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Yup'ik RavenOur Language Our Souls:


The Yup'ik bilingual curriculum of the
Lower Kuskokwim School District: A continuing success story.

Edited by Delena Norris-Tull, University of Alaska Fairbanks,
School of Education, Fairbanks, Alaska
copyright 1999


Introduction to the Yup'ik Language and Culture Programs of the Lower Kuskokwim School District
By Delena Norris-Tull - University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska
Copyright 1999
With information contributed by Beverly Williams Director, Curriculum/Bilingual Department, Lower Kuskokwim School District, Bethel, Alaska

In May of 1998, Delena had the privilege to participate in the Lower Kuskokwim School District (LKSD) Bilingual Curriculum Summer Institute, held at the Kuskokwim Campus (a branch of the University of Alaska Fairbanks) in Bethel, Alaska. This was the fourth annual institute set up for the purpose of providing professional development for the district's bilingual teachers and instructional aides. The institute also involves those individuals in developing instructional materials for the LKSD bilingual curriculum.

A number of aspects of the LKSD bilingual programs have resulted in a curriculum that is perhaps unique in the nation. As are all bilingual programs in the United States, the LKSD programs were begun with the idea that students who are not proficient in English need assistance in order to succeed in English in school. However, the LKSD program has moved beyond just giving children a little extra attention in the learning of English as a Second Language. The LKSD programs now focus on ways of enabling students to become fluent in both English and the local Native language. And as the local communities, Alaska Native teachers, parents, and Elders have become more and more involved in program planning and decision making, the bilingual programs have evolved into something with a much more wide-ranging scope.

The Yup'ik programs have begun to focus on how best to restore and rejuvenate a declining indigenous language and culture. The programs go beyond just teaching the language and now incorporate as many aspects of local traditional culture as possible. The Yup'ik language and culture programs rely on community input and support, in particular that of the village Elders, who are the long-acknowledged sources of the knowledge and wisdom that must be passed from one generation to the next.

From the point of view of Alaska Natives, survival of their unique language is synonymous with survival of their unique cultural heritage. And survival of their cultural traditions is synonymous with survival. In a state with such a harsh climate and with such isolated villages, survival truly is dependent on the knowledge and skills that Alaska Natives have accumulated over thousands of years of living in the wilderness known as Alaska.

Several models of Yup'ik Language and Culture programs are being developed and implemented in the school district. Each local advisory school board (ASB) determines which program will be incorporated in the local school. And as word of the successes of programs in other villages reaches throughout the region, schools revise and modify their programs, attempting to find the particular model of bilingual education that best serves their local situation.

The Yup'ik First Language (YFL) program serves communities where the majority of students come to school as fluent speakers of Yup'ik. As of spring 2000, 13 schools utilize a YFL program. This program takes advantage of the fact that the students already have a strong language base (Yup'ik) within which to begin learning. These students begin their school learning in Yup'ik and are introduced to English as a Second Language. The language of instruction for grades K-3 is Yup'ik, with an English as a Second Language (ESL) component in each grade, and increasing amounts of English used in instruction each year.

The Yup'ik Two-Way Immersion program serves communities where at least half of the students speak Yup'ik and about half speak predominantly English. In 2000, five villages use this bilingual program. In these communities, Yup'ik is the first language of most adults, but most parents speak English to their children. In two villages using the two-way immersion programs, the language of instruction is about 90% in Yup'ik in kindergarten, with oral instruction in English increasingly used through grade three. Each of the primary grades has an English as a Second Language component. Various degrees of two-way immersion are currently used in three other village schools in the primary grades. This program is becoming prevalent in communities that are concerned that they have already lost much of the Native language. These communities have expressed a desire to provide training in the Native language to all their young people. And in an effort to raise truly bilingual children, some parents have begun to speak mainly in Yup'ik to their young children.

The third program, the Yup'ik (or Cup'ig) One-Way Immersion program operates in two communities where Yup'ik/Cup'ig is still spoken by many adults and Elders, but parents speak English to their children. Few to no children come to school fluent in Yup'ik. Currently, one-way immersion programs occur in Mekoryuk and in one primary school in Bethel. The goal of the program is language restoration, as children who speak only English are introduced to Yup'ik/Cup'ig in their primary grades by way of immersion in the language. Instruction in English is introduced gradually. The Yup'ik immersion school in Bethel is attended by children who speak no Yup'ik. The parents have expressed a desire for their children to gain fluency in Yup'ik. Attendance at the immersion school is optional. Most children who attend come from a Yup'ik background, but a few have parents who are not Yup'ik. For these children, learning Yup'ik opens up a doorway of communication with Yup'ik parents and Elders in their community - a doorway to the past that also holds promise for their future.

Yup'ik (or Cup'ig) Second Language (YSL) programs serve communities (or grade levels) in which children typically speak only English. Many adults are of Yup'ik heritage, but parents typically speak English to their children. Sometimes, the grandparents of these students are fluent Yup'ik speakers who speak little or no English. In this program, Yup'ik is taught for 30-50 minutes each day or three days per week, and is taught as a second language. Three schools in Bethel and three village schools have YSL programs. In Bethel Regional High School, participation in a YSL class is optional.

The success of the YFL and immersion programs has convinced more and more local schools to adopt these modes of instruction. Currently only one village school with a high percentage of Yup'ik speaking children offers a Bilingual/Bicultural program that does not focus on early instruction in Yup'ik. In Nightmute, the primary teachers speak English. Yup'ik culture and language is taught only 30-50 minutes daily in grades K-6. A Yup'ik instructional aide assists the English speaking teacher by providing Yup'ik explanations and translations as needed in primary grades.

In addition to the above programs, each school also has English as a Second Language or English Language Development programs. These programs are coordinated with the Yup'ik language programs to assist students with limited English proficiency to gain fluency and literacy in English.

The Lower Kuskokwim School district has put a large amount of effort and financial resources into the development of curriculum materials in Yup'ik, to the extent that the school district has its own publishing company. No other bilingual program in the state has gone as far as the Lower Kuskokwim School District in its development of curricular materials and curriculum planning - and yet there is still so far to go.

 

Why should we have Alaska Native language programs?

Many individuals in Alaska and around the nation do not yet support the concept of teaching non-English proficient children in their dominant language first. The general attitude seems to be that somehow we are holding these children back by allowing them to use their native language as a crutch. However, we have many years of evidence that forcing children who do not know English to speak and learn only in English has not been effective. One has only to look at the dismal reports of low achievement in bilingual communities nationwide to be convinced that what we have been doing in the past simply has not worked. It is not that bilingual education itself is not valuable, rather it is that the task is so great and requires such great effort, that the meager attempts of the past have often not been effective. In most instances, school administrators have failed to acknowledge the complex mix of factors that have contributed to the problem young children have who enter schools not speaking English.

The United States is not the only nation in the world with a multilingual population. But we seem to be one of the few that considers multilingualism to be a problem rather than a benefit. In nations in which speaking more than one language is accepted as a normal way of life, children readily gain proficiency in more than one language. Indeed, in many nations of Europe and Africa, it is common for children and adults to speak two, three, or even more languages fluently. The countries that experience a problem with multilingualism seem to be those countries that attempt to force some groups of individuals to give up their native tongue in favor of the language of the ruling class. South Africa has experienced this problem, as has New Zealand. And in the United States, in all pockets of the country where a group of individuals speaks a native language other than English, we have a long tradition of suppression of that language and humiliation of the children who speak it. In south Texas, for example, where Spanish has been the majority language for hundreds of years, recent generations of children who came to school speaking only Spanish were forbidden to speak Spanish at school, were punished for doing so, and were given instruction only in English.

The early Alaskan church-run schools of the Russian Orthodox missions, and, after 1890, the Jesuits and Moravians, allowed the use of indigenous languages in instruction in schools (in fact, these churches were instrumental in producing the first written forms of the Alaska Native languages). However, in the 1880s, Presbyterian missionary Sheldon Jackson began a policy of prohibiting indigenous languages in the mission schools he managed (which included the missions of numerous protestant denominations). When he became Commissioner of Education, he proposed a policy of prohibition of indigenous language use in all Alaskan schools. This policy came into full force by about 1910 (for further details, refer to Alaska Native Languages: Past, Present, and Future by Michael Krauss, 1980, Alaska Native Language Center Research Papers Number 4). From that time period until the passage of the Bilingual Education Act in 1968, children in Alaskan schools suffered severe treatment for speaking their Native languages in schools. There are numerous reports of abuse of children caught speaking their Native languages in school. Children have been beaten, humiliated, and forced to kneel on marbles or rice for several hours (personal interviews, anonymous sources, 1998). As those children grew into adulthood, they refrained from speaking their indigenous languages to their own children, to protect their children from similar abuse and because many had come to believe the myth perpetuated by schools that their children were better off not knowing their own languages.

The result of this hegemony (domination) of the white English-speaking culture over Alaska Native populations has been tragic. In the 1990s, "students in over one-third of Alaska's school districts scored on average below the 22nd percentile (on standardized achievement tests) in either reading, mathematics, or language arts at the 4th, 6th, or 8th grade. On average, Natives constituted 87% of the children in these districts. Nineteen of the 20 lower-performance districts had populations that were 60-98% Native students." (Alaska Natives Commission. 1993. Report of the Education Task Force.)

The passage of the federal Bilingual Education Act (also known as Title VII) in 1968 opened up the door for using non-English languages in instruction in American schools. However, many schools have remained opposed to the use of indigenous languages in the instruction of young children.

Another sentiment I have heard all too often voiced by non-Natives in urban areas of Alaska is that Alaska Native children do not succeed in schools because their parents do not support their education. My visits to over 30 rural villages in southwest and western Alaska have convinced me that this is far from the truth. Emphasizing the importance with which rural residents have placed their children's schooling, Michael Krauss (personal interview, August 28, 2000) commented that, "The fact that rural Alaska Natives settled into permanent villages entails a deliberate decision by families to abandon traditional economy in order to send their children to school." The individuals, young parents and Elders alike, that I have visited in rural Alaska by and large are convinced that the only possibility for success that their children have is if they can succeed in English-speaking schools. However, they also see that the manner in which their children (and themselves) have been taught in the past not only has failed to provide their children with the tools for success in the English-speaking world, but also has deprived them of the knowledge and skills they need to survive in the everyday world of rural Alaska. Clearly something has gone terribly wrong, and while hundreds of different remedies have been suggested by thousands of different individuals, the sustained efforts of bilingual programs, such as the Yup'ik language and culture programs in the Lower Kuskokwim School District, are the only efforts that have begun to demonstrate success.

 

Evidence of success

Beverly Williams has been accumulating data on the success of children in the Lower Kuskokwim School District in reading and writing in English and mathematics over a number of years. In analyzing standardized test scores of high school juniors and seniors in 1997 and 1998, she found that Yup'ik speaking children who had begun their primary literacy development in Yup'ik scored higher in standardized tests in English reading and writing and mathematics and also scored higher on the Test of English as a Foreign Language than did those Yup'ik speaking children who had begun their literacy instruction in an English only program. The student data will continue to be analyzed to document whether this trend is sustained over time.

The success of the Alaska Native language bilingual programs is finally gaining acknowledgment statewide. In May 2000, the Alaska legislature took a step that came as a pleasant surprise to those involved with Alaska Native education. The 21st state legislature passed Senate Bill No. 103, known as the Native Language Education Act. This bill states: "The legislature finds that

(1) Alaska's indigenous Native cultures and languages are unique, essential elements of Alaska's heritage;

(2) Alaska's indigenous Native languages are an integral part of Alaska Native people's culture and well-being;

(3) knowledge of one's indigenous language is important for the development of social skills and self-esteem; it further contributes to the development of the individual and the ability to communicate;

(4) translations from a Native language into English result in the loss of context and deprivation of the full range of social and cultural understanding necessary to function in the individual's environment;

(5) when Native children are proficient in their primary indigenous language, they are more likely to do well in school; they also develop a higher degree of proficiency in English; (6) historically, Alaska Native children first learned their Native language in their homes and communities, but, with the passing of Native Elders and with a current generation of parents who are not fluent in their Native language, younger generations are less knowledgeable about their language and culture;

(7) the loss of indigenous Native languages dates back to the late 1800's when mainstream American missionaries enforced federal policies that forbade the use of Native languages, punished children for speaking their own language, and urged parents to speak only English to their children;

(8) the continuation of "no Native language" policies in federal, territorial, and state

school systems between 1910 and 1970 resulted in the loss of many Native languages;

(9) the fact that only two of the 20 Alaska Native languages are fluently spoken by children today is an indicator of the impending extinction of Native languages;

(10) unless action is taken, by the year 2055 only five of the 20 Alaska Native languages will be spoken by anyone, and soon thereafter the Native languages of Alaska may vanish."

As a result of these findings, SB 103 states that, "A school board shall establish a local Native language curriculum advisory board for each school in the district in which a majority of the students are Alaska Natives and any school district with Alaska Native students may establish a local Native language curriculum advisory board for each school with Alaska Native students in their district. If the local Native language curriculum advisory board recommends the establishment of a Native language education curriculum for a school, the school board may initiate and conduct a Native language education curriculum within grades K through 12 at that school."

At the same time, national education officers are also voicing support for the types of programs being established in rural Alaska. In the March 22, 2000 volume of the national newspaper Education Week, the front page story states, "In his first comprehensive address on Hispanic education during his seven years in office, Secretary of Education Richard W. Riley last week promoted a bilingual teaching strategy intended to help students learn two languages at the same time. So-called dual-immersion programs, in which native English-speaking and non-English-speaking students learn together in the same class, are an idea whose time has come in a global economy, Mr. Riley said." The articles goes on to say that "about 260 dual-immersion programs are in place in U.S. schools now, a number Mr. Riley would like to see expand to 1000 or more in coming years."

 

Why have the Yup'ik programs developed before other Alaska Native language programs?

How has it occurred that such variety and scope of Alaska Native language programs have developed in such a remote area in western Alaska? Of the twenty Alaska Native languages found in the state, Yup'ik has the largest base of Native speakers. In the 1960s, linguists at the University of Alaska began working with Yup'ik speakers from western Alaska to develop teaching methods and instructional materials in Yup'ik. A team of linguists, including Irene Reed, Paschal Afcan, Osahito Miyaoka, and Michael Krauss designed a standard writing system for Yup'ik which was then used to assist the Yup'ik speaking teachers in writing instructional materials in Yup'ik.

In 1968, several linguists developed a proposal for training Yup'ik speaking teachers for bilingual education programs. Irene Reed, Arthur Hippler, Donald Webster, and Michael Krauss presented the proposal to the Alaska State Commission for Education. The proposal was turned down. In 1969, following an international conference which demonstrated the success of using indigenous languages in bilingual classrooms, Frank Darnell teamed with the Alaskan linguists and succeeded in convincing the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the State Operated School System to start a Yup'ik bilingual program. The proposed program was tested in four schools in 1970 in the Lower Kuskokwim region. The first year was so successful that the program was extended to nine additional schools the following year, including several schools in the Southwest Region School District.

Michael Krauss, professor emeritus at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and one of the premier researchers of Alaska Native Languages, considers Yup'ik the Alaskan language with the greatest potential for surviving the 21st century. Many villages in the LKSD service region still have the majority of children coming to school speaking Yup'ik. Many village Elders speak little or no English. The situation in the region served by the Lower Kuskokwim School District is unique in that, for the first time in many years, communities are experiencing an increase in the number of speakers of Yup'ik.

 

Limitations to the development of Alaska Native Language programs

The Yup'ik language and culture programs have been in operation with varying degrees of emphasis since the 1970s. Forces that work against bilingual education have made it challenging to maintain and enlarge upon these programs. The amount of sustained effort and funding that has been essential to the success of these programs so far is unprecedented in the state and may not be possible in other regions. In many regions of the state, high turnover rates in district office administrators have too often been the downfall of a potentially successful program. The LKSD has been fortunate to have a relatively stable district office staff over the past decade. And due to the sustained efforts at developing local Alaska Natives as teachers and administrators, the school district has a reasonable chance of maintaining its focus should current administrators leave.

Many other school districts in the state lack the stability and the numbers of staff with a long-term commitment to the local region to keep a new program in operation long enough to reap the benefits. Nevertheless, many communities are willing to give it a try. Alaska Native language programs are rapidly developing all over the state. But what does it take to have a successful Alaska Native language program? It takes much more than desire and it takes more than even money to successfully develop an Alaska Native Language program. The LKSD has tackled the obstacles on many fronts. They have recognized that the first thing they must have is a large number of Alaska Native teachers. No other district in the state has put forth such a long-term sustained effort to develop Alaska Native teachers from within local communities. The district has provided financial assistance, mentors, and even tutors, to their classified staff who showed potential as classroom teachers. And, once those individuals have obtained a teaching license, the school district has jumped at the chance to hire them to teach in its schools, showing a commitment to Alaska Native education that has not always been in evidence in other parts of the state. In a state where the number of Alaska Native licensed teachers is less than 5%, the Lower Kuskokwim School District now has 30 percent Alaska Native teachers. But in a school district with 91 percent Alaska Native students, this is still not enough.

As the LKSD discovered early on, having a lot of Alaska Native teachers does not equate to having a lot of teachers qualified to teach Alaska Native language and culture classes. And as the school district has also discovered, offering a unique language program means offering a program that has no instructional support materials. The district has tackled both of these challenges by providing extensive professional development training each summer since 1995 in a four-week summer bilingual institute. That each summer the housing capacity of the summer institute is completely filled, and that many teachers return to the institute year after year, at a time of year when summer subsistence harvest activities are just beginning to gear up, attests to the value these individuals and communities place on the Yup'ik language and culture programs.

The LKSD has been fortunate in that most of their Native teachers are fluent Yup'ik or Cup'ig speakers. In other regions of the state, many Native teachers do not know their native language. However, even in the LKSD region, as most of these teachers learned their language orally and not as a written language, many of them have had to develop their reading and writing skills in their native language as adults. The summer institutes provide training in Yup'ik orthography, the spelling and phonetic rules of the language. None of the Alaska Native languages was a written language prior to the introduction of Western culture. As a result, few Native Elders read or write their Native language. Modern scholars of the languages have been revising the earlier written forms of the languages to make them more consistent. Dictionaries and grammars of the various languages are still under development as well.

The Alaska Native Language Center (ANLC), the only such institute in the state, is housed at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. The ANLC is the center for research and study of Alaska Native languages. Unfortunately, the center received severely diminished funding from 1986 until 1996. Reductions in numbers of faculty has meant a decreased capacity to conduct the work needed to support Alaska Native language revitalization and to offer training in Alaska Native languages and Alaska Native language education to those individuals who seek it.

The Alaska Native Language program at UAF offers a bachelor's degree in Yup'ik and in Inupiaq, and offers training in several other Alaska Native languages. Faculty of the Alaska Native Language Center are currently collaborating with faculty of the UAF School of Education to provide training in Alaska Native Language education to a group of Athabascan teachers in the Interior of Alaska. This program, supported by federal and state grants, includes a component that enables individuals who do not yet have proficiency in a Native language to gain that proficiency, by taking classes at the University of Alaska Fairbanks and/or through internships with expert speakers in their local area. This aspect of the program makes the program accessible to a small number of rural teachers for whom it is not feasible to come to Fairbanks to take classes. After the individual attains reading, writing, and oral fluency in the Native language, they proceed with training in Alaska Native Language education. In other words, first they learn to use the language, then they learn to teach it to children.

The ANLC currently offers undergraduate and graduate level courses in Alaska Native Language education. In fall 1999, the Alaska Native Language Center and the UAF School of Education jointly made a proposal to the Alaska Department of Education and Early Development to offer the Alaska Native Language Program as a licensure endorsement for teachers. The endorsement option has been approved by the state. It has also been incorporated into a Master's of Education degree. Unfortunately, the current level of funding approved by the legislature to the University of Alaska is not adequate to support much expansion of the ANLC programs. At current funding levels, the ANLC simply cannot meet the expressed need of the schools in the state currently developing Alaska Native Language education programs. However, collaborations between school districts and the university could provide additional means of support for these types of training programs. And the ANLC has a number of program graduates with the potential for becoming scholars of their own languages, thus potentially providing additional expertise in various regions of the state, the kind of expertise that is crucial in order for these types of programs to continue to grow.

Although legislative funding still remains below the levels needed, other initiatives occurring in the state lend support to the task of increasing the number of Alaska Native teachers. The University of Alaska has several programs in place focused on developing more Alaska Native teachers, especially for rural schools. In June 2000, the Alaska Board of Education and Early Development approved a new limited teaching certificate for Alaska Native culture teachers. The teaching certificate does not require the teacher to have already completed a bachelor's degree. While similar to the already available Type M limited teacher licensure, the new Type I license requires the teacher to provide continuing evidence of progress towards completion of a bachelor's degree leading to permanent teacher licensure. The school district that nominates an individual for the Type I license must provide mentoring and various other types of support for the individual. And the sponsoring University education program must provide supervision and guidance for the individual during their internship. This unique licensure option will complement efforts of the University of Alaska to produce more Alaska Native teachers, especially in rural areas, and is a much-welcomed step in the right direction.

 

Effective bilingual programs

The bottom line for any bilingual education program is whether or not the program is effective in producing students who go on to succeed academically in the regular school curriculum. For US schools, this necessitates that students become proficient in English reading and writing. The LKSD programs have been in existence long enough now for the district to document positive results in regards to school achievement and success at the high school level. Yup'ik children who have grown up in Yup'ik language and culture school programs are found to be reading and writing in English better than Yup'ik children who have grown up in English-only school programs. They appear to be better equipped to succeed in both the world within their community and in the world outside their communities than Native students who do not have access to education that incorporates Alaska Native Language and Culture. And it is not just the language program that is a key to success. The Native Culture components augment the language components by increasing student opportunities to link school learning to the real world in which they live and by providing students with a sense of identity and community pride that increases the student's desire to continue to learn.

The Lower Kuskokwim School District still has much to learn about what models of teaching work best for what types of students. But the incredible thing is that the district has recognized that, just as there is not one type of student in their district, there is not just one right way to provide bilingual education. The rest of the state and the nation will be watching and learning from their efforts, as the many teachers, administrators, and communities in the district continue to explore and develop the various models of bilingual education that have slowly been evolving within the district.

 

Voices of Alaska Native teachers

During the 1998 LKSD summer bilingual curriculum development institute, Duane Magoon (one of the coordinators for the LKSD curriculum/bilingual programs) and Delena Norris-Tull (assistant professor of education from the University of Alaska Fairbanks) co-taught a graduate course in Small Schools Curriculum Design as part of the institute. As part of that course, a group of certified teachers wrote articles describing the Yup'ik programs in which they teach and providing recommendations for future program development. In addition, one former Alaska Native school teacher, Theresa Arevgaq John, who now teaches at Alaska Pacific University in Anchorage, interviewed a number of participants and Elders and wrote an article that provides her perspective on a Yup'ik discipline program for schools. I am pleased to present this collection of articles to the reader in this volume. Only three of the authors of this compilation are not Alaska Natives, Beverly Williams, the director of the LKSD bilingual-bicultural programs, Pamela Yancey, an LKSD teacher who works closely with Yup'ik Native teachers in curriculum development, and myself.

As an outsider who has been given the bounty of glimpsing briefly into the depths of a remarkable world in western Alaska, I hope that my presentation of these articles is received as it is presented, with the intention of giving honor to those teachers and Yup'ik Elders who have worked so tirelessly to provide the Yup'ik language and culture programs to children of rural western Alaska.

 

Table of Contents

  • Introduction to the Kuskokwim Delta - Delena Norris-Tull
  • Introduction to the Yup'ik Language and Culture Programs of the Lower Kuskokwim School District - Delena Norris-Tull & Beverly Williams
  • Chapter 1: The Yup'ik First Language Program: Lower Kuskokwim School District - Mary Lou Beaver & Evon Azean, Sr.
  • Chapter 2: The Balanced Literacy Program in Yup'ik - Pamela Yancey & Sophie Shield
  • Chapter 3: Creating Yup'ik Books, Translating, & Orthography - Pamela Yancey & Sophie Shield
  • Chapter 4: Ayaprun Immersion School - Loddie Ayaprun Jones
  • Chapter 5: Analysis of the Yup'ik Immersion Program In Bethel - Agatha Panigkaq John-Shields
  • Chapter 6: Yup'ik Language and Culture: A Description and Analytical View of the 4-6 Yup'ik Thematic Unit - Dora E. Strunk
  • Chapter 7: K-3 Thematic Units and the Alaska Cultural Standards - Nita Yurrliq Rearden
  • Chapter 8: Yup'ik Language and Culture: A Description of the 5th-12th Yup'ik Curriculum and its Revision - Rosalie Lincoln
  • Chapter 9: Yup'ik Discipline Practices Inerquutet and Alerquutet To Implement Into Yup'ik Schools - Theresa Arevgaq John
  • Chapter 10: Recommendations for Yup'ik Curriculum at Lower Kuskokwim School District - Sally Casey


email the editor, D. Norris-Tull

 
 

Go to University of AlaskaThe University of Alaska Fairbanks is an affirmative action/equal opportunity employer and educational institution and is a part of the University of Alaska system.

 


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Last modified August 18, 2006