sa.áx̲! Listen closely to the radio! Yadujeeyí tlél áx̲ us.aax̲. She doesn't listen to lecturing. play it (musical instrument) O-S-l-.aax̲~ (ø act) for S to play O (musical instrument) li-.aax̲ The form: ali.áx̲ch gives both a basic imperfective meaning "s/he is playing it" and a repetitive imperfective meaning "s/he plays it (regularly)". La.áx̲! Play it! Yila.áx̲! You all play it! Líl ila.áx̲jik̲! Don't play it! Líl yil.áx̲jik̲! Don't you all play it! ali.áx̲ch s/he is playing it tlél ool.áx̲ch s/he isn't playing it al.áx̲ nooch s/he always plays it x̲wali.áx̲ I played it awli.áx̲ s/he played it tlél x̲wala.aax̲ I didn't play it tlél awul.aax̲ s/he didn't play it kuk̲ala.áax̲ I will play it agux̲la.áax̲ s/he will play it tlél kuk̲ala.aax̲ I won't play it tlél agux̲la.aax̲ s/he won't play it k̲ala.aax̲ let me play it ax̲la.aax̲ let him/her play it x̲wala.aax̲ch I play it (every time) ool.aax̲ch s/he plays it (every time) tlél x̲wala.aax̲ch I haven't played it yet tlél ool.aax̲ch s/he hasn't played it yet tlél aadé ux̲li.aax̲i yé no way can s/he play it ux̲la.aax̲ín s/he would have played it al.áx̲ni if/when s/he plays it ali.áx̲ch s/he plays it (regularly) understand, comprehend him/her/it; hear him/her/it with understanding O-x̲'a-S-ø-.aax̲~ (ø event) for S to hear O with understanding; for S to understand, comprehend O x̲'a-ya-.aax̲ [does not occur] [does not occur] x̲'ax̲waa.áx̲ I understood him/her ax̲'eiwa.áx̲ s/he understood him/her tlél x̲'ax̲wa.aax̲ I didn't understand him/her tlél ax̲'awu.aax̲ s/he didn't understand him/her x̲'akk̲wa.áax̲ I will understand him/her ax̲'akg̲wa.áax̲ s/he will understand him/her tlél x̲'akk̲wa.aax̲ I won't understand him/her tlél ax̲'akg̲wa.aax̲ s/he won't understand him/her [does not occur] x̲'eix̲a.aax̲ch I understand him/her (every time) ax̲'ei.aax̲ch s/he understands him/her (every time) tlél x̲'eix̲a.aax̲ch I haven't understood him/her yet tlél ax̲'ei.aax̲ch s/he hasn't understood him/her yet tlél aadé x̲'eik̲waa.aax̲u yé no way can I understand him/her tlél aadé ax̲'eig̲waa.aax̲u yé no way can s/he understand him/her x̲'eik̲wa.aax̲ún I would have understood him/her ax̲'eig̲wa.aax̲ún s/he would have understood him/her x̲'ax̲a.áx̲ni if/when I understand him/her ax̲'a.áx̲ni if/when s/he understands him/her x̲'ax̲aa.áx̲ch I understand him/her (regularly) ax̲'aya.áx̲ch s/he understands him/her (regularly) Tlél k̲ool.áx̲ch ách áwé tlél ax̲'awu.aax̲. He's deaf, that's why he didn't hear her. Tlél a daat tooshtí ách áwé tlél ax̲'ei.áx̲ch. He's not paying attention, that's why he doesn't hear him. hear it (be able to hear it) O-S-ø-.áx̲ch (ga state) for S to be able to hear O --- For the forms that do not occur with this verb, see the ø- conjugation eventive verb aawa.áx̲ 's/he heard it', which occurs in all modes except the imperfective. [does not occur] Líl ee.áx̲jik̲! Don't hear it! Líl yi.áx̲jik̲! Don't you all hear it! x̲aa.áx̲ch I can hear it iya.áx̲ch you can hear it aya.áx̲ch s/he can hear it tuwa.áx̲ch we can hear it yeey.áx̲ch you all can hear it has aya.áx̲ch they can hear it duwa.áx̲ch it can be heard tlél x̲wa.áx̲ch I can't hear it tlél ee.áx̲ch you can't hear it tlél oo.áx̲ch s/he can't hear it tlél too.áx̲ch we can't hear it tlél yi.áx̲ch you all can't hear it tlél has oo.áx̲ch they can't hear it tlél du.áx̲ch it can't be heard wé aya.áx̲chi aa the one who hears it a.áx̲jin s/he used to hear it tlél oo.áx̲jin s/he didn't used to hear it [does not occur] [does not occur - see aawa.áx̲] kei kk̲wa.áx̲ch I will be able to hear it kei kg̲ee.áx̲ch you will be able to hear it kei akg̲wa.áx̲ch s/he will be able to hear it kei gax̲too.áx̲ch we will be able to hear it kei gax̲yi.áx̲ch you all will be able to hear it kei (ha)s akg̲wa.áx̲ch they will be able to hear it kei gax̲du.áx̲ch someone will be able to hear it tlél kei kk̲wa.áx̲ch I won't be able to hear it tlél kei kg̲ee.áx̲ch you won't be able to hear it tlél kei akg̲wa.áx̲ch s/he won't be able to hear it tlél kei gax̲too.áx̲ch we won't be able to hear it tlél kei gax̲yi.áx̲ch you all won't be able to hear it tlél kei (ha)s akg̲wa.áx̲ch they won't be able to hear it tlél kei gax̲du.áx̲ch nobody will be able to hear it [does not occur] [does not occur] [does not occur] [does not occur] aga.áx̲chni if/when s/he can hear it [does not occur] Tlél ushik'éiyi aa yóo x̲'atánk áwé tsá a.áx̲ji nooch . S/he only hears the bad talk. listen to him/her (take time to listen) N x̲'éide k̲u-S-s-.aax̲~ (na motion) for S to (take time to) listen to N --- One fluent speaker suggests the finer meaning "take time to listen" for this verb, thus distinguishing it slightly from the related verb: du x̲'éit wusi.áx̲ "s/he listened to, obeyed him/her". Du x̲'éide k̲unees.aax̲! Listen to him/her! Du x̲'éide k̲unayis.aax̲! You all listen to him/her! Líl du x̲'éide yoo k̲ees.áx̲gik̲! Don't listen to him/her! Líl du x̲'éide yoo k̲ayis.áx̲gik̲! Don't you all listen to him/her! [does not occur] [does not occur] du x̲'éide k̲ux̲wdzi.aax̲ I listened to him/her du x̲'éide k̲uwdzi.aax̲ s/he listened to him/her tlél du x̲'éide k̲ux̲was.aax̲ I didn't listen to him/her tlél du x̲'éide k̲uwus.aax̲ s/he didn't listen to him/her du x̲'éide k̲ukk̲was.áax̲ I will listen to him/her du x̲'éide k̲ukg̲was.áax̲ s/he will listen to him/her tlél du x̲'éide k̲ukk̲was.aax̲ I won't listen to him/her tlél du x̲'éide k̲ukg̲was.aax̲ s/he won't listen to him/her du x̲'éide k̲unk̲as.aax̲ let me listen to him/her du x̲'éide k̲ung̲as.aax̲ let him/her listen to him/her du x̲'éide k̲unx̲as.áx̲ch I listen to him/her (every time) du x̲'éide k̲unas.áx̲ch s/he listens to him/her (every time) tlél du x̲'éide k̲unx̲was.áx̲ch I haven't listened to him/her yet tlél du x̲'éide k̲oonas.áx̲ch s/he hasn't listened to him/her yet tlél aadé du x̲'éide k̲oonk̲adzi.aax̲i yé no way can I listen to him/her tlél aadé du x̲'éide k̲oonax̲dzi.aax̲i yé no way can s/he listen to him/her k̲unk̲was.aax̲ín I would have listened to him/her du x̲'éide k̲ung̲was.aax̲ín s/he would have listened to him/her du x̲'éide k̲unx̲as.áx̲ni if/when I listen to him/her du x̲'éide k̲unas.áx̲ni if/when s/he listens to him/her du x̲'éide yoo k̲ux̲dzi.áx̲k I listen to him/her (regularly) du x̲'éide yoo k̲udzi.áx̲k s/he listens to him/her (regularly) listen to, obey him/her N x̲'éi-t~ S-s-.aax̲~ (ø motion) for S to listen to, obey, give heed to N k̲aa x̲'éi- + si-.aax̲ Du x̲'éit sa.áx̲! Listen to him/her! Du x̲'éit yisa.áx̲! You all listen to him/her! Líl du x̲'éix̲ isa.aax̲ík̲! Don't listen to him/her! Líl du x̲'éix̲ yisa.aax̲ík̲! Don't you all listen to him/her! [does not occur] du x̲'éit x̲wasi.áx̲ I'm listening to him/her; I listen to him/her du x̲'éit wusi.áx̲ s/he's listening to him/her; s/he listens to him/her tlél du x̲'éit x̲wasa.aax̲ I'm not listening to him/her; I don't listen to him/her tlél du x̲'éit wus.aax̲ s/he's not listening to him/her; s/he doesn't listen to him/her du x̲'éide kk̲wasa.áax̲ I will listen to him/her du x̲'éide gux̲sa.áax̲ s/he will listen to him/her tlél du x̲'éide kk̲wasa.aax̲ I won't listen to him/her tlél du x̲'éide gux̲sa.aax̲ s/he won't listen to him/her du x̲'éit k̲asa.aax̲ let me listen to him/her du x̲'éit g̲asa.aax̲ let him/her listen to him/her du x̲'éit x̲wasa.aax̲ch I listen to him/her (every time) du x̲'éit us.aax̲ch s/he listens to him/her (every time) tlél du x̲'éit x̲wasa.aax̲ch I haven't listened to him/her yet tlél du x̲'éit us.aax̲ch s/he hasn't listened to him/her yet tlél aadé du x̲'éit k̲wasi.aax̲i yé no way can I listen to him/her tlél aadé du x̲'éit ux̲si.aax̲i yé no way can s/he listen to him/her du x̲'éit k̲wasa.aax̲ín I would have listened to him/her du x̲'éit ux̲sa.aax̲ín s/he would have listened to him/her du x̲'éit x̲asa.áx̲ni if/when I listen to him/her du x̲'éit sa.áx̲ni if/when s/he listens to him/her du x̲'éix̲ x̲asa.aax̲ I listen to him/her (regularly) du x̲'éix̲ sa.aax̲ s/he listens to him/her (regularly) aax̲2 (4) give, take, carry, lie2 carry it, take it (textile-like object, blanket, coat, robe, sheet, etc.) VII P-t O-S-ø-.aax̲~ (na motion) for S to carry, take O (a textile-like object, blanket, coat, robe, sheet) around at P ya-.aax̲ -- carrying it (along) P-t carrying it around, about P (no repetitive imperfective form) P-dei carrying it toward P P-dáx̲ picking it up off of P P-náx̲ stopping over at P with it; dropping it off at P yux̲ carrying it out of house Át na.aax̲! Carry it around! Át nay.aax̲! You all carry it around! Líl át yi.aax̲ík̲! Don't carry it around! Líl át yeey.aax̲ík̲! Don't you all carry it around! [does not occur] át x̲waa.aax̲ I'm carrying it around; I carried it around át aawa.aax̲ s/he's carrying it around; s/he carried it around tlél át x̲wa.aax̲ I didn't carry it around tlél át awu.aax̲ s/he didn't carry it around át kuk̲a.áax̲ I will carry it around át akg̲wa.áax̲ s/he will carry it around tlél át kuk̲a.aax̲ I won't carry it around tlél át akg̲wa.aax̲ s/he won't carry it around át nak̲a.aax̲ let me carry it around át ang̲a.aax̲ let him/her carry it around át nax̲a.áx̲ch I carry it around (every time) át ana.áx̲ch s/he carries it around (every time) tlél át nax̲wa.áx̲ch I haven't carried it around yet tlél át oona.áx̲ch s/he hasn't carried it around yet tlél aadé át oong̲aa.aax̲i yé no way can s/he carry it around át oong̲a.aax̲ín s/he would have carried it around át ana.áx̲ni if/when s/he carries it around át yoo aya.áx̲k s/he carries it around (regularly) Wéi yátk'w du x'óowu át ana.áx̲ch. The child carries his blanket around. Ch'a wulch'éix̲'u, ch'a aan áwé át ana.áx̲ch du x'óowu. Even though it's dirty, he carries his blanket around. Ch'áagu ádi áwé wéi naaxein - ách áwé líl át yeey.aax̲ík̲! That Chilkat robe is very old - so don't you all carry it around! Líl át yi.aax̲ík̲ wéi i x'óowu - gux̲lach'éix̲'w! Don't carry your blanket around - it's going to get dirty! lie there (of hide-like object, blanket, coat, robe, sheet) P-t ø-.áx̲ (position) for a hide-like object, blanket, coat, robe, sheet to lie at P ya-.aax̲ This verb only occurs in the imperfective. át .áx̲ it's lying there tlél át u.áx̲ it's not lying there [does not occur] [does not occur] give, take, hand it to him/her (textile-like object, blanket, coat, robe, sheet, etc.) N jee-t~ O-S-ø-.aax̲~ (ø motion) for S to give, take, hand O (textile-like object) to N k̲aa jee- + ya-.aax̲ Du jeet .áx̲! Give it to him/her! Du jeet yi.áx̲! You all give it to him/her! Líl du jeex̲ ee.aax̲ík̲! Don't give it to him/her! Líl du jeex̲ yi.aax̲ík̲! Don't you all give it to him/her! [does not occur] du jeedé yaa nx̲a.áx̲ I'm giving it to him/her du jeedé yaa ana.áx̲ s/he's giving it to him/her du jeet x̲waa.áx̲ I gave it to him/her du jeet aawa.áx̲ s/he gave it to him/her tlél du jeet x̲wa.aax̲ I didn't give it to him/her tlél du jeet awu.aax̲ s/he didn't give it to him/her du jeedé kk̲wa.áax̲ I will give it to him/her du jeedé akg̲wa.áax̲ s/he will give it to him/her tlél du jeedé kk̲wa.aax̲ I won't give it to him/her tlél du jeedé akg̲wa.aax̲ s/he won't give it to him/her du jeet k̲a.aax̲ let me give it to him/her du jeet ag̲a.aax̲ let him/her give it to him/her du jeet x̲wa.aax̲ch I give it to him/her (every time) du jeet oo.aax̲ch s/he gives it to him/her (every time) tlél du jeet x̲wa.aax̲ch I haven't given it to him/her yet tlél du jeet oo.aax̲ch s/he hasn't given it to him/her yet tlél aadé du jeet k̲waa.aax̲i yé no way can I give it to him/her tlél aadé du jeet oog̲aa.aax̲i yé no way can s/he give it to him/her du jeet k̲wa.aax̲ín I would have given it to him/her du jeet oog̲a.aax̲ín s/he would have given it to him/her du jeet x̲a.áx̲ni if/when I give it to him/her du jeet a.áx̲ni if/when s/he gives it to him/her du jeex̲ x̲a.aax̲ I give it to him/her (regularly) du jeex̲ a.aax̲ s/he gives it to him/her (regularly) take it off (shirt, dress, coat, etc.) I For taking off one's hat, replace kaax̲ with sháatx̲ "off the head" throughout the paradigm, as in: sháatx̲ kei awdi.áx̲ "s/he took off his/her hat". Note that this verb is not used for taking off pants, shoes, socks, etc. For these, use: x̲'oosdáx̲ awdiyík̲ "s/he took them off (pants, socks, shoes)". kaax̲ kei O-S-d-.aax̲~ (Ø motion) for S to take off O (shirt, dress, coat, etc.) --- Kaax̲ kei ida..áx̲! Take it off! Kaax̲ kei yida.áx̲! You all take them off! Líl kaax̲ kei ida.áx̲jík̲! Don't take it off! Líl kaax̲ kei yida.áx̲jík̲! Don't you all take them off! [does not occur] kaax̲ kei nax̲da.áx̲ I am taking it off kaax̲ kei anda.áx̲ s/he is taking it off kaax̲ kei x̲wdi.áx̲ I took it off kaax̲ kei awdi.áx̲ s/he took it off tlél kaax̲ kei x̲wda.aax̲ I didn't take it off tlél kaax̲ kei awda.aax̲ s/he didn't take it off kaax̲ kei kk̲wada.áax̲ I will take it off kaax̲ kei agux̲da.áax̲ s/he will take it off tlél kaax̲ kei kk̲wada.aax̲ I won't take it off tlél kaax̲ kei agux̲da.aax̲ s/he won't take it off kaax̲ kei k̲da.aax̲ let me take it off kaax̲ kei ax̲da.aax̲ let him/her take it off kaax̲ kei x̲wda.aax̲ch I take it off (every time) kaax̲ kei ooda.aax̲ch s/he takes it off (every time) tlél kaax̲ kei x̲wda.aax̲ch I haven't taken it off yet tlél kaax̲ kei ooda.aax̲ch s/he hasn't taken it off yet tlél aadé kaax̲ kei oox̲di.aax̲i yé no way can s/he take it off kaax̲ kei oox̲da.aax̲ín s/he would have taken it off kaax̲ kei ada.áx̲ni if/when s/he takes it off kaax̲ kei ada.áx̲ch s/he takes it off (regularly) Ax̲ yéet du kinaak.ádi du káx̲ x̲wa.aax̲í, tle kaax̲ kei ooda.aax̲ch. Every time I put my son's coat on him, he takes it off. aax̲w (2) tie, wrap wrap it up; tie it in a bundle O-daa-S-s-.aax̲w~ (ø act) for S to tie O together in a bundle; for S to wrap O up daa-si-.aax̲w Daasa.áx̲w! Wrap it up! Daaysa.áx̲w! You all wrap it up! Líl daa.ees.aax̲úk̲! Don't wrap it up! Líl daa.yis.aax̲úk̲! Don't you all wrap it up! adaasa.áax̲w s/he's wrapping it up tlél adaa.us.aax̲w s/he's not wrapping it up adaawsi.áx̲w s/he wrapped it up tlél adaawus.aax̲w s/he didn't wrap it up adaagux̲sa.áax̲w s/he will wrap it up tlél adaagux̲sa.aax̲w s/he won't wrap it up adaax̲sa.aax̲w let him/her wrap it up adaa.us.áax̲wch s/he wraps it up (every time) tlél adaa.us.áax̲wch s/he hasn't wrapped it up yet tlél aadé adaa.ux̲si.aax̲u yé no way can s/he wrap it up adaa.ux̲sa.aax̲ún s/he would have wrapped it up adaasa.áx̲wni if/when s/he wraps it up adaasa.áx̲wx̲ s/he wraps it up (regularly) tie it up, secure it (esp. a boat to shore) yánde O-S-ø-.aax̲w~ (ø act) for S to tie up, secure O (esp. a boat to shore) --- Yánde .áx̲w! Tie it up! Yánde y.áx̲w! You all tie it up! Líl yánde yi.áx̲uk̲! Don't tie it up! Líl yánde yeey.áx̲uk̲! Don't you all tie it up! yánde a.aax̲w s/he's tying it up; s/he ties it up tlél yánde oo.aax̲w s/he isn't tying it up; s/he doesn't tie it up yánde aawa.áx̲w s/he tied it up tlél yánde awu.aax̲w s/he didn't tie it up yánde akg̲wa.áax̲w s/he will tie it up tlél yánde akg̲wa.aax̲w s/he won't tie it up yánde ag̲a.aax̲w let him/her tie it up yánde oo.áx̲wch s/he ties it up (every time) tlél yánde oo.aax̲wch / tlél yánde oo.áx̲wch s/he hasn't tied it up yet tlél aadé yánde oog̲aa.aax̲u yé no way can s/he tie it up yánde oog̲a.aax̲ún s/he would have tied it up yánde a.áx̲wni if/when s/he ties it up [does not occur] chaa strain, filter, drain strain, filter it; drain it off O-ka-S-l-chaa~ (ø act) for S to strain, filter, drain off O ka-li-chaa Kalachá! Strain it! Kaylachá! You all strain it! Líl keelachéix̲ik̲! Don't strain it! Líl kaylachéix̲ik̲! Don't you all strain it! kax̲lachéix̲ I am straining it aklachéix̲ s/he is straining it tlél koox̲lacheix̲ I'm not straining it tlél akoolcheix̲ s/he isn't straining it yaa kanax̲lachéin I am (in the process of) straining it yaa akanalchéin s/he's (in the process of) straining it kax̲lachéix̲ nooch I always strain it aklachéix̲ nooch s/he always strains it kax̲wlicháa I strained it akawlicháa s/he strained it tlél kax̲wlachá I didn't strain it tlél akawulchá s/he didn't strain it kakk̲walacháa I will strain it akagux̲lacháa s/he will strain it tlél kakk̲walachaa I won't strain it tlél akagux̲lachaa s/he won't strain it kak̲lachaa let me strain it akax̲lachaa let him/her strain it koox̲lacháaych I strain it (every time) akoolcháaych s/he strains it (every time) tlél koox̲lacháaych I haven't strained it yet tlél akoolcháaych s/he hasn't strained it yet tlél aadé kook̲alichaayi yé no way can I strain it tlél aadé akoox̲lichaayi yé no way can s/he strain it kook̲alachaayín I would have strained it akoox̲lachaayín s/he would have strained it kax̲lachéini if/when I strain it aklachéini if/when s/he strains it kax̲lachéix̲ I strain it (regularly) aklachéix̲ s/he strains it (regularly) chaak pile, pack, stack pack it; pile up, stack it O-ka-S-ø-cháak~ (ø act; CV́C Hort/Pot) for S to pile, stack away neatly, pack O (food, clothing, firewood, etc.) ka-ya-chaak Kachák! Pack it! Kaychák! You all pack it! Líl kayeecháagik̲! Don't pack it! Líl kayeeycháagik̲! Don't you all pack it! akacháak s/he's packing it tlél akoocháak s/he isn't packing it akacháak nooch s/he always packs it akaawachák s/he packed it tlél akawucháak s/he didn't pack it akakg̲wacháak s/he will pack it tlél akakg̲wacháak s/he won't pack it akg̲achák let him/her pack it akoochákch s/he packs it (every time) tlél akoochákch / tlél akoocháakch s/he hasn't packed it yet tlél aadé ookg̲aachági yé no way can s/he pack it ookg̲achágin s/he would have packed it akachákni if s/he packs it akachákx̲ s/he packs it (regularly) chán stink, smell stink, smell strongly O-l-chán (ga state) for O to stink, have unpleasant odor, smell bad; for O to smell strongly li-chaan Líl eelchánik̲ Don't be stinky! Líl yee lachánik̲ Don't you all be stinky! x̲at lichán I stink ilichán you stink lichán he/she/it stinks haa lichán we stink yee lichán you all stink has lichán they stink k̲ulichán somebody stinks tlél x̲at ulchán I don't stink tlél eelchán you don't stink tlél ulchán he/she/it doesn't stink tlél haa ulchán we don't stink tlél yee ulchán you all don't stink tlél has ulchán they don't stink tlél k̲oolchán nobody stinks wé lichani aa the one who stinks kei ax̲ nalchán I'm starting to stink kei inalchán you're starting to stink kei nalchán he/she/it is starting to stink kei haa nalchán we are starting to stink kei yee nalchán you all are starting to stink kei has nalchán they are starting to stink kei k̲unalchán people are starting to stink lachánin he/she/it used to stink tlél ulchánin he/she/it didn't used to stink ax̲ wulichán I stank iwlichán you stank wulichán he/she/it stank haa wlichán we stank yee wlichán you all stank has wulichán they stank k̲uwlichán people stank tlél ax̲ wulchán I didn't stink tlél iwulchán you didn't stink tlél wulchán he/she/it didn't stink tlél haa wulchán we didn't stink tlél yee wulchán you all didn't stink tlél has wulchán they didn't stink tlél k̲uwulchán nobody stank kei ax̲ gux̲lachán I will stink kei igux̲lachán you will stink kei gux̲lachán he/she/it will stink kei haa gux̲lachán we will stink kei yee gux̲lachán you all will stink kei (ha)s gux̲lachán they will stink kei k̲ugux̲lachán people will stink tlél kei ax̲ gux̲lachán I won't stink tlél kei igux̲lachán you won't stink tlél kei gux̲lachán he/she/it won't stink tlél kei haa gux̲lachán we won't stink tlél kei yee gux̲lachán you all won't stink tlél kei (ha)s gux̲lachán they won't stink tlél kei k̲ugux̲lachán nobody will stink ax̲ gax̲lachán let me stink gax̲lachán let him/her/it stink haa gax̲lachán let us stink lachán nooch he/she/it always stinks tlél aadé gux̲lichani yé no way can he/she/it stink gux̲lacháneen he/she/it would have stunk lachánni if/when he/she/it stinks kei lachánch he/she/it stinks (regularly) ` ` Yee lichán You all stink (often used in reference to alcohol on the breath). Ch'a yéi x̲at kasnéex'i tín, has du yáanáx̲ át x̲wasikóo. Even though I stink, I know more than they do. choon (2) injure injure, hurt, wound, bruise him/her O-S-l-choon~ (Ø event; CV́C Hort/Pot) for S to injure, hurt, wound, bruise O li-choon Lachún! Injure him/her/it! Yilachún! You all injure him/her/it! Líl ilachúnx̲ik̲! Don't injure him/her/it Líl yilachúnx̲ik̲! Don't you all injure him/her/it [does not occur] x̲walichún I injured him/her/it awlichún s/he injured him/her/it tlél x̲walachoon I didn't injure him/her/it tlél awulchoon s/he didn't injure him/her/it agux̲lachóon s/he will injure him/her/it tlél agux̲lachoon s/he won't injure him/her/it (ch'a) ax̲lachún (just) let him/her injure him/her/it oolchúnch s/he injures him/her/it (every time) tlél oolchúnch s/he hasn't injured him/her/it yet tlél aadé oox̲lichúni yé no way can s/he injure him/her/it oox̲lachúnin s/he would have injured him/her/it alchúnni if/when s/he injures him/her/it alchúnx̲ s/he injures it (regularly) I jin tsá ilachóon! See that you don't injure your hand! Du goosh awlichún. He hurt his thumb. Ilachúnni, i éede jikk̲wadagóot. If you hurt him, I will attack you. injured, wounded, bruised (physically); hurt (emotionally) O-d-choon~ (ø event) for O to be wounded, injured, bruised; for O to be hurt (emotionally) li-choon The most common use of this verb is in the perfective form. Note that it can also refer to a mental state, as in: k̲únáx̲ haa wdichún "we're really hurting (emotionally)" (after the loss of a family member, e.g.). [does not occur] x̲at wudichún I got injured wudichún s/he got injured tlél x̲at wudachoon I didn't get injured tlél wudachoon s/he didn't get injured [does not occur] [does not occur] [does not occur] [does not occur] [does not occur] tlél aadé ux̲dichooni yé no way can s/he get injured g̲wadachoonín s/he would have gotten injured dachúnni if/when s/he gets injured dachúnx̲ s/he gets injured (regularly) choox knead, press, pat knead it, press it, pat it (with palm of hand) O-ka-S-ø-choox~ (ø act; CV́C Hort/Pot) for S to knead, press, pat O with palm of hand -cheexw~ ka-ya-choox Kachúx! Knead it! Kaychúx! You all knead it! Líl keechooxúk̲! Don't knead it! Líl kaychooxúk̲! Don't you all knead it! kax̲achóox I knead it; I am kneading it keechóox you knead it; you are kneading it akachóox s/he kneads it; s/he is kneading it katoochóox we knead it; we are kneading it kaychóox you all knead it; you all are kneading it has akachóox they knead it; they are kneading it kaduchóox it is kneaded; it is being kneaded tlél koox̲achoox I don't knead it; I'm not kneading it tlél keechoox you don't knead it; you aren't kneading it tlél akoochoox s/he doesn't knead it; s/he isn't kneading it tlél katoochoox we don't knead it; we aren't kneading it tlél kaychoox you all don't knead it; you all aren't kneading it tlél has akoochoox they don't knead it; they aren't kneading it tlél kaduchoox it isn't kneaded; it isn't being kneaded wé akachoox aa the one who kneads it; the one who is kneading it akachooxún s/he used to knead it tlél akoochooxún s/he didn't used to knead it kax̲waachúx I kneaded it keeyachúx you kneaded it akaawachúx s/he kneaded it kawtuwachúx we kneaded it kayeeychúx you all kneaded it has akaawachúx they kneaded it kawduwachúx it was kneaded tlél kax̲wachoox I didn't knead it tlél kayichoox you didn't knead it tléil akawuchoox s/he didn't knead it tlél kawtoochoox we didn't knead it tlél kayeeychoox you all didn't knead it tlél has akawuchoox they didn't knead it tlél kawduchoox it wasn't kneaded kakk̲wachóox I will knead it kakg̲eechóox you will knead it akakg̲wachóox s/he will knead it kagax̲toochóox we will knead it kagax̲yeechóox you all will knead it has akakg̲wachóox they will knead it kagax̲duchóox it will be kneaded tlél kakk̲wachoox I won't knead it tlél kakg̲eechoox you won't knead it tlél akakg̲wachoox s/he won't knead it tlél kagax̲toochoox we won't knead it tlél kagax̲yeechoox you all won't knead it tlél has akakg̲wachoox they won't knead it tlél kagax̲duchoox it won't be kneaded kak̲achúx let me knead it akg̲achúx let him/her knead it kax̲toochúx let us knead it akachoox nooch s/he always kneads it koox̲achúxch I knead it (every time) keechúxch you knead it (every time) akoochúxch s/he kneads it (every time) katoochúxch we knead it (every time) kaychúxch you all knead it (every time) has akoochúxch they knead it (every time) kaduchúxch it is kneaded (every time) tlél koox̲achúxch I haven't kneaded it yet tlél keechúxch you haven't kneaded it yet tlél akoochúxch s/he hasn't kneaded it yet tlél katoochúxch we haven't kneaded it yet tlél kaychúxch you all haven't kneaded it yet tlél has akoochúxch they haven't kneaded it yet tlél kooduchúxch it hasn't been kneaded yet tlél aadé akg̲waachúxu yé no way can s/he knead it akg̲wachúxun she would have kneaded it akachúxni if/when s/he kneads it akachúxx̲ s/he kneads it (regularly) ` ` ` ` choox̲ (2) mooch mooch, freeload; obtain things often without payment at u-S-ø-choox̲ (g̲a act) for S to mooch, freeload; for S to obtain things often without payment ya-choox̲ Leer 1973: 10/228-229 At g̲achoox̲! Freeload! At g̲aychoox̲! You all freeload! Líl at eechoox̲úk̲! Don't freeload! Lílt at yichoox̲úk̲! Don't you all freeload! at uchoox̲ s/he is freeloading; s/he freeloads tlél at uchoox̲ s/he isn't freeloading; s/he doesn't freeload at uchoox̲ nooch s/he is always freeloading at x̲waachoox̲ I freeloaded at woochoox̲ s/he freeloaded tlél at x̲wachoox̲ I didn't freeload tlél at wuchoox̲ s/he didn't freeload yei at gug̲wachoox̲ s/he will freeload tlél yei at gug̲wachoox̲ s/he won't freeload (ch'a) at g̲aag̲achoox̲ (just) let him/her freeload at g̲achoox̲ch s/he freeloads (every time) tlél at g̲wachoox̲ch s/he hasn't freeloaded yet tlél aadé at g̲waag̲aachoox̲u yé no way can s/he freeload at g̲waag̲achoox̲ún s/he would have freeloaded at g̲achoox̲ní if/when s/he freeloads yei at uchoox̲ch s/he freeloads (regularly) Du éech yaa akandushk'án k̲údáx̲ at uchoox̲. They're starting to get angry with him, he freeloads too much. At uchoox̲ akwshitán. He's in the habit of mooching things. mooch, bum, scrounge it; obtain it often without payment (N eex̲) O-u-S-ø-choox̲ (g̲a act) for S to mooch, bum, scrounge O (off of N); for S to obtain O (from N) often without payment ya-choox̲ Leer 1973: 10/228-229 (Du eex̲) g̲̲achoox̲! Mooch it (off of him/her)! Líl (du eex̲) eechoox̲úk̲! Don't mooch it (off of him/her)! (du eex̲) oochoox̲ s/he is mooching it (off of him/her); s/he mooches it (off of him/her) tlél (du eex̲) oochoox̲ s/he isn't mooching it (off of him/her); s/he doesn't mooch it (off of him/her) (du eex̲) oochoox̲ nooch s/he always mooches it (off of him/her) (du eex̲) x̲waachoox̲ I mooched it (off of him/her) (du eex̲) aawachoox̲ s/he mooched it (off of him/her) tlél (du eex̲) x̲wachoox̲ I didn't mooch it (off of him/her) tlél (du eex̲) awuchoox̲ s/he didn't mooch it (off of him/her) (du eex̲) yei akg̲wachoox̲ s/he will mooch it (off of him/her) tlél (du eex̲) yei akg̲wachoox̲ s/he won't mooch it (off of him/her) (ch'a) (du eex̲) ag̲aag̲achoox̲ (just) let him/her mooch it (off of him/her) (du eex̲) oog̲achoox̲ch s/he mooches it (off of him/her) (every time) tlél (du eex̲) oog̲achoox̲ch s/he hasn't mooched it (off of him/her) yet tlél aadé (du eex̲) ag̲waag̲aachoox̲u yé no way can s/he mooch it (off of him/her) (du eex̲) ag̲waag̲achoox̲ún s/he would have mooched it (off of him/her) (du eex̲) ag̲achoox̲ní if/when s/he mooches it (off of him/her) (du eex̲) yei oochoox̲ch s/he mooches it (off of him/her) (regularly) Tlákw dáanaa oochoox̲ nuch. He's always mooching money. Du eex̲ yei kk̲wachoox̲. I'm going to sponge it off of him. [Leer 1973: 10/229] ch'aak'w carve carve it O-ka-S-ø-ch'áak'w~ (ø act; CV́C' Hort/Pot) for S to carve O (usually smaller, detailed work) using a knife ka-ya-ch'aak'w Kach'ák'w! Carve it! Kaych'ák'w! You all carve it! Líl keech'ák'x̲uk̲! Don't carve it! Líl kaych'ák'x̲uk̲! Don't you all carve it! akach'áak'w s/he is carving it tlél akooch'áak'w s/he isn't carving it akaawach'ák'w s/he carved it tlél akawuch'áak'w s/he didn't carve it akakg̲wach'áak'w s/he will carve it tlél akakg̲wach'áak'w s/he won't carve it akg̲ach'ák'w let him/her carve it akooch'ák'wch s/he carves it (every time) tlél akooch'áak'wch s/he hasn't carved it yet tlél aadé ookg̲aach'ák'u yé no way can s/he carve it ookg̲ach'ák'un s/he would have carved it akach'ák'wni if/when s/he carves it akach'ák'wx̲ s/he carves it (regularly) ch'ách'x̲ spotted spotted ka-d-l-ch'ách'x̲ (ga state) for a natural object (wood, rock, etc.) to be spotted ka-dli-ch'ách'x̲ This verb only occurs in the imperfective. kadlich'ách'x̲ it's spotted tlél koolch'ách'x̲ it's not spotted [does not occur] [does not occur] ch'eesh (2) splash splash, be splashed ka-d-ch'eesh~ (Ø act) for a liquid to splash, be splashed ka-di-ch'eesh Leer 1973: 10/260-261 kadach'éesh it is splashing kawdich'ísh it splashed tlél kawdach'eesh it didn't splash kagux̲dach'éesh it will splash tlél kagux̲dach'eesh it won't splash kax̲dach'eesh let it splash koodach'eeshch it splashes (every time) tlél koodach'eeshch it hasn't splashed yet tlél aadé koox̲dich'eeshi yé no way can it splash koox̲dach'eeshín it would have splashed kadach'íshni if/when it splashes kadach'íshx̲ it splashes (regularly) Du yát kawdich'ísh. It splashed his face. splash it (N daadé) O-ka-S-l-ch'eesh~ (Ø act) for S to splash O (on N) ka-li-ch'eesh Leer 1973: 10/260-261 (Du daadé) kalach'ísh! Splash it (on him/her)! (Du daadé) kaylach'ísh! You all splash it (on him/her)! Líl (du daadé) keelach'íshx̲ik̲! Don't splash it (on him/her)! Líl (du daadé) kalyach'íshx̲ik̲! Don't you all splash it (on him/her)! (du daadé) aklach'éesh s/he is splashing it (on him/her) tlél (du daadé) akoolch'éesh s/he isn't splashing it (on him/her) (du daadé) kax̲wlich'ísh I splashed it (on him/her) (du daadé) akawlich'ísh s/he splashed it (on him/her) tlél (du daadé) kax̲wlach'eesh I didn't splash it (on him/her) tlél (du daadé) akawulch'eesh s/he didn't splash it (on him/her) (du daadé) akagux̲lach'éesh s/he will splash it (on him/her) tlél (du daadé) akagux̲lach'eesh s/he won't splash it (on him/her) (du daadé) akax̲lach'eesh let him/her splash it (on him/her) (du daadé) aklach'eeshch s/he splashes it (on him/her) (every time) tlél (du daadé) akoolch'eeshch s/he hasn't splashed it (on him/her) yet tlél aadé (du daadé) akoox̲lich'eeshi yé no way can s/he splash it (on him/her) (du daadé) akoox̲lach'eeshín s/he would have splashed it (on him/her) (du daadé) aklach'íshni if/when s/he splashes it (on him/her) (du daadé) aklach'íshx̲ s/he splashes it (on him/her) (regularly) Yáa héen ax̲ daat kaylich'ísh. You splashed some water on me. [Story & Naish 1973: 204] Du daat aklach'íshni x'áan yáx̲ du toowú kg̲washx̲éen. If he splashes it on her, she'll get angry. ch'eex̲' point (with finger) point (with finger) -ch'eix̲' P-t~ S-ø-ch'éex̲'~ (Ø motion) for S to point in the direction of P ya-ch'eix̲' Át eech'íx̲'! Point there! Át yeech'íx̲'! You all point there! Líl át yich'éex̲'ik̲! Don't point there! Líl át yeeych'éex̲'ik̲! Don't you all point there! [does not occur] aadé yaa nach'íx̲' s/he's pointing there át x̲waach'íx̲' I pointed there át iyach'íx̲' you pointed there át uwach'íx̲' s/he pointed there át wutuwach'íx̲' we pointed there át yeeych'íx̲' you all pointed there át has uwach'íx̲' they pointed there át aawach'íx̲' people pointed there tlél át x̲wach'éex̲' I didn't point there tlél át yich'éex̲' you didn't point there tlél át wooch'éex̲' s/he didn't point there tlél át wutooch'éex̲' we didn't point there tlél át yeeych'éex̲' you all didn't point there tlél át has wooch'éex̲' they didn't point there tlél át aawuch'éex̲' nobody pointed there át wuch'éix̲'in s/he had pointed there; s/he pointed there (but...) aadé kk̲wach'éex̲' I will point there aadé kg̲eech'éex̲' you will point there aadé kg̲wach'éex̲' s/he will point there aadé gax̲tooch'éex̲' we will point there aadé gax̲yich'éex̲' you all will point there aadé (ha)s gug̲ach'éex̲' they will point there aadé akg̲wach'éex̲' someone will point there tlél aadé kk̲wach'éex̲' I won't point there tlél aadé kg̲eech'éex̲' you won't point there tlél aadé kg̲wach'éex̲' s/he won't point there tlél aadé gax̲tooch'éex̲' we won't point there tlél aadé gax̲yich'éex̲' you all won't point there tlél aadé (ha)s gug̲ach'éex̲' they won't point there tlél aadé akg̲wach'éex̲' nobody will point there át k̲ach'éex̲' let me point there át g̲ach'éex̲' let him/her point there át g̲atooch'éex̲' let us point there át x̲wach'íx̲'ch I point there (every time) át eech'íx̲'ch you point there (every time) át uch'íx̲'ch s/he points there (every time) át tooch'íx̲'ch we point there (every time) át yeech'íx̲'ch you all point there (every time) át has uch'íx̲'ch they point there (every time) át ooch'íx̲'ch people point there (every time) tlél át x̲wach'íx̲'ch I haven't pointed there yet tlél át eech'íx̲'ch you haven't pointed there yet tlél át uch'íx̲'ch s/he hasn't pointed there yet tlél át tooch'íx̲'ch we haven't pointed there yet tlél át yeech'íx̲'ch you all haven't pointed there yet tlél át has uch'íx̲'ch they haven't pointed there yet tlél át ooch'íx̲'ch nobody has pointed there yet tlél aadé át g̲waach'íx̲'i yé no way can s/he point there át g̲wach'íx̲'in s/he would have pointed there át ch'íx̲'ni if/when s/he points there áx̲ ch'éex̲' s/he points there (regularly) Ch'a tlákw át x̲ach'éix̲' nooch. I always point there. ch'éeyák̲w (2) slow slow O-l-ch'éeyák̲w (ga state) for O to be slow li-ch'éeyak̲w Leer 1973: 10/250-251 x̲at lich'éeyák̲w I am slow lich'éeyák̲w s/he is slow tlél x̲at ulch'éeyák̲w I'm not slow tlél ulch'éeyák̲w s/he isn't slow kei nalch'éeyák̲w s/he is starting to slow down; s/he is getting slow wulich'éeyák̲w s/he got slow tlél wulch'éeyák̲w s/he didn't get slow gux̲lach'éeyák̲w s/he will be slow tlél gux̲lach'éeyák̲w s/he won't be slow (ch'a) gax̲lach'éeyák̲w (just) let him/her be slow galach'éeyák̲wch s/he gets slow (every time) tlél goolch'éeyák̲wch s/he hasn't gotten slow yet tlél aadé gux̲lich'éeyág̲u yé no way can s/he be slow gux̲lach'éeyág̲un s/he would have been slow galach'éeyákwni if/when s/he gets slow kei lach'éeyák̲wch s/he gets slow (regularly) Neilyeex' yéi jiné aan x̲at lich'éeyak̲w. I'm slow at housework. [Story & Naish 1973: 197] A yáanáx̲ lich'éeyak̲w: yasátgi shí áwé. It's too slow (that is, you are singing it too slowly): it's a fast song. [Story & Naish 1973: 197] Tlax̲ k̲útx̲ wulich'éeyák̲w. He was entirely too slow. [Leer 1973: 10/251] slow (in speaking or eating) Leer (1973: 10/251) documents this verb as x̲'ayawlich'éeyák̲w, having a ya- thematic prefix. Story & Naish (1973: 306) document the verb without the ya- thematic prefix: x̲'awlich'éeyák̲w, and this is how speakers consulted for this project pronounced the verb as well. Please note that both forms are acceptable. O-x̲'a-l-ch'éeyák̲w (ga state) for O to be slow in eating or talking x̲'a-li-ch'éeyak̲w Leer 1973: 10/250-251 x̲at x̲'alich'éeyák̲w I am a slow eater/talker x̲'alich'éeyák̲w s/he is a slow eater/talker tlél x̲at x̲'eilch'éeyák̲w I'm not a slow eater/talker tlél x̲'eilch'éeyák̲w s/he isn't a slow eater/talker kei x̲'analch'éeyák̲w s/he is getting to be a slow eater/talker x̲'awlich'éeyák̲w s/he became a slow eater/talker tlél x̲'awulch'éeyák̲w s/he didn't become a slow eater/talker x̲'agux̲lach'éeyák̲w s/he will be a slow eater/talker tlél x̲'agux̲lach'éeyák̲w s/he won't be a slow eater/talker (ch'a) x̲'agax̲lach'éeyák̲w (just) let him/her be a slow eater/talker x̲'aklach'éeyák̲wch s/he gets to be a slow eater/talker (every time) tlél x̲'agoolch'éeyák̲wch s/he hasn't gotten to be a slow eater/talker yet tlél aadé x̲'agoox̲lich'éeyág̲u yé no way can s/he be a slow eater/talker x̲'agoox̲lach'éeyág̲un s/he would have been a slow eater/talker x̲'aklach'éeyákwni if/when s/he is a slow eater/talker kei x̲'alach'éeyák̲wch s/he gets to be a slow eater/talker (regularly) Atx̲á teen x̲at x̲'alich'éeyak̲w. I'm slow in eating / I eat slowly. [Story & Naish 1973: 197] ch'eix̲' (2) point point at it, point it out O-S-ø-ch'éix̲'~ (Ø event) for S to point at, point out O ya-ch'eix̲' Leer 1973: 10/262-263 Ch'éx̲'! Point at it! Yich'éx̲'! You all point at it! Líl eech'éx̲'x̲ik̲! Don't point at it! Líl yich'éx̲'x̲ik̲! Don't you all point at it! [does not occur] x̲waach'éx̲' I pointed at it aawach'éx̲' s/he pointed at it tlél x̲wach'éix̲' I didn't point at it tlél awuch'éix̲' s/he didn't point at it akg̲wach'éix̲' s/he will point at it tlél akg̲wach'éix̲' s/he won't point at it (ch'a) ag̲ach'éix̲' (just) let him/her point at it ooch'éix̲'ch s/he points at it (every time) tlél ooch'éix̲'ch s/he hasn't pointed at it yet tlél aadé ag̲waach'éix̲'i yé no way can s/he point at it ag̲wach'éix̲'in s/he would have pointed at it ach'éx̲'ni if/when s/he points at it ach'éx̲'x̲ s/he points at it (regularly) Yaakw aawach'éx̲'. He pointed at the boat. [Story & Naish 1973: 154] Wé at yahaayí ch'íx̲'. Point at the picture. point at a person (with finger) O-ya-S-ø-ch'éex̲'~ (Ø act) for S to point at O (with finger) ya-ya-ch'eix̲' Leer 1973: 10/262-263 O-ya-S-ø-ch'éix̲'~ (Ø act) Yach'íx̲'! Point at him/her! Yaych'íx̲'! You all point at him/her! Líl yeech'íx̲'x̲ik̲! Don't point at him/her! Líl yaych'íx̲'x̲ik̲! Don't you all point at him/her! ayach'íx̲'t s/he is pointing at him/her tlél awooch'íx̲'t s/he isn't pointing at him/her yax̲waach'íx̲' I pointed at him/her ayaawach'íx̲' s/he pointed at him/her tlél yax̲wach'éex̲' I didn't point at him/her tlél ayawuch'éex̲' s/he didn't point at him/her ayakg̲wach'éex̲' s/he will point at him/her tlél ayakg̲wach'éex̲' s/he won't point at him/her (ch'a) ayag̲ach'éex̲' (just) let him/her point at him/her awooch'éex̲'ch s/he points at him/her (every time) tlél awooch'éex̲'ch s/he hasn't pointed at him/her yet tlél aadé awoog̲aach'éex̲'i yé no way can s/he point at him/her awoog̲ach'éex̲'in s/he would have pointed at him/her ayach'íx̲'ni if/when s/he points at him/her ayach'íx̲'x̲ s/he's still pointing at him/her Kudigéik̲ k̲uyaduch'íx̲'x̲i. It's not polite to point at people. ch'eix̲'w (2) dirty, soil soil it, get it dirty O-S-l-ch'éix̲'w~ (ø event) for S to dirty, soil O (esp. clothing or person) li-ch'eix̲'w Lach'éx̲'w! Get it dirty! Yeeylach'éx̲'w! You all get it dirty! Líl ilach'éx̲'wx̲uk̲! Don't get it dirty! Líl yilach'éx̲'wx̲uk̲! Don't you all get it dirty! [does not occur] yaa nx̲alach'éx̲'w I am getting it dirty yaa analch'éx̲'w s/he's getting it dirty x̲walich'éx̲'w I got it dirty awlich'éx̲'w s/he got it dirty tlél x̲walach'éix̲'w I didn't get it dirty tlél awulch'éix̲'w s/he didn't get it dirty kuk̲alach'éix̲'w I will get it dirty agux̲lach'éix̲'w s/he will get it dirty tlél kuk̲alach'éix̲'w I won't get it dirty tlél agux̲lach'éix̲'w s/he won't get it dirty k̲alach'éix̲'w let me get it dirty ax̲lach'éix̲'w let him/her get it dirty x̲walach'éx̲'wch I get it dirty (every time) oolch'éx̲'wch s/he gets it dirty (every time) tlél x̲walach'éx̲'wch I haven't gotten it dirty yet tlél oolch'éx̲'wch s/he hasn't gotten it dirty yet tlél aadé k̲walich'éix̲'u yé no way can I get it dirty tlél aadé oox̲lich'éix̲'u yé no way can s/he get it dirty k̲walach'éix̲'un I would have gotten it dirty oox̲lach'éix̲'un s/he would have gotten it dirty x̲alach'éx̲'wni if/when I get it dirty alch'éx̲'wni if/when s/he gets it dirty x̲alach'éx̲'wx̲ I get it dirty (regularly) alch'éx̲'wx̲ s/he gets it dirty (regularly) Tlél x̲walach'éix̲'w ax̲ dleit k'oodás'i. I didn't dirty my white shirt. Ch'a tlákw oolch'éx̲'wch du at xáshdi téeli. He always dirties his moccasins. Tlákw áwé alch'éx̲'wx̲ du naa.ádi. She always dirties her clothes. Wé yées yee.át kas'ísayi tlél x̲walach'éix̲'w. I didn't dirty the new sheet. dirty (on surface) O-l-ch'éix̲'w~ (ø event) for O to be dirty li-ch'eix̲'w Ilach'éx̲'w! Get dirty! Yilach'éx̲'w! You all get dirty! Líl ilch'éx̲'x̲uk̲! Don't get dirty! Líl yee lach'éx̲'x̲uk̲! Don't you all get dirty! [does not occur] yaa x̲at nalch'éx̲'w I'm getting dirty yaa inalch'éx̲'w you're getting dirty yaa nalch'éx̲'w he/she/it is getting dirty yaa haa nalch'éx̲'w we're getting dirty yaa yee nalch'éx̲'w you all are getting dirty yaa (ha)s nalch'éx̲'w they are getting dirty [does not occur] [does not occur] x̲at wulich'éx̲'w I'm dirty iwlich'éx̲'w you're dirty wulich'éx̲'w he/she/it is dirty haa wlich'éx̲'w we're dirty yee wlich'éx̲'w you all are dirty has wulich'éx̲'w they're dirty tlél x̲at wulch'éix̲'w I'm not dirty tlél iwulch'éix̲'w you're not dirty tlél wulch'éix̲'w s/he's not dirty tlél haa wulch'éix̲'w we're not dirty tlél yee wulch'éix̲'w you all aren't dirty tlél has wulch'éix̲'w they're not dirty tlél k̲uwulch'éix̲'w nobody is dirty x̲at gux̲lach'éix̲'w I will get dirty igux̲lach'éix̲'w you will get dirty gux̲lach'éix̲'w s/he will get dirty haa gux̲lach'éix̲'w we will get dirty yee gux̲lach'éix̲'w you all will get dirty has gux̲lach'éix̲'w they will get dirty k̲ugux̲lach'éix̲'w someone will get dirty tlél x̲at gux̲lach'éix̲'w I won't get dirty tlél igux̲lach'éix̲'w you won't get dirty tlél gux̲lach'éix̲'w s/he won't get dirty tlél haa gux̲lach'éix̲'w we won't get dirty tlél yee gux̲lach'éix̲'w you all won't get dirty tlél has gux̲lach'éix̲'w they won't get dirty tlél k̲ugux̲lach'éix̲'w nobody will get dirty x̲at g̲alach'éix̲'w let me be dirty g̲alach'éix̲'w let him/her be dirty haa g̲alach'éix̲'w let us be dirty x̲at ulch'éx̲'wch I get dirty (every time) eelch'éx̲'wch you get dirty (every time) ulch'éx̲'wch s/he gets dirty (every time) haa ulch'éx̲'wch we get dirty (every time) yee ulch'éx̲'wch you all get dirty (every time) has ulch'éx̲'wch they get dirty (every time) k̲oolch'éx̲'wch someone gets dirty (every time) tlél x̲at ulch'éx̲'wch I haven't gotten dirty yet tlél eelch'éx̲'wch you haven't gotten dirty yet tlél ulch'éx̲'wch he/she/it hasn't gotten dirty yet tlél haa ulch'éx̲'wch we haven't gotten dirty yet tlél yee ulch'éx̲'wch you all haven't gotten dirty yet tlél has ulch'éx̲'wch they haven't gotten dirty yet tlél k̲oolch'éx̲'wch nobody has gotten dirty yet tlél aadé ux̲lich'éix̲'u yé no way can s/he get dirty ux̲lach'éix̲'un s/he would have gotten dirty lach'éx̲'wni if/when s/he gets dirty lach'éx̲'wx̲ he/she/it gets dirty (regularly) daa1 (6) flow, rise (tide), bleed, run (nose) flow there; flood it (of tide) P-náx̲ ya-ø-daa~ (ø motion) for water, the tide to flow through P; for water, the tide to flood P ya-daa [does not occur] anax̲ yaa yanadéin it's flowing there anax̲ yaawadáa it flowed there tlél anax̲ yawudá it didn't flow there anax̲ yakg̲wadáa it will flow there tlél anax̲ yakg̲wadaa it won't flow there anax̲ yag̲adaa (dé) let it flow there (now) anax̲ yoodáaych it flows there (every time) tlél anax̲ woodáaych it hasn't flowed there yet tlél aadé anax̲ yag̲waadaayi yé no way can it flow there anax̲ yag̲wadaayín it would have flowed there anax̲ yadéini if/when it flows there [does not occur] Ax̲ sél' kinaak.ádi tóonáx̲ yaawadáa wé séew. The rain leaked through my raincoat. rise, come in (of tide) daak̲ ø-daa~ (ø motion) for the tide to rise, come in ya-daa [does not occur] daak̲ nadéin the tide is coming in daak̲ uwadáa the tide is in [does not occur] daak̲ gug̲adáa the tide will rise [does not occur] [does not occur] daak̲ udáaych the tide comes in (every time) tlél daak̲ udáaych the tide hasn't come in yet [does not occur] [does not occur] daak̲ déini if/when the tide comes in [does not occur] flow (water, blood); run (of nose) VII ka-ø-daa~ (na motion) for water, blood to flow; for a nose to run ka-ya-daa kanaadaa it's flowing yaa kanadéin it's starting to flow kaawadaa it flowed; it's flowing tlél kawudaa it didn't flow; it's not flowing kakg̲wadáa it will flow tlél kakg̲wadaa it won't flow kang̲adaa let it flow kanadéich it flows (every time) tlél koonadéich it hasn't flowed yet tlél aadé koong̲aadaayi yé no way can it flow koong̲adaayín it would have flowed kanadéini if/when it flows yoo kayadéik it flows (regularly) Héen tlél kawudaa, wudlit'íx'. The water isn't flowing, it's frozen. Tle yaadé yoo kayadéik. It flows here. Ax̲ lú kaawadaa. My nose is running. Ldakát ts'ootaat áwé shí du lóot kanadéich. Every morning his nose bleeds. G̲íl' yáx̲ kanaadaa wé héen. The water is flowing down the face of the rock cliff. Du tl'átgi dagiygé áwé héenák'w áx̲ kanaadaa. A small stream flows in the middle of her land. rise (of water level, tide) kei ø-daa~ (ø motion) for water level, tide to rise ya-daa [does not occur] kei nadéin it's rising kei uwadáa it rose tlél kei wudá it didn't kei kg̲wadáa it will rise tlél kei kg̲wadaa it won't [does not occur] kei udáaych it rises (every time) tlél kei udáaych it hasn't risen yet tlél aadé kei g̲waadaayi yé no way can it rise kei g̲wadaayín it would have risen kei déini if/when it rises [does not occur] Tlél aadé kei g̲waadaayi yé, tlél séew daak ustaanch ách áwé. There's no way the water level can rise because it hasn't rained yet. Áyáx̲ kei uwadáa wé yaakw héende wusx̲óot'i. The tide is just right for putting the boat in the water. bleed, run (of nose) To say "my nose is running", replace shí "blood" throughout the paradigm with héen "water", as in: héen ax̲ lóot uwadáa. shí N lóot~ ø-daa~ (Ø motion) for N's nose to bleed --- [does not occur] shí du lóode yaa nadéin his/her nose is starting to bleed shí ax̲ lóot uwadáa my nose is bleeding shí du lóot uwadáa his/her nose is bleeding; his/her nose bled tlél shí ax̲ lóot wudá my nose isn't bleeding; my nose didn't bleed tlél shí du lóot wudá his/her nose isn't bleeding; his/her nose didn't bleed shí du lóode kg̲wadáa his/her nose is going to bleed tlél shí du lóode kg̲wadaa his/her nose isn't going to bleed shí du lóot g̲adaa let his/her nose bleed shí du lóot udáaych his/her nose bleeds (every time) tlél shí du lóot udáaych his/her nose hasn't bled yet tlél aadé shí du lóot g̲waadaayi yé no way can his/her nose bleed shí du lóot g̲wadaayín his/her nose would have bled shí du lóot déini if/when his/her nose bleeds shí du lóox̲ daa his/her nose bleeds (regularly) Ldakát yagiyee shí du lóot udáaych. Her nose bleeds every day. Shí ax̲ lóot déini doctor x̲ánde x̲at yagax̲dux̲áa. If my nose bleeds they'll take me to the doctor. rise (of water level); flow (of water) II P-t~ ka-ø-daa~ (Ø motion) for water to flow, rise to P ka-ya-daa [does not occur] wé héen aadé yaa kanadéin the water level is starting to rise to there wé héen át kaawadáa the water level rose to there wé héen tlél át kawudá the water level didn't rise to there wé héen aadé kakg̲wadáa the water level will rise to there wé héen tlél aadé kakg̲wadaa the water level won't rise to there wé héen át kag̲adaa let the water level rise to there wé héen át koodáaych the water level rises to there (every time) wé héen tlél át koodáaych the water level hasn't risen to there yet wé héen tlél aadé át koog̲aadaayi yé no way can the water level rise to there wé héen át koog̲adaayín the water level would have risen to there wé héen át kadéini if/when the water level rises to there wé héen áx̲ kadaa the water level rises to there (regularly) Yeisú át kaawadáa. It's still rising. Át kadéini át shután wé héen. When it reaches tha level, turn off the water. daa2 (3) used to, watch watch, keep an eye on him/her/it II N káa yan~ ya-u-S-ø-daa~ (Ø motion) for S to keep an eye on, watch N A- + ya-ya-daa A káa yan woodá! Keep an eye on him/her/it! A káa yan yaydá! You all keep an eye on him/her/it! Líl a káa yax̲ yeedaayík̲! Don't keep an eye on him/her/it! Lil a káa yax̲ yaydaayík̲! Don't you all keep an eye on him/her/it! [does not occur] a káa yan yax̲waadáa I kept an eye on him/her/it a káa yan yaawadáa s/he kept an eye on him/her/it tlél a káa yan yax̲wadá I didn't keep an eye on him/her/it tlél a káa yan yawudá s/he didn't keep an eye on him/her/it a káa yánde yakg̲wadáa s/he will keep an eye on him/her/it tlél a káa yánde yakg̲wadaa s/he won't keep an eye on him/her/it (ch'a) a káa yan yag̲adaa (just) let him/her keep an eye on him/her/it a káa yan yoodáaych s/he keeps an eye on him/her/it (every time) tlél a káa yan yoodáaych s/he hasn't kept an eye on him/her/it yet tlél aadé a káa yan yoog̲aadaayi yé no way can s/he keep an eye on him/her/it a káa yan yoog̲adaayín s/he would have kept an eye on him/her/it a káa yan woodéini if/when s/he keeps an eye on him/her/it a káa yax̲ woodaa s/he keeps an eye on him/her/it (regularly) Tlél wáa sá kg̲watee a káa yan woodéini. It will be OK if he keeps an eye on it. watch, keep an eye on him/her/it N kát~ ya-u-S-ø-daa~ (Ø act) for S to keep an eye on , watch N A- + ya-ya-daa A kát woodá! Keep an eye on him/her/it! A kát yaydá! You all keep an eye on him/her/it! Líl a káx̲ yeedaayík̲! Don't keep an eye on him/her/it! Líl a káx̲ yaydaayík̲! Don't you all keep an eye on him/her/it! a kát woox̲adéin I'm keeping an eye on him/her/it a kát woodéin s/he is keeping an eye on him/her/it tlél a kát woox̲adéin I'm not keeping an eye on him/her/it! tlél a kát woodéin s/he isn't keeping an eye on him/her/it a kát yax̲waadáa I kept an eye on him/her/it a kát yaawadáa s/he kept an eye on him/her/it tlél a kát yax̲wadá I didn't keep an eye on him/her/it tlél a kát yawudá s/he didn't keep an eye on him/her/it a kaadé yakg̲wadáa s/he will keep an eye on him/her/it tlél a kaadé yakg̲wadaa s/he won't keep an eye on him/her/it a kát yag̲adaa let him/her keep an eye on him/her/it a kát woodáaych s/he keeps an eye on him/her/it (every time) tlél a kát woodáaych s/he hasn't kept an eye on him/her/it yet tlél aadé a kát woog̲aadaayi yé no way can s/he keep an eye on him/her/it a kát woog̲adaayín s/he would have kept an eye on him/her/it a kát woodéini if/when s/he keeps an eye on him/her/it a káx̲ woodaa s/he keeps an eye on him/her/it (regularly) Du yátx'i gáanx' has ash koolyát a kát woodéin. He's keeping an eye on his children playing outside. used to it, accustomed to it (pronunciation or flavor of something) N x̲'éix̲ ø-daa~ (na event) for N to become used to, accustomed to it (of manner of speech or flavor of food) k̲aa x̲'éi-x̲ + ya-daa I x̲'éix̲ nadá! Get used to it! Yee x̲'éix̲ nadá! You all get used to it! [does not occur] du x̲'éix̲ yaa nadéin s/he is getting used to it ax̲ x̲'éix̲ woodaa I got used to it du x̲'éix̲ woodaa s/he got used to it tlél du x̲'éix̲ wudaa s/he didn't get used to it du x̲'éix̲ gug̲adáa s/he will get used to it tlél du x̲'éix̲ gug̲adaa s/he won't get used to it du x̲'éix̲ nag̲adaa let him/her get used to it du x̲'éix̲ nadéich s/he gets used to it (every time) tlél du x̲'éix̲ unadéich s/he hasn't gotten used to it yet tlél aadé du x̲'éix̲ nag̲waadaayi yé no way can s/he get used to it du x̲'éix̲ nag̲wadaayín s/he would have gotten used to it du x̲'éix̲ nadéini it/when s/he gets used to it du x̲'éix̲ yoo yadéik s/he gets used to it (regularly) Wé k'ínk' tlél aadé du x̲'éix̲ nag̲waadaayi yé. She can't get used to eating the stink heads. daakw render render down (for oil) (esp. seal blubber) a-S-ø-daakw~ (Ø act; CV́C Hort/Pot) for S to render something down (for oil) (esp. seal blubber) a-ya-daakw Adákw! Render it! Líl eedákwx̲uk̲! Don't render it! adáakw s/he is rendering it ax̲waadákw I rendered it aawadákw s/he rendered it tlél ax̲wadaakw I didn't render it tlél awudaakw s/he didn't render it akg̲wadáakw s/he will render it tlél akg̲wadaakw s/he won't render it ag̲adákw let him/her render it oodákwch s/he renders it (every time) tlél oodákwch s/he hasn't rendered it yet tlél aadé oog̲aadágu yé no way can s/he render it oog̲adágun s/he would have rendered it adákwni if/when s/he renders it adákwx̲ s/he is trying to render it Tsaa taayí aawadákw. He rendered seal oil. [Story & Naish 1973: 171] Agax̲toodáakw. We are going to render it down. [Story & Naish 1973: 171] K'idéin ashigóok, ch'a hóoch ag̲adákw. He knows how to do it real well, let him render it. daak̲1 sober up, come to sober up, regain consciousness, come to N daa a-ø-daak̲~ (na event) for N to sober up k̲aa daa a-ya-daak̲ I daa anadaak̲ (dé)! Sober up (now)! Yee daa anadaak̲ (dé)! You all sober up (now)! [does not occur] du daa yaa anadák̲ s/he is beginning to sober up ax̲ daa aawadaak̲ I sobered up du daa aawadaak̲ s/he sobered up tlél ax̲ daa awudaak̲ I didn't sober up tlél du daa awudaak̲ s/he didn't sober up du daa akg̲wadáak̲ s/he will sober up tlél du daa akg̲wadaak̲ s/he won't sober up du daa ang̲adaak̲ let him/her sober up du daa anadák̲ch s/he sobers up (every time) tlél du daa oonadák̲ch s/he hasn't sobered up yet tlél aadé du daa ang̲waadaag̲i yé no way can s/he sober up du daa ang̲wadaag̲ín s/he would have sobered up du daa anadák̲ni if/when s/he sobers up du daa yoo ayadák̲k s/he sobers up (regularly) Si.aat'i héen du kát akaawax̲ích du daa ang̲adaak̲t. She threw cold water on him to sober him up. Yéi jiné du jeet yéi kk̲watée du daa anadák̲ni . When he sobers up I'll give him a job. Daa akg̲wadáak̲. He's going to get back to his senses. [Story & Naish 1973:52] K̲aa daa yaa anadák̲. He's coming to/coming back to consciousness after drinking. [Story & Naish 1973:52] daak̲2 move, migrate migrate, move household (permanantly) kei O-s-daak̲~ (Ø motion) for O to move household (permanently), migrate si-daak̲ [does not occur] aax̲ kei x̲at wusidák̲ I moved from there aax̲ kei wsidák̲ s/he moved from there tlél aax̲ kei x̲at wusdaak̲ I didn't move from there tlél aax̲ kei wusdaak̲ s/he didn't move from there aax̲ kei gux̲sadáak̲ s/he will move from there tlél aax̲ kei gux̲sadaak̲ s/he won't move from there tlél aax̲ kei usdaak̲ch s/he hasn't moved from there yet tlél aadé aax̲ kei ux̲sidaag̲i yé no way can s/he move from there aax̲ kei ux̲sadaag̲ín s/he would have moved from there aax̲ kei isdák̲ni if/when s/he moves from there Tléi ch'áakw x̲á wé aatx̲ kei haa wsidák̲. It was a long time ago that we migrated from there. wé aax̲ kei haa wsidak̲i yé the place where we migrated from Tlél yáadáx̲ kei has wusdaak̲. They didn't migrate from here. Tlákw Aandáx̲ haat haa wsidák̲. We migrated here from Klukwan. daal' type type it O-ka-S-l-dáal'~ (Ø act) for S to type O ka-li-daal' Kaladál'! Type it! Kayladál'! You all type it! Líl keeldáal'ik̲! Don't type it! Líl kayildáal'ik̲! Don't you all type it! kax̲ladáal' I'm typing it; I type it akladáal' s/he is typing it tlél koox̲ladáal' I'm not typing it tlél akooldáal' s/he doesn't type it; s/he isn't typing it yaa kanax̲ladál' I am (in the process of) typing it yaa akanaldál' s/he is (in the process of) typing it akladáal'in s/he used to type it kax̲wlidál' I typed it akawlidál' s/he typed it tlél kax̲wladáal' I didn't type it tlél akawuldáal' s/he didn't type it kakk̲waladáal' I will type it akagux̲ladáal' s/he will type it tlél kakk̲waladáal' I won't type it tlél akagux̲ladáal' s/he won't type it kak̲ladáal' let me type it akax̲ladáal' let him/her type it akladáal' nooch s/he always types it koox̲ladáal'ch I type it (every time) akooldáal'ch s/he types it (every time) tlél koox̲ladáal'ch I haven't typed it yet tlél akooldáal'ch s/he hasn't typed it yet tlél aadé akoox̲lidáal'i yé no way can s/he type it akoox̲ladáal'in s/he would have typed it akladál'ni if/when s/he types it akladál'x̲ s/he types it (regularly) Ax̲ jeeyís x'wán keeldál'! Type this for me! daan snow snow heavily a-ya-ka-ø-dáan~ (Ø event; CV́C Hort/Pot) for it to snow heavily ya-ka-ya-daan Leer 1973: 05/32-33 yaa ayakanadán it's starting to snow heavily ayakaawadán it's snowing heavily; it snowed heavily tlél ayakawudáan it's not snowing heavily; it didn't snow heavily ayakakg̲wadáan it will snow heavily tlél ayakakg̲wadáan it won't snow heavily (ch'a) ayakag̲adán (just) let it snow heavily ayakoodánch it snows heavily (every time) tlél ayakoodánch it hasn't snowed heavily yet ayakadánni if/when it snows heavily ayakadánx̲ it snows heavily (regularly) Dleit ayakadánni ax̲ dleit xwéini aax̲ daak kuk̲wasak̲óox̲. If it snows heavily, I'll have to get my snow blower out. daas' snare snare it O-S-d-l-dáas'~ (ø event) for S to snare O dli-daas' Eeldás'! Snare it! Yeeldás'! You all snare it! Líl eeldás'x̲ik̲! Don't snare it! Líl yeeldás'x̲ik̲! Don't snare it! [does not occur] x̲wadlidás' I snared it awdlidás' s/he snared it tlél awuldáas' s/he didn't snare it akg̲waldáas' s/he will snare it tlél akg̲waldáas' s/he won't snare it ag̲aldáas' let him/her snare it ooldáas'ch s/he snares it (every time) tlél ooldáas'ch s/he hasn't snared it yet tlél aadé oox̲dlidáas'i yé no way can s/he snare it oog̲aldáas'in s/he would have snared it aldás'ni if/when s/he snares it aldás'x̲ s/he snares it (regularly) Aldás'ni haa atx̲aayí sákw. If he snares it, it will be our dinner. Tlél aadé oox̲dlidáas'i yé k̲údáx̲ yaa k̲uwdzigéi wé nukshiyáan. He can't snare that weasel, it's too smart. dáskw quick-tempered quick-tempered Note that Leer (1976: 325) documents this verb slightly differently (without the u- thematic prefix): tukayadáskw and translates it as "easily embarassed". The speaker consulted here, however translates this verb as "quick-tempered." O-tu-ka-u-ø-dáskw (ga state) for O to be quick-tempered --- Leer 1976: 325 Líl itukoodásguk̲! Don't be quick-tempered! Líl yee tukoodásguk̲! Don't you all be quick-tempered! x̲at tukuwadáskw I am quick-tempered tukuwadáskw s/he is quick-tempered tlél x̲at tukoodáskw I'm not quick-tempered tlél tukoodáskw s/he isn't quick-tempered kei tukunadáskw s/he is getting to be quick-tempered tukaawadáskw s/he was quick-tempered tlél tukawudáskw s/he wasn't quick-tempered kei tukakg̲wadáskw s/he will be quick-tempered tlél kei tukakg̲wadáskw s/he won't be quick-tempered (ch'a) tukakg̲adáskw (just) let him/her be quick-tempered tukagadáskwch s/he gets to be quick-tempered (every time) tlél tukoogadáskwch s/he hasn't gotten to be quick-tempered yet tukugadáskwni if/when s/he is quick-tempered kei tukadáskwch s/he is quick-tempered (regularly) K̲údáx̲ tukuwadáskw, tlél ax̲ tuwáa ushgú ax̲ yaagú yík átx̲ x̲walayeix̲í. He's too quick-tempered, I don't want to use him on my boat. Tukugadáskwni yan lats'én. If he gets quick-tempered, leave him alone. Hél k̲aa tuwáa ushgú k̲aa x̲ooníx̲ wudulyeix̲í k̲údáx̲ tukuwadáskw. Nobody wants to make friends with him because he's too quick-tempered. Ldakát yagiyee at danaayí áwé tukagadáskwch. Every time he drinks he gets to be quick-tempered. deek' (2) constipate constipate him/her; plug it O-S-s-déek'~ (Ø event; CV́C Hort/Pot) for S to constipate, plug O --- Leer 1973: 05/122-123 [does not occur] ash wusidík' it constipated him/her tlél ash wusdéek' it didn't constipate him/her ash gux̲sadéek' it will constipate him/her tlél ash gux̲sadéek' it won't constipate him/her (ch'a) ash g̲asdík' (just) let it constipate him/her ash usdík'ch it constipates him/her (every time) tlél ash usdík'ch it hasn't constipated him/her yet tlél aadé ash ux̲sidík'i yé no way can it constipate him/her ash ux̲sadík'in it would have constipated him/her ash sadík'ni if/when it constipates him/her ash sadík'x̲ it constipates him/her (regularly) Sakwnéin awux̲aayí áwé ash sadík'x̲. When he eats bread, it constipates him. constipated, plugged O-d-s-déek'~ (Ø event; CV́C' Hort/Pot) for O to be constipated, plugged dzi-deek' Leer 1973: 05/122-123 [does not occur] yaa nasdík' s/he is getting constipated x̲at wudzidík' I am constipated wudzidík' s/he is constipated tlél x̲at wusdéek' I'm not constipated tlél wusdéek' s/he's not constipated gug̲asdéek' s/he is going to be constipated tlél gug̲asdéek' s/he isn't going to be constipated (ch'a) g̲asdík' (just) let him/her be constipated usdík'ch s/he gets constipated (every time) tlél usdík'ch s/he hasn't gotten constipated yet tlél aadé ux̲dzidík'i yé no way can s/he be constipated g̲wasdík'in s/he would have been constipated isdík'ni if/when s/he gets constipated isdík'x̲ s/he gets constipated (regularly) tlel usdík'x̲ s/he never gets constipated Wé náakw tuwáadáx̲ áwé tlél usdík'x̲. Because of the medicine, he never gets constipated. dees shine shine (of moon) a-d-l-dées (g̲a event) for the moon to shine a-dli-dees [does not occur] [does not occur] awdlidées the moon is shining tlél awuldées the moon isn't shining yei akg̲waldées the moon will shine tlél yei akg̲waldées the moon won't shine ag̲aag̲aldées let the moon shine ag̲aldéesch the moon shines (every time) tlél oog̲aldéesch the moon hasn't shone yet [does not occur] [does not occur] ag̲aldéesni if/when the moon shines yei aldéesch the moon shines (regularly) deex' (2) cork up, shut, cover cork it up (bottle); shut, cover his/her/its mouth O-x̲'e-S-ø-déex'~ (ø event) for S to cork up (bottle), shut mouth of O x̲'a-ya-deex' X̲'adíx'! Cork it up! X̲'aydíx' You all cork it up! Líl x̲'eedíx'x̲ik̲! Don't cork it up! Líl x̲'aydíx'x̲ik̲! Don't you all cork it up! [does not occur] x̲'ax̲waadíx' I corked it up ax̲'eiwadíx' s/he corked it up tlél x̲'ax̲wadéex' I didn't cork it up tlél ax̲'awudéex' s/he didn't cork it up x̲'akk̲wadéex' I will cork it up ax̲'akg̲wadéex' s/he will cork it up tlél x̲'akk̲wadéex' I won't cork it up tlél ax̲'akg̲wadéex' s/he won't cork it up x̲'ak̲adéex' let me cork it up ax̲'ag̲adéex' let him/her cork it up x̲'ux̲adíx'ch I cork it up (every time) ax̲'eidíx'ch s/he corks it up (every time) tlél x̲'ux̲adíx'ch I haven't corked it up yet tlél ax̲'eidíx'ch s/he hasn't corked it up yet tlél aadé x̲'ak̲waadéex'i yé no way can I cork it up tlél aadé ax̲'ag̲waadéex'i yé no way can s/he cork it up x̲'ak̲wadéex'in I would have corked it up ax̲'ag̲wadéex'in s/he would have corked it up x̲'ax̲adíx'ni if/when I cork it up ax̲'adíx'ni if/when s/he corks it up x̲'ax̲adíx'x̲ I cork it up (regularly) ax̲'adíx'x̲ s/he corks it up (regularly) plug it (a hole) O-S-ø-déex'~ (Ø event) for S to plug up O (a hole in a surface) ya-deex' I gúk díx'! Plug your ears! Yee gúk yidíx'! You all plug your ears! Líl i gúk idíx'x̲ik̲! Don't plug your ears! Líl yee gúk yidíx'x̲ik̲! Don't you all plug your ears! [does not occur] ax̲ gúk x̲waadíx' I plugged my ears du gúk aawadíx' s/he plugged his/her ears tlél ax̲ gúk x̲wadéex' I didn't plug my ears tlél du gúk awudéex' s/he didn't plug his/her ears du gúk akg̲wadéex' s/he will plug his/her ears tlél du gúk akg̲wadéex' s/he won't plug his/her ears du gúk ag̲adéex' let him/her plug his/her ears du gúk oodíx'ch s/he plugs his/her ears (every time) tlél du gúk oodíx'ch s/he hasn't plugged his/her ears yet tlél aadé du gúk oog̲aadéex'i yé no way can s/he plug his/her ears du gúk oog̲adéex'in s/he would have plugged his/her ears du gúk adíx'ni if/when s/he plugs his/her ears du gúk adíx'x̲ s/he plugs his/her ears (regularly) X̲'ax̲waadíx'. I covered her mouth. Wé x̲aawag̲ei eetí gax̲toodéex'. We are going to stuff up the hole in the window. [Story & Naish 1973: 154] deil watch watch, keep watch, keep a lookout II yan~ a-S-ø-deil~ (Ø motion) for S to keep watch, keep a lookout yan a-ya-deil Yan adél! Keep watch! Yan aydél! You all keep watch! Líl yax̲ eedeilík̲! Don't keep watch! Líl yax̲ aydeilík̲! Don't you all keep watch! [does not occur] yan ax̲waadél I kept watch yan aawadél s/he kept watch tlél yan ax̲wadeil I didn't keep watch tlél yan awudeil s/he didn't keep watch yánde akg̲wadéil s/he will keep watch tlél yánde akg̲wadeil s/he won't keep watch (ch'a) yan ag̲adeil (just) let him/her keep watch yan oodeilch s/he keeps watch (every time) tlél yan oodeilch s/he hasn't kept watch yet tlél aadé yan ag̲waadeili yé no way can s/he keep watch yan ag̲wadeilín s/he would have kept watch yan adélni if/when s/he keeps watch yax̲ adeil s/he keeps watch (regularly) Wé keitl áx' yax̲ adeil wé hít. The dog keeps watch there over the house. Sháal káx̲ yan aawadél. He watched the fishtrap. [Story & Naish 1973: 243] A káx̲ yan ax̲waadél. I kept watch over it. dlaak̲ get, succeed, accomplish, defeat, win win, gain, get, obtain it; acquire it; succeed, accomplish it; defeat him/her/it O-ya-S-ø-dlaak̲~ (na event) for S to gain, get, obtain, acquire O; for S to succeed, accomplish O; for S to defeat, beat O ya-ya-dlaak̲ The prohibitive forms "Don't win it!" require context in order to make sense. An example would be this statement, said jokingly: Líl yoo yeedlák̲gik̲ - yakk̲wadláak̲! "Don't win it - I'm going to win it!" Yanadlaak̲! Win it! Yanaydlaak̲! You all win it! Líl yoo yeedlák̲gik̲! Don't win it! Líl yoo yaydlák̲gik̲! Don't you all win it! [does not occur] yax̲waadlaak̲ I won it ayaawadlaak̲ s/he won it tlél yax̲wadlaak̲ I didn't win it tlél ayawudlaak̲ s/he didn't win it yakk̲wadláak̲ I will win it ayakg̲wadláak̲ s/he will win it tlél yakk̲wadlaak̲ I won't win it tlél ayakg̲wadlaak̲ s/he won't win it yank̲adlaak̲ let me win it ayang̲adlaak̲ let him/her win it yanx̲adlák̲ch I win it (every time) ayanadlák̲ch s/he wins it (every time) tlél yoonx̲adlák̲ch I haven't won it yet tlél awunadlák̲ch s/he hasn't won it yet tlél aadé yoonk̲aadlaag̲i yé no way can I win it tlél aadé ayang̲waadlaag̲i yé no way can s/he win it yoonk̲adlaag̲ín I would have won it ayang̲wadlaag̲ín s/he would have won it yanx̲adlák̲ni if/when I win it ayanadlák̲ni if/when s/he wins it yoo yax̲aadlák̲k I win it (regularly) yoo ayaadlák̲k s/he wins it (regularly) dlaan (2) deep deep (of water, snow, etc.) ø-dlaan~ (g̲a state) for water, snow, etc. to be deep, to be piled thickly ya-dlaan This verb is one of a very small set of dimensional verbs with extensional imperfective forms (Leer, 1991). It is distinguished by an imperfective form whch requires the g̲a- conjugation prefix. g̲aadlaan it's deep tlél g̲wadlaan it's not deep yei nadlán it's getting deep woodlaan it became deep tlél wudlaan it didn't become deep yei kg̲wadláan it will get deep tlél yei kg̲wadlaan it won't get deep [does not occur] g̲adlánch it gets deep (every time) [does not occur] tlél aadé g̲waadlaani yé no way can it get deep g̲wadlaanín it would have gotten deep g̲adlánni if/when it gets deep yei dlánch it gets deep (regularly) deep, thick, piled up (of snow, pine needles, etc) yan~ ka-ø-dlaan~ (ø motion) for grain-like objects, pine needles, snow to be deep, thick, pile up ka-ya-dlaan Note that some forms above require context in order to make sense. For example the hortative form: yan kag̲adlaan might be said in the context "let the snow pile up more before you go out and shovel". [does not occur] yánde yaa kanadlán it's beginning to pile up yan kaawadlán it's piled up tlél yan kawudlaan it's not piled up; it didn't stick (of snow) yánde kakg̲wadláan it's going to pile up tlél yánde kakg̲wadlaan it's not going to pile up yan kag̲adlaan let it pile up yan koodlaanch it piles up (every time) tlél yan koodlaanch it hasn't piled up yet tlél aadé yan kag̲waadlaani yé no way can it pile up yan kag̲wadlaanín it would have piled up yan kadlánni if/when it piles up [does not occur] Yánde yaa kanadlán wé dleit, déix̲ aa yagiyee áyá daak wusitán. The snow is beginning to pile up, it's the second day it's been snowing. Wéi shaa kei wushtóogu, kél't yánde yaa kanadlán. When the mountain erupts, ash begins to pile up. Yan kawudlaaní tsá wéi dleit aag̲áa tsá nag̲ilatl'éet. When the snow piles up, then you can shovel. dléigu (2) shake hands, pat pat, pet him/her (esp. under chin or on back, to express affection) O-S-l-dléigu (na act) for S to pat, pet O (esp. under chin or on back, to express affection) li-dléigoo Naldléigu! Pat him/her! Nayladléigu! You all pat him/her! Líl iladléiguk̲! Don't pat him/her! Líl yiladléiguk̲! Don't you all pat him/her! x̲aladléigu I am patting him/her aldléigu s/he is patting him/her x̲walidléigu I patted him/her awlidléigu s/he patted him/her tlél x̲waladléigu I didn't pat him/her tlél awuldléigu s/he didn't pat him/her agux̲ladléigu s/he will pat him/her tlél agux̲ladléigu s/he won't pat him/her anax̲ladléigu let him/her pat him/her analdléiguch s/he pats him/her (every time) tlél oonaldléiguch s/he hasn't patted him/her yet tlél aadé oonax̲lidléigu yé no way can s/he pat him/her oonax̲ladléigun s/he would have patted him/her analdléikwni if/when s/he pats him/her yoo alidléikwk s/he pats him/her (regularly) Analdléikwni, táach gug̲wajáak. If she pats him, he'll fall asleep. Át anasnúkni agux̲ladléigu. When he carries her around, he will pat her (putting baby to sleep). T'ukanéiyi aldléigu. She's rocking/patting the baby. [Story & Naish 1973:146] Du x̲'ás' x̲walidléigu. I patted her on the chin (esp. grandparent, of child). [Story & Naish 1973:146] shake hands with him/her N jín S-l-dléigu (na act) for S to shake hands with N k̲aa jín + li-dléigoo Du jín naldléigu! Shake his/her hand! Du jín nayladléigu! You all shake his/her hand! Líl du jín iladléiguk̲! Don't shake his/her hand! Líl du jín yiladléiguk̲! Don't you all shake his/her hand! du jín x̲aladléigu I am shaking his/her hand du jín aldléigu s/he is shaking his/her hand tlél du jín ooldléigu s/he isn't shaking his/her hand du jín x̲walidléigu I shook his/her hand du jín awlidléigu s/he shook his/her hand tlél du jín awuldléigu s/he didn't shake his/her hand du jín agux̲ladléigu s/he will shake his/her hand tlél du jín agux̲ladléigu s/he won't shake his/her hand du jín anax̲ladléigu let him/her shake his/her hand du jín analdléiguch s/he shakes his/her hand (every time) tlél du jín oonaldléiguch s/he hasn't shaken his/her hand yet tlél aadé du jín oonax̲lidléigu yé no way can s/he shake his/her hand du jín oonax̲ladléigun s/he would have shaken his/her hand du jín analdléikwni if/when s/he shakes his/her hand du jín yoo alidléiguk s/he shakes his/her hand (regularly) Tlél aadé du jín oonax̲lidléigu yé, du jín wool'éex'. He can't shake his hand, his hand is broken. Ldakát át kei kg̲wak'éi du jín awuldléigu. If he shakes his hand, everything will be ok. dleikw scare scare, startle him/her/it O-S-l-dléikw~ (Ø event) for S to scare O li-dleikw Ladlékw! Scare him/her! Yiladlékw! You all scare him/her! Líl iladlékwx̲uk̲! Don't scare him/her! Líl yiladlékwx̲uk̲! Don't you all scare him/her! [does not occur] x̲walidlékw I scared him/her awlidlékw s/he scared him/her tlél x̲waladléikw I didn't scare him/her tlél awuldléikw s/he didn't scare him/her agux̲ladléikw s/he will scare him/her tlél agux̲ladléikw s/he won't scare him/her (ch'a) ax̲ladléikw (just) let him/her scare him/her ooldléikwch he/she/it scares him/her/it (every time) tlél ooldléikwch s/he hasn't scared him/her yet tlél aadé oox̲lidléigu yé no way can s/he scare him/her oox̲ladléigun s/he would have scared him/her aldlékwni if/when s/he scares him/her aldlékwx̲ s/he scares him/her (regularly) X̲at yilidlékw. You scared me. dlénx̲aa tempt, try, test tempt him/her; test him/her/it; try it out O-ka-u-S-ø-dlénx̲aa (na act) for S to tempt, try out, test O ka-ya-dlénx̲aa Kanadlénx̲aa! Tempt him/her! Kanaydlénx̲aa! You all tempt him/her! Líl keedlénx̲aayik̲! Don't tempt him/her! Líl kaydlénx̲aayik̲! Don't you all tempt him/her! kux̲adlénx̲aa I am tempting him/her akoodlénx̲aa he/she/it is tempting him/her tlél kux̲adlénx̲aa I'm not tempting him/her tlél akoodlénx̲aa he/she/it isn't tempting him/her kux̲waadlénx̲aa I tempted him/her akaawadlénx̲aa he/she/it tempted him/her tlél kux̲wadlénx̲aa I didn't tempt him/her tlél akawudlénx̲aa he/she/it didn't tempt him/her kakk̲wadlénx̲aa I will tempt him/her akakg̲wadlénx̲aa he/she/it will tempt him/her tlél kakk̲wadlénx̲aa I won't tempt him/her tlél akakg̲wadlénx̲aa he/she/it won't tempt him/her koonk̲adlénx̲aa let me tempt him/her akoong̲adlénx̲aa let him/her/it tempt him/her [does not occur] tlél kunx̲adlénx̲aach I haven't tempted him/her yet tlél akunadlénx̲aach he/she/it hasn't tempted him/her yet tlél aadé akung̲aadlénx̲aayi yé no way can he/she/it tempt him/her akung̲adlénx̲aayin he/she/it would have tempted him/her akanadlénx̲aaní if/when he/she/it tempts him/her yoo akayadlénx̲aa he/she/it tempts him/her (regularly) dootl hug hug him/her II N séit~ ka-S-d-dootl~ (Ø motion) for S to hug N --- Du séit keedadútl! Hug him/her! Du séit kaydadútl! You all hug him/her! Líl du séix̲ keedadoodlík̲! Don't hug him/her! Líl du séix̲ kaydadoodlík̲! Don't you all hug him/her! [does not occur] du séit kax̲wdidútl I hugged him/her du séit kawdidútl s/he hugged him/her tlél du séit kawdadootl s/he didn't hug him/her du séide kagux̲dadóotl s/he will hug him/her tlél du séide kagux̲dadootl s/he won't hug him/her du séit kax̲dadootl let him/her hug him/her du séit koodadootlch s/he hugs him/her every time tlél du séit koodadootlch s/he hasn't hugged him/her yet tlél aadé du séit koox̲didoodli yé no way can s/he hug him/her du séit koox̲dadoodlín s/he would have hugged him/her du séit kadadútlni if/when s/he hugs him/her du séix̲ kadadootl s/he hugs him/her (regularly) Tlél du tuwáa ushgú du séix̲ kadudoodlí yeedát. He doesn't want to be hugged now. dootl2 entice entice, call or bring to oneself (esp. child or wild animal) II tóo-t~ O-ka-S-l-dootl~ (Ø motion) for S to entice, call, or bring O to oneself (esp. child or wild animal) ka-li-dootl Tóot kaladútl! Call it over to you! Líl tóox̲ keeladoodlík̲! Don't call it over to you! [does not occur] tóode yaa akanaldútl s/he is calling him/her/it over to him/her tóot kax̲wlidútl I called him/her/it over to me tóot akawlidútl s/he called him/her/it over to her tlél tóot kax̲wladootl I didn't call him/her/it over to me tlél tóot akawuldootl s/he didn't call him/her/it over to him/her tóode akagux̲ladóotl s/he will call him/her/it over to him/her tlél tóode akagux̲ladootl s/he won't call him/her/it over to him/her tóot akax̲ladootl let him/her call him/her/it over to him/her tóot akooldootlch s/he calls him/her/it over to him/her (every time) tlél tóot akooldootlch s/he hasn't called him/her/it over to him/her yet tlél aadé tóot akoox̲lidoodli yé no way can s/he call him/her/it over to him/her tóot akoox̲ladoodlín s/he would have called him/her/it over to him/her tóot akladútlni if/when s/he calls him/her/it over to him/her tóox̲ akladootl s/he calls him/her/it over to him/her (regularly) Tléináx̲ k̲áa al'óon wugoodí xóots tóot akawlidútl, du een sh kawdlixúts. A man went hunting alone and called up a brown bear, and it tried to overpower him. Kuna.aak̲w tóot kayladoodlí. Try calling it to you. Taan tóot kayladoodlí wé saak i xhánx' woosh kaanáx̲ kei akakg̲awaháa. If you call the sea lion to you, the hooligans will all school up next to you. Tóot kax̲wlidútl wé atk'átsk'u. I've got that child used to me (with candy, etc.) so he'll do what I please. [Story & Naish 1973: 80] Tsaa kax̲wlidútl. I called up a seal (brought it close enough to shoot). [Story & Naish 1973: 80] doox' tie tie it in a knot O-ka-S-ø-dóox'~ (ø act; CV́C' Hort/Pot) for S to tie O in a knot ka-ya-doox' Kadúx'! Tie it! Kaydúx' You all tie it! Líl keedúx'x̲uk̲! Don't tie it! Líl kaydux'x̲uk̲! Don't you all tie it! akadóox' s/he's tying it tlél akoodóox' s/he's not tying it akaawadúx' s/he tied it tlél akawudóox' s/he didn't tie it akakg̲wadóox' s/he will tie it tlél akakg̲wadóox' s/he won't tie it akg̲adúx' let him/her tie it akoodúx'ch s/he ties it (every time) tlél akoodúx'ch s/he hasn't tied it yet tlél aadé akoog̲aadúx'u yé no way can s/he tie it akoog̲adúx'un s/he would have tied it akadúx'ni if s/he ties it akadúx'x̲ s/he ties it (regularly) dzee difficult, frustrating difficult, almost impossible, hard (in abstract), frustrating O-l-dzée (ga state) for O to be very difficult, frustrating, almost impossible, hard, (in abstract) li-dzee lidzée it's difficult tlél uldzée it's not difficult wé lidzéeyi aa the difficult one kei naldzéen it's getting difficult tlél kei unaldzéen it's getting easier ladzée nooch it's always difficult wulidzée it became difficult tlél wuldzée it didn't get difficult kei gux̲ladzée it will be difficult tlél kei gux̲ladzée it won't be difficult gax̲ladzée let it be difficult galadzéech it gets difficult (every time) tlél gooldzéech it hasn't gotten difficult yet tlél aadé gux̲lidzéeyi yé no way can it be difficult gux̲ladzéeyin it would have been difficult galadzéeni if/when it is difficult kei ladzéech it gets difficult (regularly) Ax̲ jee lidzée wé kasné. Knitting is difficult for me. Du tuwóo lidzée. S/he's a difficult, stubborn person Ax̲ tuwáa lidzée. It looks difficult to me. Wulidzée k̲ustí. Life was difficult. Kei gux̲ladzée inák̲ yaa k̲unatín It will be difficult to leave you. déix' (2) shame shamed or embarrassed by another, be put to shame O-ka-S-l-déix' (na act) for O to be shamed, embarrassed by S; for O to be put to shame by S ka-li-déix' x̲at kalidéix' he/she/it makes me ashamed akalidéix' he/she/it makes him/her ashamed tlél x̲at kooldéix' he/she/it doesn't make me ashamed tlel akooldéix' he/she/it doesn't make him/her ashamed kei akanaldéix' he/she/it is starting to make him/her ashamed x̲at kawlidéix' he/she/it made me ashamed akawlidéix' he/she/it made him/her ashamed tlél akawuldéix' he/she/it didn't make him/her ashamed akagux̲ladéix' he/she/it will make him/her ashamed tlél akagux̲ladéix' he/she/it won't make him/her ashamed (ch'a) akanax̲ladéix' (just) let him/her/it make him/her ashamed akanaldéix'ch he/she/it makes him/her ashamed (every time) tlél akoonaldéix'ch he/she/it hasn't made him/her ashamed yet tlél aadé akoonax̲lidéix'i yé no way can he/she/it make him/her ashamed akoonax̲ladéix'in he/she/it would have made him/her ashamed akanaldéix'ni if/when he/she/it makes him/her ashamed yoo akalidéix'k he/she/it makes him/her ashamed (regularly) X̲at kaniladéix'ni... If you are ashamed of me... [Leer 1973:05/99] ashamed, feel shame O-ka-ø-déix' (na state) for O to be ashamed, feel shame ka-ya-déix' Ikanadéix'! Be ashamed! Yee kanadéix'! You all be ashamed! Líl ikoodéix'ik̲! Don't be ashamed! Líl yee koodéix'ik̲! Don't you all be ashamed! x̲at kayadéix' / x̲at kaadéix' I am ashamed kayadéix' / kaadéix' s/he is ashamed tlél x̲at koodéix' I'm not ashamed tlél koodéix' s/he isn't ashamed yaa kanadéix' s/he is starting to be ashamed kadéix'in s/he was ashamed kaawadéix' s/he became ashamed tlél kawudéix' s/he didn't become ashamed kakg̲wadéix' s/he will be ashamed tlél kakg̲wadéix' s/he won't be ashamed (ch'a) kang̲adéix' (dé) (just) let him/her be ashamed (now) kanadéix'ch s/he is ashamed (every time) tlél koonadéix'ch s/he hasn't been ashamed yet tlél aadé koong̲aadéix'i yé no way can s/he be ashamed koong̲adéix'in s/he would have been ashamed kanadéix'ni if/when s/he is ashamed yoo kayadéix'k s/he is ashamed (regularly) Ax̲ dláak' kayadéix'. My sister is ashamed. [Story & Naish 1973:186] ee (3) cook cook at S-s-.ee~ (ø act) for S to cook si-.ee At sa.í! Cook! At yisa.í! You all cook! Líl at isa.éex̲ik̲! Don't cook! Líl at yisa.éex̲ik̲! Don't you all cook! at x̲asa.ée I cook; I am cooking at sa.ée she cooks; s/he is cooking tlél at ux̲sa.ee I don't cook; I'm not cooking tlél at us.ee s/he doesn't cook; she's not cooking wé at is.ee aa the one who cooks; the one who is cooking [does not occur] at x̲wasi.ée I cooked at wusi.ée s/he cooked tlél at x̲wasa.í I didn't cook tlél at wus.í s/he didn't cook at kuk̲asa.ée I will cook at gux̲sa.ée s/he will cook tlél at kuk̲asa.ee I won't cook tlél at gux̲sa.ee s/he won't cook at k̲asa.ee let me cook at g̲asa.ee let him/her cook is.ee nooch s/he always cooks at x̲wasa.éeych I cook (every time) at us.éeych s/he cooks (every time) tlél at x̲wasa.éeych I haven't cooked yet tlél at us.éeych s/he hasn't cooked yet tlél aadé at ux̲si.eeyi yé no way can s/he cook ux̲sa.eeyín s/he would have cooked at sa.éeni if/when s/he cooks at is.éex̲ s/he cooks (regularly) cook it O-S-s-.ee~ (ø act) for S to cook O si-.ee Sa.í! Cook it! Yisa.í! You all cook it! Líl isa.éex̲ik̲! Don't cook it! Líl yisa.éex̲ik̲! Don't you all cook it! x̲asa.ée I cook it; I am cooking it isa.ée you cook it; you are cooking it as.ée s/he cooks it; s/he is cooking it tusa.ée we cook it; we are cooking it yisa.ée you all cook it; you all are cooking it has as.ée they cook it; they are cooking it dus.ée someone cooks it; someone is cooking it tlél ux̲sa.ee I don't cook it; I am not cooking it tlél isa.ee you don't cook it; you aren't cooking it tlél oos.ee s/he doesn't cook it; s/he isn't cooking it tlél tusa.ee we don't cook it; we aren't cooking it tlél yisa.ee you all don't cook it; you all aren't cooking it tlél has oos.ee they don't cook it; they aren't cooking it tlél dus.ee it's not to be cooked wé as.ee aa the one who cooks it; the one who is cooking it [does not occur] as.eeyín s/he used to cook it tlél as.eeyín s/he didn't used to cook it x̲wasi.ée I cooked it yisi.ée you cooked it awsi.ée s/he cooked it wutusi.ée we cooked it yeeysi.ée you all cooked it has awsi.ée they cooked it wududzi.ée it was cooked tlél x̲wasa.í I didn't cook it tlél yisa.í you didn't cook it tlél awus.í s/he didn't cook it tlél wutusa.í we didn't cook it tlél yeeysa.í you all didn't cook it tlél has awus.í they didn't cook it tlél wudus.í it wasn't cooked kuk̲asa.ée I will cook it gag̲isa.ée you will cook it agux̲sa.ée s/he will cook it gax̲tusa.ée we will cook it gax̲yisa.ée you all will cook it has agux̲sa.ée they will cook it gax̲dus.ée it will be cooked tlél kuk̲asa.ee I won't cook it tlél gag̲isa.ee you won't cook it tlél agux̲sa.ee s/he won't cook it tlél gax̲tusa.ee we won't cook it tlél gax̲yisa.ee you all won't cook it tlél has agux̲sa.ee they won't cook it tlél gax̲dus.ee nobody will cook it k̲asa.ee let me cook it ax̲sa.ee let him/her cook it g̲atusa.ee let us cook it as.ee nooch s/he always cooks it x̲wasa.éeych I cook it (every time) isa.éeych you cook it (every time) oos.éeych s/he cooks it (every time) tusa.éeych we cook it (every time) yisa.éeych you all cook it (every time) has oos.éeych they cook it (every time) dus.éeych it is cooked (every time) tlél x̲wasa.éeych I haven't cooked it yet tlél isa.éeych you haven't cooked it yet tlél oos.éeych s/he hasn't cooked it yet tlél tusa.éeych we haven't cooked it yet tlél yisa.éeych you all haven't cooked it yet tlél has oos.éeych they haven't cooked it yet tlél dus.éeych it hasn't been cooked yet tlél aadé oox̲si.eeyi yé no way can s/he cook it oox̲sa.eeyín s/he would have cooked it as.éeni if/when s/he cooks it as.éex̲ s/he cooks it (regularly) Tlél x̲wasa.éex̲ wé g̲áax'w. I don't cook the herring eggs. cooked yan~ ø-.ee~ (ø motion) for food to be cooked, done cooking ya-.ee [does not occur] yánde yaa na.éen it's cooking yan uwa.ée it's cooked tlél yan wu.í it isn't cooked yánde kg̲wa.ée it will be cooked tlél yánde kg̲wa.ee it won't be cooked [does not occur] yan oo.éeych it gets cooked (every time) tlél yan oo.éeych it isn't cooked yet tlél aadé yan g̲waa.eeyi yé no way can it get cooked yan g̲wa.eeyín it would have gotten cooked yan .éeni if/when it's cooked yax̲ .ee it cooks (regularly, quickly) een1 (5) give, take, carry, pick pick it O-S-ø-.een~ (ø act; CV́C Hort/Pot) for S to pick O (esp. berries) into a container ya-.een .Ín! Pick them! Yee.ín! You all pick them! Líl ee.eeník̲! Don't pick them! Líl yi.eeník̲! Don't you all pick them! a.éen s/he's picking them; s/he picks them Tlél oo.een s/he isn't picking them; s/he doesn't pick them aawa.ín s/he picked them tlél awu.een s/he didn't pick them akg̲wa.éen s/he will pick them tlél akg̲wa.een s/he won't pick them ag̲a.ín let him/her pick them oo.ínch s/he picks them (every time) tlél oo.eench / tlél oo.ínch s/he hasn't picked them yet tlél aadé oog̲aa.íni yé no way can s/he pick them oog̲a.ínin s/he would have picked them a.ínni if s/he picks them a.ínx̲ s/he picks them (regularly) carry it, take it (container full of liquid or small objects) II P-t~ O-S-s-.een~ (ø motion) for S to carry O (container full of liquid or small objects) to P si-.een P-t (~x̲~dei) carrying it to P yan (~yax̲~yándei) setting it down neil (~neilx̲~neildéi) carrying it inside, carrying it home haat (~haax̲~haa(n)déi) carrying it here Át sa.ín! Carry it there! Át yisa.ín! You all carry it there! Líl áx̲ isa.eeník̲! Don't carry it there! Líl áx̲ yisa.eeník̲! Don't you all carry it there! [does not occur] aadé yaa anas.ín s/he is carrying it there át awsi.ín s/he carried it there tlél át awus.een s/he didn't carry it there aadé agux̲sa.éen s/he will carry it there tlél aadé agux̲sa.een s/he won't carry it there át ax̲sa.een let him/her carry it there át oos.eench s/he carries it there (every time) tlél át oos.eench s/he hasn't carried it there yet tlél aadé át ux̲si.eeni yé no way can s/he carry it there át ux̲sa.eenín s/he would have carried it there át as.ínni if/when s/he carries it there áx̲ as.een s/he carries it there (regularly) give, take, hand it to him/her (container full of liquid or small objects) N jee-t~ O-S-s-.een~ (ø motion) for S to give, take, hand O (container full of liquid or small objects) to N si-.een Du jeet sa.ín! Give it to him/her! Du jeet yisa.ín! You all give it to him/her! Líl du jeex̲ isa.eeník̲! Don't give it to him/her! Líl du jeex̲ yisa.eeník̲! Don't you all give it to him/her! [does not occur] du jeet x̲wasi.ín I gave it to him/her du jeet awsi.ín s/he gave it to him/her tlél du jeet x̲wasa.een I didn't give it to him/her tlél du jeet awus.een s/he didn't give it to him/her du jeedé kk̲wasa.éen I will give it to him/her du jeedé agux̲sa.éen s/he will give it to him/her tlél du jeedé kk̲wasa.een I won't give it to him/her tlél du jeedé agux̲sa.een s/he won't give it to him/her du jeet k̲asa.een let me give it to him/her du jeet ax̲sa.een let him/her give it to him/her du jeet x̲wasa.eench I give it to him/her (every time) du jeet oos.eench s/he gives it to him/her (every time) tlél du jeet x̲wasa.eench I haven't given it to him/her yet tlél du jeet oos.eench s/he hasn't given it to him/her yet tlél aadé du jeet k̲wasi.eeni yé no way can I give it to him/her tlél aadé du jeet oox̲si.eeni yé no way can s/he give it to him/her du jeet k̲wasa.eenín I would have given it to him/her du jeet oox̲sa.eenín s/he would have given it to him/her du jeet x̲asa.ínni if/when I give it to him/her du jeet as.ínni if/when s/he gives it to him/her du jeex̲ x̲asa.een I give it to him/her (regularly) du jeex̲ as.een s/he gives it to him/her (regularly) bring, carry it inside (of container full of liquid or small objects) neil O-S-s-.een~ (ø motion) for S to bring O (container full of liquid or small objects) inside si-.een Neil sa.ín! Bring it inside! Neil yisa.ín! You all bring it inside! Líl neilx̲ isa.eeník̲! Don't bring it inside! Líl neilx̲ yisa.eeník̲! Don't you all bring it inside! [does not occur] neil x̲wasi.ín I brought it inside neil awsi.ín s/he brought it inside tlél neil x̲wasa.een I didn't bring it inside tlél neil awus.een s/he didn't bring it inside neildé kk̲wasa.éen I will bring it inside neildé agux̲sa.éen s/he will bring it inside tlél neildé kk̲wasa.een I won't bring it inside tlél neildé agux̲sa.een s/he won't bring it inside neil ax̲sa.een let him/her bring it inside neil x̲wasa.eench I bring it inside (every time) neil oos.eench s/he brings it inside (every time) tlél neil x̲wasa.eench I haven't brought it inside tlél neil oos.eench s/he hasn't brought it inside yet tlél aadé neil oox̲si.eeni yé no way can s/he bring it inside neil oox̲sa.eenín s/he would have brought it inside neil as.éeni if/when s/he brings it inside neilx̲ as.een s/he brings it inside (regularly) put it down; leave it (container full of liquid or small objects) yan~ O-S-s-.een~ (ø motion) for S to put down, lay down, leave, place O (a container full of liquid or small objects) si-.een Yan sa.ín! Put it down! Yan yisa.ín! You all put it down! Líl yax̲ isa.eeník̲! Don't put it down! Líl yax̲ yisa.eeník̲! Don't you all put it down! [does not occur] yan x̲wasi.ín I put it down yan awsi.ín s/he put it down tlél yan x̲wasa.een I didn't put it down tlél yan awus.een s/he didn't put it down yánde kk̲wasa.éen I will put it down yánde agux̲sa.éen s/he will put it down tlél yánde kk̲wasa.een I won't put it down tlél yánde agux̲sa.een s/he won't put it down yan k̲asa.een let me put it down yan ax̲sa.een let him/her put it down yan x̲wasa.eench I put it down (every time) yan oos.eench s/he puts it down (every time) tlél yan x̲wasa.eench I haven't put it down yet tlél yan oos.eench s/he hasn't put it down yet tlél aadé yan x̲wasi.eeni yé no way can I put it down tlél aadé yan oox̲si.eeni yé no way can s/he put it down yan x̲wasa.eenín I would have put it down yan oox̲sa.eenín s/he would have put it down yan x̲asa.ínni if/when I put it down yan as.ínni if/when s/he puts it down yax̲ x̲asa.een I put it down (regularly) yax̲ as.een s/he puts it down (regularly) eesh string together string them together (esp. beads) O-ka-S-l-.eesh~ (ø act; CV́C Hort/Pot) for S to thread O (esp. beads), string together ka-li-eesh Kala.ísh! String them together! Kayla.ísh! You all string them together! Líl keel.íshx̲ik̲! Don't string them together! Líl kayla.íshx̲ik̲! Don't you all string them together! kax̲la.eesh I'm stringing them together akla.eesh s/he is stringing them together tlél kux̲la.eesh I didn't string them together tlél akool.eesh s/he isn't stringing them together kax̲wli.ísh I strung them together akawli.ísh s/he strung them together tlél kax̲wla.eesh I didn't string them together tlél akawul.eesh s/he didn't string them together kakk̲wala.éesh I will string them together akagux̲la.éesh s/he will string them together tlél kakk̲wala.eesh I won't string them together tlél akagux̲la.eesh s/he won't string them together kak̲ala.ísh let me string them together akax̲la.ísh let him/her string them together koox̲la.eeshch I string them together (every time) akool.eeshch s/he strings them together (every time) tlél koox̲la.eeshch I haven't strung them together yet tlél akool.eeshch s/he hasn't strung them together yet tlél aadé akoox̲li.íshi yé no way can s/he string them together akoox̲la.íshin s/he would have strung them together akla.íshni if/when s/he strings them together akla.íshx̲ s/he strings them together (regularly) eet' soaked soaked, waterlogged O-ka-d-.éet'~ (Ø event; CV́C' Hort/Pot) for O to be soaked, waterlogged ka-di-.eet' (Góok) ikada.ít'! (Go ahead) get soaked! Líl ikooda.ít'x̲ik̲! Don't get soaked! [does not occur] yaa kanda.ít' it's getting soaked x̲at kawdi.ít' I'm soaked kawdi.ít' it is soaked tlél x̲at kawda.éet' I'm not soaked tlél kawda.éet' it's not soaked kagux̲da.éet' it will get soaked tlél kagux̲da.éet' it won't get soaked (ch'a) kax̲da.ít' (just) let it get soaked kooda.ít'ch it gets soaked (every time) tlél kooda.ít'ch it hasn't gotten soaked yet tlél aadé koox̲di.ít'i yé no way can it get soaked koox̲da.ít'in it would have gotten soaked kada.ít'ni if/when it gets soaked kada.ít'x̲ it gets soaked (regularly) Ax̲ yaagú yaa kanda.ít'. My boat is waterlogged (so heavy with water in the boards that it is going to sink). [Story & Naish 1973: 201] Séew daak wusitán, ikagux̲da.éet'. It's raining, you're going to get soaked. eex' (2) call out, invite call out to him/her; shout to, holler at him/her O-S-ø-.éex' (na act) for S to call out to, shout to, holler at O ya-.eex' Na.éex'! Call out to him/her! Nay.éex'! You all call out to him/her! Líl ee.éex'ik̲! Don't call out to him/her! Líl yi.éex'ik̲! Don't you all call out to him/her! x̲a.éex' I call out to him/her; I am calling out to him/her a.éex' s/he calls out to him/her; s/he is calling out to him/her tlél x̲wa.éex' I don't call out to him/her; I'm not calling out to him/her tlél oo.éex' s/he doesn't call out to him/her; s/he isn't calling out to him/her x̲waa.éex' I called out to him/her aawa.éex' s/he called out to him/her tlél x̲wa.eex' I didn't call out to him/her tlél awu.éex' s/he didn't call out to him/her kuk̲a.éex' I will call out to him/her akg̲wa.éex' s/he will call out to him/her tlél kuk̲a.éex' I won't call out to him/her tlél akg̲wa.éex' s/he won't call out to him/her nak̲a.éex' let me call out to him/her ang̲a.éex' let him/her call out to him/her nax̲a.éex'ch I call out to him/her (every time) ana.éex'ch s/he calls out to him/her (every time) tlél nax̲wa.éex'ch I haven't called out to him/her yet tlél oona.éex'ch s/he hasn't called out to him/her yet tlél aadé oong̲aa.éex'i yé no way can s/he call out to him/her oong̲a.éex'in s/he would have called out to him/her ana.éex'ni if/when s/he calls out to him/her yoo aya.éex'k s/he calls out to him/her (regularly) I keidlí na.éex'! Call your dog! X̲at na.éex' x'wán wulaayí. Be sure and holler at me when it thaws out. X̲waa.áx̲, x̲at woo.éex'i. I heard her call me. invite him/her O-S-ø-.éex' (g̲a event) for S to invite O, ask O to a party ya-.eex' G̲a.éex'! Invite him/her! G̲ay.éex'! You all invite him/her! Líl yei ee.éex'jik̲! Don't invite him/her! Líl yei yi.éex'jik̲! Don't you all invite him/her! [does not occur] [does not occur] x̲waa.éex' I invited him/her yee.éex' you invited him/her aawa.éex' s/he invited him/her wutuwa.éex' we invited him/her yeey.éex' you all invited him/her has aawa.éex' they invited him/her wuduwa.éex' someone invited him/her tlél x̲wa.éex' I didn't invite him/her tlél yi.éex' you didn't invite him/her tlél awu.éex' s/he didn't invite him/her tlél wutoo.éex' we didn't invite him/her tlél yeey.éex' you all didn't invite him/her tlél has awu.éex' they didn't invite him/her tlél wudu.éex' nobody invited him/her yei kk̲wa.éex' I will invite him/her yei kg̲ee.éex' you will invite him/her yei akg̲wa.éex' s/he will invite him/her yei gax̲too.éex' we will invite him/her yei gax̲yi.éex' you all will invite him/her yei (ha)s akg̲wa.éex' they will invite him/her yei gax̲du.éex' someone will invite him/her tlél yei kk̲wa.éex' I won't invite him/her tlél yei kg̲ee.éex' you won't invite him/her tlél yei akg̲wa.éex' s/he won't invite him/her tlél yei gax̲too.éex' we won't invite him/her tlél yei gax̲yi.éex' you all won't invite him/her tlél yei (ha)s akg̲wa.éex' they won't invite him/her tlél yei gax̲du.éex' nobody will invite him/her k̲aak̲a.éex' let me invite him/her ag̲aag̲a.éex' let him/her invite him/her g̲aax̲too.éex' let us invite him/her k̲a.éex'ch I invite him/her (every time) g̲ee.éex'ch you invite him/her (every time) ag̲a.éex'ch s/he invites him/her (every time) g̲atoo.éex'ch we invite him/her (every time) g̲ay.éex'ch you all invite him/her (every time) has ag̲a.éex'ch they invite him/her (every time) g̲adu.éex'ch someone invites him/her (every time) tlél k̲wa.éex'ch I haven't invited him/her yet tlél g̲ee.éex'ch you haven't invited him/her yet tlél oog̲a.éex'ch s/he hasn't invited him/her yet tlél g̲atoo.éex'ch we haven't invited him/her yet tlél g̲ay.éex'ch you all haven't invited him/her yet tlél has oog̲a.éex'ch they haven't invited him/her yet tlél g̲adu.éex'ch s/he hasn't been invited yet tlél aadé ag̲waag̲aa.éex'i yé no way can s/he invite him/her ag̲waag̲a.éex'in s/he would have invited him/her ag̲a.éex'ni if/when s/he invites him/her yei a.éex'ch s/he invites him/her (regularly) X̲at woo.éex' atx̲á daakahídidé. She invited me to the restaurant. ei answer answer, reply to a greeting or to one's name a-S-d-.ei (na act) for S to answer, reply to a greeting or to one's name a-di-.ei Leer 1973: 02/186-187 Anida.ei! Answer! ada.ei s/he is answering ax̲wdi.ei I answered awdi.ei s/he answered tlél ax̲wda.ei I didn't answer tlél awda.ei s/he didn't answer agux̲da.ei s/he will answer tlél agux̲da.ei s/he won't answer anax̲da.ei let him/her answer anada.eich s/he answers (every time) tlél oonda.eich s/he hasn't answered yet tlél aadé oonax̲di.eiyi yé no way can s/he answer oonax̲da.eiyín s/he would have answered anada.einí if/when s/he answers ada.eix̲ s/he answers (regularly) I .éex' áwé: anida.ei! He's calling you: answer him! [Story & Naish 1973: 20] Dei ax̲wdi.ei. I answered already / I said "yes" already. [Story & Naish 1973: 20] eikw whistle whistle a-ka-u-S-ø-.éikw (na act) for S to whistle a-ka-ya-.eikw Leer 1973: 02/214-215 Akuna.éikw! Whistle! Líl akee.éiguk̲! Don't whistle! akx̲wa.éikw I'm whistling akoo.éikw s/he is whistling tlél akx̲wa.éikw I'm not whistling; I don't whistle tlél akoo.éikw s/he's not whistling; s/he doesn't whistle yaa akuna.éikw s/he is going along whistling akx̲waa.éikw I whistled akaawa.éikw s/he whistled tlél akx̲wa.éikw I didn't whistle tlél akawu.éikw s/he didn't whistle akakg̲wa.éikw s/he will whistle tlél akakg̲wa.éikw s/he won't whistle akang̲a.éikw let him/her whistle akana.éikwch s/he whistles (every time) tlél akoona.éikwch s/he hasn't whistled yet tlél aadé akoong̲aa.éigu yé no way can s/he whistle akoong̲a.éigun s/he would have whistled akana.éikwni if/when s/he whistles yoo akaa.éikwk s/he whistles (regularly) Ash yaadé akoo.éikw. He is whistling to her. [Leer 1973: 02/215] Du yaadé akx̲waa.éikw. I whistled at her. [Leer 1973: 02/214] G̲unéi akaawa.éikw. She started whistling. [Leer 1973: 02/214] Kei akaawa.éikw. He started up whistling. [Leer 1973: 02/214] eil' salty salty l-éil' (ga state) for something to be salty li-.eil' li.éil' it's salty tlél ul.éil' it's not salty wé li.éil'i aa the salty one kei nal.éil' it is getting salty la.éil'in it used to be salty tlél ul.éil'in it didn't used to be salty wuli.éil' it got salty tlél wul.éil' it didn't get salty kei gux̲la.éil' it will be salty tlél kei gux̲la.éil' it won't be salty gax̲la.éil' let it be salty la.éil' nooch it's always salty gala.éil'ch it gets salty (every time) tlél gool.éil'ch it hasn't gotten salty yet tlél aadé gux̲li.éil'i yé no way can it be salty gux̲la.éil'in it would have been salty gala.éil'ni if/when it's salty kei la.éil'ch it gets salty eis stagger stagger (esp. of young child or drunkard) VII P-t O-ya-ka-l-.eis (na motion) for O to stagger around at P (esp. of young child or drunkard) ya-ka-li-.eis Direction of Motion - The following are adverbial phrases that can be used with this particular conjugation of the verb 'stagger' to specify the direction of motion. Replace át 'around' in the paradigm below with any of the following adverbs to change the direction of motion. -- moving (along) P-t moving around, about P P-dé(i) moving toward P P-dáx̲ moving away from P P-náx̲ moving by way of P yux̲ moving out of house P-nák̲ leaving P behind P-g̲aa going to get P Át iyakanal.eis Stagger around! Át yee yakanal.eis! You all stagger around! Líl át iyakawul.eisík̲! Don't stagger around! Líl át yee yakawul.eisík̲! Don't you all stagger around! [does not occur] át x̲at yakawli.eis I am staggering around; I staggered around át yakawli.eis s/he is staggering around; s/he staggered around tlél át x̲at yakawul.eis I'm not staggering around; I didn't stagger around tlél át yakawul.eis s/he isn't staggering around; s/he didn't stagger around át yakagux̲la.eis s/he will stagger around tlél át yakagux̲la.eis s/he won't stagger around át yakanax̲la.eis let him/her stagger around át yakanal.eisch s/he staggers around (every time) tlél át yakoonal.eisch s/he hasn't staggered around yet tlél aadé át yakoonax̲li.eisi yé no way can s/he stagger around át yakoong̲al.eisín s/he would have staggered around át yakanal.eisní if/when s/he staggers around át yoo yakali.eisk s/he staggers around (regularly) Át yakoong̲al.eisín taat kaanáx̲ hél du eeg̲áa haat wuk̲oox̲ú. He would have staggered around all night if she didn't come pick him up. Át iyakanal.eisní g̲ayéis' hít yeedé igax̲dux̲éech. If you stagger around they're going to throw you in jail. gaaʰ1 tide slack (of tide) du-ø-gaaʰ~ (Ø event) for the tide to be slack doo-ya-gaa Leer 1973: f05/2 [does not occur] yaa ndugéin it's gettig to be slack tide wuduwagáa it's slack tide tlél wudugá it's not slack tide gax̲dugáa it will be slack tide tlél gax̲dugaa it won't be slack tide tlél dugáaych it's not slack tide yet dugéini if/when it's slack tide dugeix̲ it's slack tide (regularly) Wuduwagáa yá k̲ées'. It's slack tide. Nás'k gaawx' áwé gux̲dagáa wé k̲ées'. It's going to be slack tide at three o'clock. Yaa kdugéini g̲unéi kg̲wak̲óox̲. When it's slack tide he'll get going. Haat k̲ux̲ shoowdaxeexí shukwát dugeix̲. Before the tide turns it's slack. gaa1 (2) predict predict it O-shu-S-s-gaa~ (na act) for S to predict O --- Shunasgá! Predict it! Shunaysagá! You all predict it! Líl yoo sheesagéigik̲! Don't predict it! Líl yoo shaysagéigik̲! Don't you all predict it! shux̲sageit' I am predicting it ashoosgeit' s/he is predicting it tlél shux̲wsageit' I'm not predicting it tlél ashoosgeit' s/he's not predicting it shux̲wsigaa I predicted it ashoowsigaa s/he predicted it tlél shux̲wsagaa I didn't predict it tlél ashuwusgaa s/he didn't predict it ashagux̲sagáa s/he will predict it tlél ashagux̲sagaa s/he won't predict it ashunax̲sagaa let him/her predict it ashunasgéich s/he predicts it (every time) tlél ashoonasgéich s/he hasn't predicted it yet tlél aadé ashunax̲sigaayi yé no way can s/he predict it ashunax̲sagaayín s/he would have predicted it ashunasgéini if/when s/he predicts it yoo ashasigéik s/he predicts it (regularly) Dleit haa káa yéi kg̲wasgéet, yéi áwé shux̲wsigaa. It's going to snow on us, that's what I predict. Yá yéi adaané yéi jiné a tóonáx̲ k̲áakwt ikg̲wanéi yéi áwé shux̲wsigaa. I predict that you're going to get hurt doing that work. X̲áat haa x̲ánde yakg̲wa.áa. Yéi áwé shudusgeit'. There's going to be a big salmon run. That's what they're predicting. Dleit shudusgeit'. They're predicting snow. Ldakát yagiyee yéi wuneiyí hóoch áwé ashoowsigaa. Every time it happens, he's the one that predicts it. Yéi áwé shudusgeit'ín. That's what they predicted. delay, wait, take one's time, be detained To say "wait for someone" use: ash eeg̲áa yax̲ kaawagaa "s/he waited for him/her". To say "wait there (deliberately) use: áx̲ sh akwdligaa "s/he is waiting there". P-x̲ O-ka-ø-gaa~ (g̲a motion) for O to delay, wait, pause, take one's time, stay behind, or be detained at P A-x̲ + ka-ya-gaa Leer 1973: f05/3; Leer 1976: 642 Áx̲ ikag̲agá! Take your time there! Áx̲ yee kag̲agá! You all take your time there! Líl áx̲ yei ikoogéijik̲! Don't delay there! Líl áx̲ yei yee koogéijik̲! Don't you all delay there! [does not occur] áx̲ x̲at kaawagaa I'm delayed there áx̲ kaawagaa s/he's delayed there tlél áx̲ x̲at kawugaa I'm not delayed there tlél áx̲ kawugaa s/he's not delayed there áx̲ yei kakg̲wagáa s/he will delay there tlél áx̲ yei kakg̲wagaa s/he won't delay there (ch'a) áx̲ kag̲aag̲agaa (just) let him/her delay there áx̲ kag̲agéich s/he delays there (every time) tlél áx̲ koog̲agéich s/he hasn't delayed there yet tlél aadé áx̲ kag̲aag̲aagaayi yé no way can s/he delay there áx̲ kag̲aag̲agaayín s/he would have delayed there áx̲ kag̲agéini if/when s/he delays there áx̲ yei kagéich s/he delays there (regularly) Ch'a yáax̲ x̲at kakg̲wagáa tléix' sunday. I'm going to be detained here one week. [Story & Naish 1973:65] K̲ées' kul.aan áwé yax̲ haa kaawagaa. We're delayed because of the tide. Áx̲ kag̲agéini seig̲ánx' yéi gax̲tusanéi. If she delays there, we'll do it tomorrow. Ch'a wáa sá yaa iganéini tlél áx̲ yei ikoogéijik̲! Whatever you do, don't delay there! Áx̲ ikag̲agá, tlél sháa yidawóodlik̲! Take your time there, don't hurry! K'eeljáa k̲úx̲de yoo daneiyí eeg̲áa áx̲ kaawagaa. He's waiting there for the storm to cease. gaa2 put up, store up put up, store up, accumulate, stock up (esp. food for winter); finish distributing things (esp. at party) yan~ O-ka-S-l-gaa~ (ø motion) for S to put up, store up, accumulate O (esp. food for winter) yan ka-li-gaa Yan kalagá! Put up food! Yan kaylagá! You all put up food! [does not occur] [does not occur] yánde yaa kanax̲lagéin I am putting up food yánde yaa akanalgéin s/he is putting up food yan kax̲wligáa I put up food yan akawligáa s/he put up food tlél yan kax̲wlagá I didn't put up food tlél yan akawulgá s/he didn't put up food yánde kakk̲walagáa I will put up food yánde akagux̲lagáa s/he will put up food tlél yánde kakk̲walagaa I won't put up food tlél yánde akagux̲lagaa s/he won't put up food yan kak̲lagaa let me put up food yan akax̲lagaa let him/her put up food yan koox̲lagáaych I put up food (every time) yan akoolgáaych s/he puts up food (every time) tlél yan koox̲lagáaych I haven't put up food yet tlél yan akoolgáaych s/he hasn't put up food yet tlél aadé yan kook̲aligaayi yé no way can I put up food tlél aadé yan akax̲wligaayi yé no way can s/he put up food yan kook̲alagaayín I would have put up food yan akoox̲lagaayín s/he would have put up food yan kax̲lagéini if/when I put up food yan aklagéini if/when s/he puts up food yax̲ kax̲lagaa I put up food (regularly) yax̲ aklagaa s/he puts up food (regularly) Tlél táakw atx̲aayí yan katulagáaych. We haven't finished putting up winter food yet. Tlél yan katulagáaych wé tléik̲w. We didn't finish putting up our berries yet. Aatlein at x̲'éeshi k̲a tléik̲w yan kawtuligáa. We put up a lot of dryfish and berries. S'eik̲ x̲áat k̲a tsaa dleeyí yan kawtuligáa. We put up smoked fish and seal meat. gaak̲ visit visit (esp. for pleasure); meet with people O-S-ø-gaak̲~ (g̲a event) for S to visit O ya-gaak̲ [does not occur] Líl yei eegák̲jik̲! Don't visit him/her! Líl yei yeegák̲jik̲! Don't you all visit him/her! [does not occur] x̲waagaak̲ I visited him/her aawagaak̲ s/he visited him/her tlél x̲wagaak̲ I didn't visit him/her tlél awugaak̲ s/he didn't visit him/her yei kk̲wagáak̲ I will visit him/her yei akg̲wagáak̲ s/he will visit him/her tlél yei kk̲wagaak̲ I won't visit him/her tlél yei akg̲wagaak̲ s/he won't visit him/her k̲aak̲agaak̲ let me visit him/her ag̲aag̲agaak̲ let him/her visit him/her g̲ax̲agák̲ch I visit him/her (every time) ag̲agák̲ch s/he visits him/her (every time) tlél g̲oox̲agák̲ch I haven't visited him/her yet tlél oog̲agák̲ch s/he hasn't visited him/her yet tlél aadé k̲waak̲aagaag̲i yé no way can I visit him/her tlél aadé ag̲waag̲aagaag̲i yé no way can s/he visit him/her k̲waak̲agaag̲ín I would have visited him/her ag̲waag̲agaag̲ín s/he would have visited him/her g̲ax̲agák̲ni if/when I visit him/her ag̲agák̲ni if/when s/he visits him/her yei x̲agák̲ch I visit him/her (regularly) yei agák̲ch s/he visits him/her (regularly) Haa wduwagaak̲. We had visitors. Yei haa gax̲dugáak̲. We will have visitors. gaan1 (5) burn, shine, light burn, catch alight; for a light to be on P-t~ a-ka-ø-gaan~ (ø motion) for P (light) to be on; for P (fire) to burn, catch alight A- + a-ka-ya-gaan [does not occur] át akaawagán it's lit tlél át akawugaan it's not lit aadé akakg̲wagáan it will be lit tlél aadé akakg̲wagaan it won't be lit át akg̲agaan let it be lit át akoogaanch it lights (every time) tlél át akoogaanch it hasn't lit yet tlél aadé át akg̲waagaani yé no way can it light át akg̲wagaanín it would have lit át akagánní if/when it lights áx̲ akagaan it is lit (regularly) light; set fire to; cause to shine; turn on (light) P-t~ a-ka-S-l-gaan~ (Ø motion) for S to light, set fire to, cause P to shine; for S to turn P on (light) A- + a-ka-li-gaan Át aklagán! Light it! Át akaylagán! You all light it! Líl áx̲ akeelagaaník̲ Don't light it! Líl áx̲ akaylagaaník̲! Don't you all light it! [does not occur] [does not occur] át akax̲wligán I lit it át akawligán s/he lit it tlél át akax̲wlagaan I didn't light it tlél át akawulgaan s/he didn't light it aadé akakk̲walagáan I will light it aadé akagux̲lagáan s/he will light it tlél aadé akakk̲walagaan I won't light it tlél aadé akagux̲lagaan s/he won't light it át akk̲alagaan let me light it át akax̲lagaan let him/her light it át akoox̲algaanch I light it (every time) át akoolgaanch s/he lights it (every time) tlél át akoox̲algaanch I haven't lit it yet tlél át akoolgaanch s/he hasn't lit it yet tlél aadé át akux̲ligaani yé no way can s/he light it át akux̲lagaanín s/he would have lit it át aklagánni if/when s/he lights it áx̲ aklagaan s/he lights it (regularly) shine (of sun) a-d-gaan~ (g̲a event) for the sun to shine a-di-gaan [does not occur] yei andagán the sun is coming out awdigaan it's sunny tlél awdagaan it isn't sunny awdagaanín it had been sunny; it was sunny (but...) tlél awdagaanín it hadn't been sunny; it wasn't sunny (at the time, but...) yei agux̲dagáan it will be sunny tlél yei agux̲dagaan it won't be sunny agax̲dagaan let it be sunny ax̲dagánch it gets sunny (every time) tlél oox̲dagánch it hasn't been sunny yet tlél aadé ag̲waax̲digaani yé no way can it be sunny ag̲waax̲dagaanín it would have been sunny ax̲dagánni if/when it's sunny yei adagánch the sun shines (regularly) Tlákw yei adagánch. The sun used to shine. A kát awdagáani. Sunshine rays hit it. Yaa andagán. The sun is peeking through; Sun rays are moving. Yei andagán. The sun is beginning to shine. shine, be bright; produce light by burning ka-d-gáan~ (ø event) for something to shine, produce light by burning ka-di-gaan [does not occur] kawdigán it's bright tlél kawdagáan it isn't bright kagux̲dagáan it will be bright tlél kagux̲dagáan it won't be bright kax̲dagáan let it be bright koodagánch it gets bright (every time) tlél koodagánch it hasn't gotten bright yet tlél aadé koox̲digáani yé no way can it get bright koox̲dagáanin it would have gotten bright kadagánni if/when it's bright kadagánx̲ it brightens (regularly) K'idéin kawdagáani áwé tsá x̲dak̲éis'. When it's really bright I sew. burn it up kei O-S-s-gaan~ (ø motion) for S to burn O up si-gaan Kei sagaan! Burn it up! Kei yisagaan! You all burn it up! Líl kei isagánjik̲! Don't burn it up! Líl kei yisagánjik̲! Don't you all burn it up! [does not occur] kei nax̲sagán I am burning it up kei anasgán s/he is burning it up kei x̲wsigán I burned it up kei awsigán s/he burned it up tlél kei x̲wsagaan I didn't burn it up tlél kei awusgaan s/he didn't burn it up kei kk̲wasagáan I will burn it up kei agux̲sagáan s/he will burn it up tlél kei kk̲wasagaan I won't burn it up tlél kei agux̲sagaan s/he won't burn it up kei k̲asagaan let me burn it up kei ax̲sagaan let him/her burn it up kei x̲wsagaanch I burn it up (every time) kei oosgaanch s/he burns it up (every time) tlél kei x̲wsagaanch I haven't burned it up yet tlél kei oosgaanch s/he hasn't burned it up yet tlél aadé kei ax̲wsigaani yé no way can s/he burn it up kei oox̲sagaanín s/he would have burned it up kei asgánni if/when s/he burns it up kei asgánch s/he burns it up (regularly) gaas' (4) leap, pounce leap, pounce on him/her/it II P-t~ sh S-d-l-gáas'~ (Ø motion) for S to leap, pounce on P --- A kát sh eelgás'! Leap on it! A kát sh yilgás'! You all leap on it! Líl a káx̲ sh eelgáas'ik̲! Don't leap on it! Líl a káx̲ sh yilgáas'ík̲! Don't you all leap on it! [does not occur] a kát sh x̲wadligás' I leapt on it a kát sh wudligás' he/she/it leaped on it tlél a kát sh x̲walgáas' I didn't leap on it tlél a kát sh wulgáas' he/she/it didn't leap on it a kát sh gug̲algáas' he/she/it will leap on it tlél a kát sh gug̲algáas' he/she/it won't leap on it a kát sh g̲algáas' let him/her/it leap on it a kát sh ulgáas'ch he/she/it leaps on it (every time) tlél a kát sh ulgáas'ch he/she/it hasn't leaped on it yet tlél aadé a kát sh ux̲dligáas'i yé no way can he/she/it leap on it a kat sh g̲walgáas'in he/she/it would have leaped on it a kát sh ilgás'ni if/when he/she/it leaps on it a káx̲ sh ilgáas' he/she/it leaps on it (regularly) K̲aa kát sh wudligás'. She pounced on someone. A wándáx̲ áwé a yíkt sh wudligás' wé yéil. The raven leaped into it from the edge. Yóot sh wudligás' a k̲oowúdáx̲. It charged out of its den. move there VII P-dé O-l-gáas'~ (na motion) for O to move household (with future plans unspecified) to P li-gaas' Aadé inalgáas'! Move there! Aadé yee nalgáas'! You all move there! Líl aadé yoo ilgás'x̲ik̲! Don't move there! Líl aadé yoo yee lgás'x̲ik̲! Don't you all move there! [does not occur] aadé x̲at wuligáas' I moved there aadé wligáas' s/he moved there tlél aadé x̲at wulgáas' I didn't move there tlél aadé wulgáas' s/he didn't move there aadé x̲at gux̲lagáas' I will move there aadé gux̲lagáas' s/he will move there tlél aadé x̲at gux̲lagáas' I won't move there tlél aadé gux̲lagáas' s/he won't move there aadé x̲at nax̲lagáas' let me move there aadé nax̲lagáas' let him/her move there aadé x̲at nalgás'ch I move there (every time) aadé nalgás'ch s/he moves there (every time) tlél aadé x̲at unalgás'ch I haven't moved there yet tlél aadé unalgás'ch s/he hasn't moved there yet tlél aadé aadé nax̲ligáas'i yé no way can s/he move there aadé nax̲lagáas'in s/he would have moved there aadé nlagás'ni if/when s/he moves there yoo ligás'k s/he moves (regularly); s/he's always on the move move there II P-t~ O-l-gáas'~ (ø motion) for O to move household (with future plans unspecified) to P li-gaas' Át eelgás'! Move there! Át yee lagás'! You all move there! Líl áx̲ eelgáas'ik̲! Don't move there! Líl áx̲ yee ulgáas'ik̲! Don't you all move there! [does not occur] át x̲at wuligás' I moved there át wuligás' s/he moved there tlél át x̲at wulgáas' I didn't move there tlél át wulgáas' s/he didn't move there aadé x̲at gux̲lagáas' I will move there aadé gux̲lagáas' s/he will move there tlél aadé x̲at gux̲lagáas' I won't move there tlél aadé gux̲lagáas' s/he won't move there át x̲at g̲alagáas' let me move there át g̲alagáas' let him/her move there át x̲at ulgáas'ch I move there (every time) át ulgáas'ch s/he moves there (every time) tlél át x̲at ulgáas'ch I haven't moved there yet tlél át ulgáas'ch s/he hasn't moved there yet tlél aadé át g̲waligáas'i yé no way can s/he move there át g̲walagáas'in s/he would have moved there át lagás'ni if/when s/he moves there áx̲ lagáas' s/he moves there (regularly) Kulix̲éitl'shán áwé wéi Mountain View, líl aadé yoo ilgás'x̲ik̲! Mountain View is scary, don't move there! Aadé wulgáas'í kaxéel' tóo yei kg̲watée. If she moves there, she'll get into trouble. fall on face; nod off, fall asleep while sitting up yan~ O-ya-ø-gáas'~ (ø motion) for O to fall on face; for O to nod off, fall asleep while sitting up --- Yan tsá iyagáas'! See that you don't fall on your face! Yan tsá yee yagáas'! See that you all don't fall on your faces! [does not occur] yan x̲at yaawagás' I fell on my face yan yaawagás' s/he fell on his/her face tlél yan x̲at yawugáas' I didn't fall on my face tlél yan yawugáas' s/he didn't fall on his/her face yánde x̲at yakg̲wagáas' I will fall on my face yánde yakg̲wagáas' s/he will fall on his/her face tlél yánde x̲at yakg̲wagáas' I won't fall on my face tlél yánde yakg̲wagáas' s/he won't fall on his/her face (ch'a) yan x̲at yag̲agáas' (dé) (just) let me fall on my face (now) (ch'a) yan yag̲agáas' (dé) (just) let him/her fall on his/her face (now) yan x̲at woogáas'ch I fall on my face (every time) yan woogáas'ch s/he falls on her face (every time) tlél yan x̲at woogáas'ch I haven't fallen on my face yet tlél yan woogáas'ch s/he hasn't fallen on his/her face yet tlél aadé yan x̲at wug̲aagáas'i yé no way can I fall on my face tlél aadé yan wug̲aagáas'i yé no way can s/he fall on his/her face yan x̲at wug̲agáas'in I would have fallen on my face yan wug̲agáas'in s/he would have fallen on his/her face yan x̲at yagás'ni if/when I fall on my face yan yagás'ni if/when s/he falls on his/her face yax̲ x̲at yagáas' I am nodding off, falling asleep while sitting yax̲ yagáas' s/he is nodding off, falling asleep while sitting Tlél awusháadi yan wug̲agáas'in. If she didn't catch him, he would have fallen on his face. Yan x̲at yaawagás' wé couch káx'. I fell on my face on the couch (fell asleep). gaaw (3) fight fight for, defend N káx̲ k̲u-S-l-gaaw (na act) for S to fight for, defend N k̲aa káx̲ + k̲u-li-gaaw Note that when replacing the N in the theme with the reflexive pronoun chush, the d component of the classifier is required, as in: chush káx̲ k̲oowdligaaw "s/he defended himself/herself". Remember that the reflexive set of pronouns are always accompanied by the d component of the classifier. Du káx̲ k̲unalgaaw! Fight for him/her! Du káx̲ k̲unaylagaaw! You all fight for him/her! Líl du káx̲ yoo keelagaawúk̲! Don't fight for him/her! Líl du káx̲ yoo keeylagaawúk̲! Don't you all fight for him/her! du káx̲ k̲ux̲lagaaw I am fighting for him/her du káx̲ k̲ulagaaw s/he is fighting for him/her du káx̲ k̲ux̲wligaaw I fought for him/her du káx̲ k̲oowligaaw s/he fought for him/her tlél du káx̲ k̲uwulgaaw s/he didn't fight for him/her du káx̲ k̲ugux̲lagaaw s/he will fight for him/her tlél du káx̲ k̲ugux̲lagaaw s/he won't fight for him/her du káx̲ k̲unax̲lagaaw let him/her fight for him/her du káx̲ k̲unalgaawch s/he fights for him/her (every time) tlél du káx̲ k̲oonalgaawch s/he hasn't fought for him/her yet tlél aadé du káx̲ k̲oonax̲ligaawu yé no way can s/he fight for him/her du káx̲ k̲oonax̲lagaawún s/he would have fought for him/her du káx̲ k̲unalgaawní if/when s/he fights for him/her du káx̲ yoo k̲uligaawk s/he fights for him/her (regularly) Du kéek' kawdaxéel'i du káx̲ k̲oowligaaw. When his little brother got into trouble, he fought for him. Yóo keitl tlein chush káx̲ k̲oowdligaaw. The big dog defended himself. [Story & Naish 1973:65] loud-voiced O-sa-l-gaaw (ga state) for O to be loud-voiced, noisy in speech sa-li-gaaw Note a related verb with a similar meaning: x̲'aligaaw "s/he has a loud, powerful voice." Isaklagaaw! Be loud! Yee saklagaaw! You all be loud! Líl isalagaawúk̲! Don't be loud! Líl yee salagaawúk̲! Don't you all be loud! x̲at saligaaw I am loud-voiced saligaaw he/she/it is loud-voiced tlél x̲at seilgaaw I'm not loud-voiced tlél seilgaaw he/she/it isn't loud-voiced x̲at sawligaaw I was loud-voiced sawligaaw he/she/it was loud-voiced tlél x̲at sawulgaaw I wasn't loud-voiced tlél sawulgaaw he/she/it wasn't loud-voiced kei x̲at sagux̲lagaaw I will be loud-voiced kei sagux̲lagaaw he/she/it will be loud-voiced tlél kei x̲at sagux̲lagaaw I won't be loud-voiced tlél kei sagux̲lagaaw he/she/it won't be loud-voiced x̲at sagax̲lagaaw let me be loud-voiced sagax̲lagaaw let him/her/it be loud-voiced [does not occur] [does not occur] [does not occur] [does not occur] saklagaawní if/when he/she/it is loud-voiced kei salagaawch he/she/it gets loud-voiced (regularly) fight (N een) k̲u-S-l-gaaw (na act) for S to fight (with N) k̲u-li-gaaw Note that du een is not required by the verb. For example, one can simply say: k̲ax̲wligaaw "I fought". Replace the N in the theme with the appropriate possessive pronoun to specify who the subject fought with, as in: du een kax̲wligaaw "I fought him/her". (Du een) k̲unalgaaw! Fight (him/her)! (Du een) k̲unaylagaaw! You all fight (him/her)! Líl (du een) yoo keelagaawúk̲! Don't fight (him/her)! Líl (du een) yoo keeylagaawúk̲! Don't you all fight (him/her)! (du een) k̲ux̲lagaaw I am fighting (him/her) (du een) k̲ulagaaw s/he is fighting (him/her) (du een) k̲ux̲wligaaw I fought (him/her) (du een) k̲oowligaaw s/he fought (him/her) tlél (du een) k̲uwulgaaw s/he didn't fight (him/her) (du een) k̲ugux̲lagaaw s/he will fight (him/her) tlél (du een) k̲ugux̲lagaaw s/he won't fight (him/her) (du een) k̲unax̲lagaaw let him/her fight (him/her) (du een) k̲unalgaawch s/he fights (him/her) (every time) tlél (du een) k̲oonalgaawch s/he hasn't fought (him/her) yet tlél aadé (du een) k̲oonax̲ligaawu yé no way can s/he fight (him/her) (du een) k̲oonax̲lagaawún s/he would have fought (him/her) (du een) k̲unalgaawní if/when s/he fights (him/her) (du een) yoo k̲uligaawk s/he fights (him/her) (regularly) gaax' pray pray sh káa x̲'e-S-d-gáax'~ (ø act; CV́C' Hort/Pot) for S to pray --- Sh káa x̲'eedagáx'! Pray! Sh káa x̲'aydagáx'! You all pray! Líl sh káa x̲'eidagáx'x̲ik̲! Don't pray! Líl sh káa x̲'eeydagáx'x̲ik̲! Don't you all pray! sh káa x̲'adagáax' s/he prays; s/he is praying tlél sh káa x̲'eidagáax' s/he doesn't pray sh káa x̲'awdigáx' s/he prayed tlél sh káa x̲'awdagáax' s/he didn't pray sh káa x̲'agux̲dagáax' s/he will pray tlél sh káa x̲'agux̲dagáax' s/he won't pray sh káa x̲'ax̲dagáx' let him/her pray sh káa x̲'eidagáx'ch s/he prays (every time) tlél sh káa x̲'eidagáx'ch s/he hasn't prayed yet tlél aadé sh káa x̲'eix̲digáx'i yé no way can s/he pray sh káa x̲'ax̲dagáx'in s/he would have prayed sh káa x̲'adagáx'ni if/when s/he prays sh káa x̲'adagáx'x̲ s/he prays (regularly) geen (2) wrinkle wrinkle it O-ka-S-sh-géen~ (Ø event) for S to wrinkle O ka-shi-geen Kashagín! Wrinkle it! Kayshagín! You all wrinkle it! Líl keeshagínx̲ik̲! Don't wrinkle it! Líl kayshagínx̲ik̲! Don't you all wrinkle it! [does not occur] yaa kanax̲shagín I'm starting to wrinkle it yaa akanashgín s/he is starting to wrinkle it kax̲wshigín I wrinkled it akawshigín s/he wrinkled it tlél kax̲wshagéen I didn't wrinkle it tlél akawushgéen s/he didn't wrinkle it kakk̲washagéen I will wrinkle it akagux̲shagéen s/he will wrinkle it tlél kakk̲washagéen I won't wrinkle it tlél akagux̲shagéen s/he won't wrinkle it kak̲ashagéen let me wrinkle it akax̲shagéen let him/her wrinkle it koox̲shagínch I wrinkle it (every time) akooshgínch s/he wrinkles it (every time) tlél koox̲shagínch I haven't wrinkled it yet tlél akooshgínch s/he hasn't wrinkled it yet tlél aadé kook̲ashigéeni yé no way can I wrinkle it tlél aadé akoox̲shigéeni yé no way can s/he wrinkle it kook̲ashagéenin I would have wrinkled it akoox̲shagéenin s/he would have wrinkled it kax̲shagínni if/when I wrinkle it akshagínni if/when s/he wrinkles it kax̲shagínx̲ I wrinkle it (regularly) akshagínx̲ s/he wrinkles it (regularly) Akshagínni du koodás'i akagux̲shax'éel'. If he wrinkles his shirt, he'll have to iron it. wrinkled O-ka-d-sh-géen~ (Ø event) for O to be wrinkled ka-shi-geen [does not occur] yaa kanashgín it's starting to get wrinkled kawjigín it's wrinkled tlél kawushgéen it's not wrinkled kakg̲washgéen it will be wrinkled tlél kakg̲washgéen it won't get wrinkled kag̲ashgéen let it get wrinkled kooshgínch it gets wrinkled (every time) tlél kooshgínch it hasn't gotten wrinkled yet tlél aadé koox̲jigéeni yé no way can it get wrinkled koog̲ashgéenin it would have gotten wrinkled kashgínni if/when it gets wrinkled kashgínx̲ it wrinkles easily Ax̲ yá kawjigín. My face is wrinkled. Tlél t'aa káx̲ eex̲eejík̲, kakg̲washgéen. Don't throw it on the floor, it will get wrinkled. geet1 (7) fall, wake up, lost fall into it P-dé O-d-s-geet~ (na motion) for O (live creature) to fall into P dzi-geet Líl aadé yoo eesgítgik̲! Don't fall there! [does not occur] aadé wdzigeet he/she/it fell there tlél aadé wusgeet he/she/it didn't fall there aadé kg̲wasgéet he/she/it will fall there tlél aadé kg̲wasgeet he/she/it won't fall there aadé ng̲asgeet let him/her/it fall there aadé nasgítch he/she/it falls there (every time) tlél aadé unasgítch he/she/it hasn't fallen there yet tlél aadé aadé nax̲wsigeedi yé no way can s/he fall there aadé ng̲wasgeedín s/he would have fallen there aadé nasgítni if/when s/he falls there aadé yoo dzigítk he/she/it falls there (regularly) fall, trip P-náx̲ yei O-d-s-geet~ (ø motion) for O (live creature) to fall down, trip over P dzi-geet To give the meaning trip over something, use N kaanáx̲ (over N). For example: A kaanáx̲ yei wdzigít. "S/he tripped over it." [does not occur] Líl anax̲ yei eesgítjik̲! Don't fall down there! Líl anax̲ yei yee sgítjik̲! Don't you all fall down there! [does not occur] anax̲ yei x̲at wudzigít I fell down there anax̲ yei wdzigít s/he fell down there tlél anax̲ yei x̲at wusgeet I didn't fall down there tlél anax̲ yei wusgeet s/he didn't fall down there anax̲ yei x̲at gug̲asgéet I will fall down there anax̲ yei kg̲wasgéet s/he will fall down there tlél anax̲ yei x̲at gug̲asgeet I won't fall down there tlél anax̲ yei kg̲wasgeet s/he won't fall down there anax̲ yei x̲at g̲asgeet let me fall down there anax̲ yei g̲asgeet let him/her fall down there anax̲ yei x̲at usgítch I fall down there (every time) anax̲ yei usgítch s/he falls down there (every time) tlél anax̲ yei x̲at usgítch I haven't fallen down there yet tlél anax̲ yei usgítch s/he hasn't fallen down there yet tlél aadé anax̲ yei x̲wdzigeedi yé no way can s/he fall down there anax̲ yei g̲wasgeedín s/he would have fallen down there anax̲ yei isgítni if/when s/he falls down there [does not occur] Yaa nashíxi áwé anax̲ yei wdzigít. When he was running, he fell down there. Du x̲'oos kaanáx̲ yei wdzigít. He tripped over his feet. fall into, against it P-t~ O-d-s-geet~ (ø motion) for O (live creature) to fall into, against P dzi-geet [does not occur] [does not occur] át x̲at wudzigít I fell against it át wudzigít s/he fell against it tlél át x̲at wusgeet I didn't fall against it tlél át wusgeet s/he didn't fall against it aadé x̲at gug̲asgéet I will fall against it aadé kg̲wasgéet s/he will fall against it tlél aadé x̲at gug̲asgeet I won't fall against it tlél aadé kg̲wasgeet s/he won't fall against it át x̲at g̲asgeet let me fall against it át g̲asgeet let him/her fall against it át x̲at usgeetch I fall against it (every time) át usgeetch s/he falls against it (every time) tlél át x̲at usgeetch I haven't fallen against it yet tlél át usgeetch s/he hasn't fallen against it yet tlél aadé át g̲wadzigeedi yé no way can s/he fall against it át g̲wasgeedín s/he would have fallen against it át isgítni if/when s/he falls against it [does not occur] fall (esp. off of something) daak O-d-s-geet~ (ø motion) for O to fall (esp. off of something) dzi-geet This verb is most commonly used to indicate falling off of something, such as in: Aadáx̲ daak wudzigít. "He fell down off of it." Tlél daak isgítjik̲! Don't fall! Tlél daak yee sgítjik̲! Don't you all fall! Daak tsá isgéet! See that you don't fall! Daak tsá yee sgéet! See that you all don't fall! [does not occur] [does not occur] daak x̲at wudzigít I fell daak wudzigít s/he fell tlél daak x̲at wusgeet I didn't fall tlél daak wusgeet s/he didn't fall daak x̲at gug̲asgéet I will fall daak gug̲asgéet s/he will fall tlél daak x̲at gug̲asgeet I won't fall tlél daak gug̲asgeet s/he won't fall daak x̲at g̲asgeet let me fall daak g̲asgeet let him/her fall daak x̲at usgeetch I fall (every time) daak usgeetch s/he falls (every time) tlél daak x̲at usgeetch I haven't fallen yet tlél daak usgeetch s/he hasn't fallen yet tlél aadé daak x̲at g̲wadzigeedi yé no way can I fall tlél aadé daak g̲wadzigeedi yé no way can s/he fall daak x̲at g̲asgeedín I would have fallen daak g̲wasgeedín s/he would have fallen daak x̲at isgítni if/when I fall daak isgítni if/when s/he falls daak x̲at isgítch I fall (regularly) daak isgítch s/he falls (regularly) Wé át .aayí aadáx̲ daak wudzigít. He fell from where he was sitting. Káayag̲ijeit kaax̲ daak wudzigít. She fell off the chair. wake him/her up; rouse him/her from sleep kei O-S-s-geet~ (ø motion) for S to wake O up, rouse O from sleep kei si-geet Kei sageet! Wake him/her up! Kei ysageet! You all wake him/her up! Líl kei eesgítjik̲! Don't wake him/her up! Líl kei yisagítjik̲! Don't you all wake him/her up! [does not occur] [does not occur] kei x̲wsigít I woke him/her up kei yisigít you woke him/her up kei awsigít s/he woke him/her up kei wtusigít we woke him/her up kei yeeysigít you all woke him/her up kei (ha)s awsigít they woke him/her up kei wdudzigít someone woke him/her up tlél kei x̲wsageet I didn't wake him/her up tlél kei ysageet you didn't wake him/her up tlél kei awusgeet s/he didn't wake him/her up tlél kei wtusageet we didn't wake him/her up tlél kei yeeysageet you all didn't wake him/her up tlél kei (ha)s awusgeet they didn't wake him/her up tlél kei wdusgeet nobody woke him/her up kei kk̲wasagéet I will wake him/her up kei kg̲isagéet you will wake him/her up kei agux̲sagéet s/he will wake him/her up kei gax̲tusagéet we will wake him/her up kei gax̲yisagéet you all will wake him/her up kei (ha)s agux̲sagéet they will wake him/her up kei gax̲dusgéet someone will wake him/her up tlél kei kk̲wasageet I won't wake him/her up tlél kei kg̲isageet you won't wake him/her up tlél kei agux̲sageet s/he won't wake him/her up tlél kei gax̲tusageet we won't wake him/her up tlél kei gax̲yisageet you all won't wake him/her up tlél kei (ha)s agux̲sageet they won't wake him/her up tlél kei gax̲dusgeet nobody will wake him/her up kei k̲asageet let me wake him/her up kei ax̲sageet let him/her wake him/her up kei g̲atusageet let us wake him/her up kei x̲wsageetch I wake him/her up (every time) kei isageetch you wake him/her up (every time) kei oosgeetch s/he wakes him/her up (every time) kei tusageetch we wake him/her up (every time) kei yisageetch you all wake him/her up (every time) kei (ha)s oosgeetch they wake him/her up (every time) kei dusgeetch someone wakes him/her up (every time) tlél kei x̲wsageetch / tlél kei ux̲sageetch I haven't woken him/her up yet tlél kei isageetch you haven't woken him/her up yet tlél kei oosgeetch s/he hasn't woken him/her up yet tlél kei tusageetch we haven't woken him/her up yet tlél kei yisageetch you all haven't woken him/her up yet tlél kei (ha)s oosgeetch they haven't woken him/her up yet tlél kei dusgeetch nobody has woken him/her up yet tlél aadé kei oox̲sigeedi yé no way can s/he wake him/her up kei oox̲sageedín s/he would have woken him/her up kei asgítni if/when s/he wakes him/her up kei asgítch s/he wakes him/her up (regularly) I léelk'u na.éex' - ch'a yeisú tlél kei ux̲sageetch. Call your grandmother - I haven't woken her up yet. I yeeg̲áa áyá - tlél kei ux̲sageetch. I'm waiting for you - I haven't woken him up yet. wake up kei O-s-geet~ (ø motion) for O to wake up kei si-geet [does not occur] [does not occur] [does not occur] kei x̲at wudzigít I woke up kei iwdzigít you woke up kei wdzigít s/he woke up kei haa wudzigít we woke up kei yee wdzigít you all woke up kei (ha)s wudzigít they woke up kei k̲uwdzigít someone woke up tlél kei x̲at wusgeet I didn't wake up tlél kei iwusgeet you didn't wake up tlél kei wusgeet s/he didn't wake up tlél kei haa wusgeet we didn't wake up tlél kei yee wusgeet you all didn't wake up tlél kei (ha)s wusgeet they didn't wake up tlél kei k̲uwusgeet nobody woke up kei x̲at gug̲asgéet I will wake up kei ikg̲wasgéet you will wake up kei kg̲wasgéet s/he will wake up kei haa kg̲wasgéet we will wake up kei yee kg̲wasgéet you all will wake up kei (ha)s gug̲asgéet they will wake up kei k̲ukg̲wasgéet someone will wake up tlél kei x̲at gug̲asgeet I won't wake up tlél kei ikg̲wasgeet you won't wake up tlél kei kg̲wasgeet s/he won't wake up tlél kei haa kg̲wasgeet we won't wake up tlél kei yee kg̲wasgeet you all won't wake up tlél kei (ha)s gug̲asgeet they won't wake up tlél kei k̲ukg̲wasgeet nobody will wake up kei x̲at g̲asgeet let me wake up kei g̲asgeet let him/her wake up kei haa g̲asgeet let us wake up kei x̲at usgeetch I wake up (every time) kei eesgeetch you wake up (every time) kei usgeetch s/he wakes up (every time) kei haa usgeetch we wake up (every time) kei yee usgeetch you all wake up (every time) kei (ha)s usgeetch they wake up (every time) kei k̲oosgeetch someone wakes up (every time) tlél kei x̲at usgeetch I haven't woken up yet tlél kei eesgeetch you haven't woken up yet tlél kei usgeetch s/he hasn't woken up yet tlél kei haa usgeetch we haven't woken up yet tlél kei yee usgeetch you all haven't woken up yet tlél kei (ha)s usgeetch they haven't woken up yet tlél kei k̲oosgeetch nobody has woken up yet tlél aadé kei ux̲sigeedi yé no way can s/he wake up kei ux̲sageedín s/he would have woken up kei isgítni if/when s/he wakes up [does not occur] lost k̲ut O-d-s-geet~ (ga motion) for O to lose oneself, be lost, usure of one's location k̲ut dzi-geet K̲ut igasgeet! Get lost! [does not occur] K̲ut tsá igasgéet! Be sure not to get lost! [does not occur] [does not occur] k̲ut x̲at wudzigeet I got lost k̲ut wudzigeet s/he got lost tlél k̲ut x̲at wusgeet I didn't get lost tlél k̲ut wusgeet s/he didn't get lost k̲ut kei x̲at gug̲asgéet I will get lost k̲ut kei kg̲wasgéet s/he will get lost tlél k̲ut kei x̲at gug̲asgeet I won't get lost tlél k̲ut kei kg̲wasgeet s/he won't get lost [does not occur] (ch'a) k̲ut gag̲asgeet (just) let him/her get lost k̲ut x̲at gasgítch I get lost (every time) k̲ut gasgítch s/he gets lost (every time) tlél k̲ut x̲at goosgítch I haven't gotten lost yet tlél k̲ut goosgítch s/he hasn't gotten lost yet tlél aadé k̲ut x̲at gax̲wdzigeedi yé no way can I get lost tlél aadé k̲ut gax̲wdzigeedi yé no way can s/he get lost k̲ut x̲at goox̲asgeedín I would have gotten lost k̲ut goox̲asgeedín s/he would have gotten lost k̲ut x̲at gasgítni if/when I get lost k̲ut gasgítni if/when s/he gets lost k̲ut kei x̲at isgítch I get lost (regularly) k̲ut kei isgítch s/he gets lost (regularly) geet2 break (law), do violate, break a law; do something wrong at géit~ S-d-s-geet~ (ø event) for S to violate, break (law or custom), to do something wrong a géi- + dzi-geet [does not occur] Líl at géix̲ eesgeedík̲! Don't do anything wrong! Líl at géix̲ yisgeedík̲! Don't you all do anythig wrong! [does not occur] at géide yaa nx̲asgít I'm doing something wrong at géide yaa nasgít s/he's doing something wrong at géit x̲wadzigít I did something wrong at géit wudzigít s/he did something wrong tlél at géit x̲wasgeet I didn't do anything wrong tlél at géit wusgeet s/he didn't do anything wrong at géide kk̲wasgéet I will do something wrong at géide kg̲wasgéet s/he will do something wrong tlél at géide kk̲wasgeet I won't do anything wrong tlél at géide kg̲wasgeet s/he won't do anything wrong (ch'a) at géit k̲asgeet (dé) (just) let me do something wrong (now) (ch'a) at géit g̲asgeet (dé) (just) let him/her do something wrong (now) at géit x̲wasgeetch I do something wrong (every time) at géit usgeetch s/he does something wrong (every time) tlél at géit x̲wasgeetch I haven't done anything wrong yet tlél at géit usgeetch s/he hasn't done anything wrong yet tlél aadé at géit k̲wadzigeedi yé no way can I do anything wrong tlél aadé at géit g̲wadzigeedi yé no way can s/he do anything wrong at géit k̲wasgeedín I would have done something wrong at géit g̲wasgeedín s/he would have done something wrong at géit x̲asgítni if/when I do something wrong at géit isgítni if/when s/he does something wrong [does not occur] geiʰ1 (2) big, many big, many (yéi) k-u-ya-geiʰ~ (na state) for a thing to be (so) big; for things to be (so) many ya-gei yéi koogéi it's that big tlél yéi koogei it isn't that big yéi kaawagei it got that big tlél yéi kawugei it didn't get that big yéi kakg̲wagéi it will get that big tlél yéi kakg̲wagei it won't get that big yéi kung̲agei let it get that big yéi kunageich it gets that big (every time) tlél yéi koonageich it hasn't gotten that big yet tlél aadé yéi kung̲aageiyi yé no way can it be that big yéi kung̲ageiyín it would have gotten that big yéi kunagéini if/when it gets that big yéi koogeix̲ it gets that big (regularly) big (that big, of plural things) (yéi) + ka-u-d-geiʰ~ (na state) for (plural) things to be (so) big ya-gei yéi kwdigéi they're that big tlél yéi koodagei they're not that big yéi yaa kundagéin they're getting that big [does not occur] yéi kagux̲dagéi they will be that big tlél yéi kagux̲dagei they won't be that big yéi kunax̲dagei let them get that big yéi kundageich they get that big (every time) tlél yéi kundageich they haven't gotten that big yet tlél aadé yéi kunax̲digeiyi yé no way can they be that big yéi kunax̲dageiyín they would have been that big yéi kundagéini if/when they are that big [does not occur] gei1 (4) big big (of singular, spherical object) ka-ø-gei~ (na state) for a singular, usually spherical object to be big ka-ya-gei kayagéi it's big tlél koogé it's not big yaa kanagéin it's getting big [does not occur] kakg̲wagéi it will be big kanagéich it gets big (every time) tlél koonagéich it hasn't gotten big yet yoo kayagéik it gets big (regularly) (balloon, e.g.) kanagéini if/when it gets big tall, big O-l-gei~ (na state) for O (esp. live creature or building) to be big, tall li-gei [does not occur] [does not occur] x̲at ligéi I'm tall iligéi you're tall ligéi he/she/it is tall haa ligéi we're tall yee ligéi you all are tall has ligéi they are tall k̲uligéi people are tall tlél x̲at ulgé I'm not tall tlél eelgé you're not tall tlél ulgé he/she/it isn't tall tlél haa ulgé we're not tall tlél yee ulgé you all are not tall tlél has ulgé they aren't tall tlél k̲oolgé nobody is tall wé ligéiyi aa the tall one yaa x̲at nalgéin I'm getting tall yaa inalgéin you're getting tall yaa nalgéin he/she/it is getting tall yaa haa nalgéin we're getting tall yaa yee nalgéin you all are getting tall yaa (ha)s nalgéin they are getting tall yaa k̲unalgéin people are getting tall lagéiyin s/he used to be tall tlél ulgéiyin s/he didn't used to be tall x̲at wuligei I got tall iwligei you got tall wuligei he/she/it got tall haa wuligei we got tall yee wligei you all got tall has wuligei they got tall tlél x̲at wulgé I didn't get tall tlél iwulgé you didn't get tall tlél wulgé he/she/it didn't get tall tlél haa wulgé we didn't get tall tlél yee wulgé you all didn't get tall tlél has wulgé they didn't get tall tlél k̲uwulgé nobody got tall kei x̲at gux̲lagéi I will be tall kei igux̲lagéi you will be tall kei gux̲lagéi he/she/it will be tall kei haa gux̲lagéi we will be tall kei yee gux̲lagéi you all will be tall kei (ha)s gux̲lagéi they will be tall kei k̲ugux̲lagéi people will be tall tlél kei ax̲ gux̲lagei I won't be tall tlél kei igux̲lagei you won't be tall tlél kei gux̲lagei he/she/it won't be tall tlél kei haa gux̲lagei we won't be tall tlél kei yee gux̲lagei you all won't be tall tlél kei (ha)s gux̲lagei they won't be tall tlél kei k̲ugux̲lagei nobody will be tall [does not occur] has lagéi nooch they are always tall [does not occur] tlél x̲at unalgeich I haven't gotten tall yet tlél inalgeich you haven't gotten tall yet tlél unalgeich he/she/it hasn't gotten tall yet tlél haa unalgeich we haven't gotten tall yet tlél yee unalgeich you all haven't gotten tall yet tlél has unalgeich they haven't gotten tall yet tlél k̲oonalgeich nobody has gotten tall yet tlél aadé yéi koonax̲ligeiyi yé no way can he/she/it be that tall nax̲lageiyín he/she/it would have been tall nalgéini if/when he/she/it gets tall [does not occur] Tle yá x̲'eitakw kudasáa téel x̲'oosdé x̲wdayeeg̲é, tle ax̲ nalgeich. When I put on my high heeled shoes, I become tall. many, plenty, lots (of solid mass or abstracts) ø-gei~ (na state) for a solid mass or abstracts to be plentiful, be lots, many ya-gei yagéi there are many tlél ugé there aren't many yaa nagéin it's increasing (in number) tlél yaa unagéin it's not increasing (in number) géiyin there used to be many tlél ugéiyin there didn't use to be many woogei there got to be many tlél wugei there weren't many gug̲agéi there will be many tlél gug̲agei there won't be many nag̲agei let there be many géi nooch there are always many nageich there are many (every time) tlél unageich it hasn't increased (in number) yet tlél aadé ng̲waageiyi yé no way can there be many nag̲wageiyín there would have been many nagéini if/when there are many yoo yagéik there gets to be many (regularly) Yagéiyi yéi jiné áwé yan awsinei. S/he did a big job. Ch'a yéi koong̲agei. Leave it as it is (as in size, amount). G̲agaan eetináx̲ tlél gug̲agei shákw. Without sunshine, there won't be many strawberries. A géide yéi a daaneiyí yoo yagéik. When he does it wrong, it gets to be more (work). small (of grain-like objects) (yéi) ka-u-d-s-gei~ (ga state) for grain-like objects to be small yéi + ka-dzi-gei yéi kwdzigéi they're small tlél yéi koosgei they're not small [does not occur] [does not occur] yéi kagoosgéini if/when they're small gei2 (3) undertand, intelligent, foolish understand, comprehend N daa yaa k̲u-shu-s-géi (ga state) for N to understand, comprehend k̲aa daa + yaa k̲u-shu-si-gei I daa yaa k̲ushuksagéi (dé)! Understand (now)! Yee daa yaa k̲ushuksagéi (dé)! You all understand (now)! du daa yaa k̲ushusigéi s/he understands tlél du daa yaa k̲ushusgé s/he doesn't understand du daa kei yaa k̲ushunasgéin s/he is beginning to understand du daa yaa k̲ushuwsigéi s/he came to understand tlél du daa yaa k̲ushuwusgéi s/he didn't come to understand du daa kei yaa k̲ushugux̲sagéi s/he will understand tlél du daa kei yaa k̲ushugux̲sagéi s/he won't understand du daa yaa k̲ushugax̲sagéi let him/her understand du daa yaa k̲ushuksagéich s/he understands (every time) tlél du daa yaa k̲ushuksagéich s/he doesn't understand yet tlél aadé du daa yaa k̲ushux̲sigéiyi yé no way can s/he understand it du daa yaa k̲ushux̲sageiyín s/he would have understood it du daa yaa k̲ushuksagéini if/when s/he understands it du daa kei yaa k̲ushusagéich s/he understands (quickly) foolish, dull, unwise, crazy tlél yaa k̲u-S-d-sh-géi (ga state) for S to be foolish, dull, unwise, or crazy tléil + yaa k̲u-ji-gei Leer 1973: f05/62 Líl yaa k̲eeshgéik̲! Don't be foolish! Líl yaa k̲ayeeshgéik̲! Don't you all be foolish! tlél yaa k̲oox̲ashgé I am foolish tlél yaa k̲ooshgé s/he is foolish tlél yaa k̲uwushgéi s/he became foolish tlél kei yaa k̲ukg̲washgéi s/he is going to be foolish (ch'a) tlél yaa k̲ukg̲ashgéi (dé) (just) let him/her be foolish (now) Tlél yaa k̲ooshgé, tlél ax̲ x̲'éit wus.aax̲. He's kind of crazy, he didn't listen to me. At wudanaayí tlél yaa k̲ooshgé nooch. When he drinks he always gets crazy. Ch'a keetáanáx̲, líl yaa k̲eeshgéik̲! Cool it, don't get crazy! intelligent, smart, wise yaa k̲u-S-d-s-géi (ga state) for S to be intelligent, smart, wise yaa k̲u-dzi-gei Leer 1973: f05/62 Yaa k̲ugeesgéi! Be smart! Yaa k̲ugayisgéi! You all be smart! yaa k̲ux̲dzigéi I am smart yaa k̲udzigéi s/he is smart tlél yaa k̲oox̲asgé I'm not smart tlél yaa k̲oosgé s/he isn't smart kei yaa k̲unasgéin s/he's getting smart yaa k̲oowdzigéi s/he got smart tlél yaa k̲uwusgéi s/he didn't get smart