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Native Pathways to Education
Alaska Native Cultural Resources
Indigenous Knowledge Systems
Indigenous Education Worldwide

Yup'ik RavenMarshall Cultural Atlas

This collection of student work is from Frank Keim's classes. He has wanted to share these works for others to use as an example of Culturally-based curriculum and documentation. These documents have been OCR-scanned. These are available for educational use only.





Severe El Niño Prediction Dismays Alaska Fisherman

El Niño is an oceanic and weather phenomenon that occurs in the tropical Pacific every 1-3 years. It was given its name which means the Christ child by Peruvians 200 years ago when they noticed ocean warming at Christmas time.

El Niño will cause more severe weather over a large part of the world, leading to strange weather in different seasons. These changes also will affect the lives of many animals, such as the fish we have depended on here in Alaska for thousands of years.

Fish are harmed because they depend on the cold, nutrient-rich water welling up from the depths, and warmer water keeps it from rising far enough. Some fish migrate to colder, richer waters. Others simply don't survive.

In Monterey, California, El Niño has already caused a lot of severe weather problems. The natural phenomenon has battered the West Coast with storms, caused dry winters elsewhere and harmed marine life. Federal weather experts say that it is more severe than it was 15 years ago.

Along with the severe increase in bad weather, the Pacific Ocean is warming at an alarming rate. As a result, fishermen are not catching as much fish as they did in recent years. The warmer weather changes the temperature in the water and drives these fish into cooler waters. For instance, El Niño caused the salmon to take another route off the shores of California, Oregon and Washington. This caused a bad fishing season in the western United States.

Also, in Alaska, warmer surface water temperatures have prompted fisheries scientists to speculate that poor salmon runs in Bristol Bay and elsewhere were caused, at least partly, by El Niño.

The warm water also may have drawn tuna and mackerel farther north. Just as the news indicated, tuna came as far up as Yakutat, Alaska, from the waters of California. That means the water temperature is increasing very quickly. In late July the water temperature was 59 degrees in Yakutat, and that is what tuna swim in.

The other reason why we think the salmon population is slowly decreasing is because mackerel may have moved into waters off Vancouver and eaten millions of salmon smolts swimming into the Pacific Ocean.

Several fish experts called for greater efforts to protect fish populations and habitats to preserve biological diversity and the source of vital industries.

It's a big message the fish and El Niño are giving us. And we should be listening because we are facing world problems that we created on our own. This means that we're part of the reason there is El Niño and Global Warming.

We should be more careful especially in our use of fossil fuels so we don't make this bad situation worse.

 Jackie Paul George

Tundra comic


Our Planet is Heating Up

- Jonathan Boots

The Bering Sea is Ill

- Tatiana Sergie

Get Ready For Some Wild Weather

- Rose Lynn Fitka

More Extreme Weather Expected in The Future

- Cheryl Hunter

Severe El Niño Prediction Dismays Alaska Fisherman

- Jackie Paul George

Disease is on the Rise

- Willie Paul Fitka

Animal Habitat Continues to Vanish

- Charlotte Alstrom


Fishy Research Student Whoppers Parent Whoppers Elder Whoppers
Staff Whoppers Adventures Under the Sea Global Warming The Crystal Ball--Imagining how it will be


Christmastime Tales
Stories real and imaginary about Christmas, Slavik, and the New Year
Winter, 1996
Christmastime Tales II
Stories about Christmas, Slavik, and the New Year
Winter, 1998
Christmastime Tales III
Stories about Christmas, Slavik, and the New Year
Winter, 2000
Summer Time Tails 1992 Summertime Tails II 1993 Summertime Tails III
Summertime Tails IV Fall, 1995 Summertime Tails V Fall, 1996 Summertime Tails VI Fall, 1997
Summertime Tails VII Fall, 1999 Signs of the Times November 1996 Creative Stories From Creative Imaginations
Mustang Mind Manglers - Stories of the Far Out, the Frightening and the Fantastic 1993 Yupik Gourmet - A Book of Recipes  
M&M Monthly    
Happy Moose Hunting! September Edition 1997 Happy Easter! March/April 1998 Merry Christmas December Edition 1997
Happy Valentine’s Day! February Edition 1998 Happy Easter! March/April Edition 2000 Happy Thanksgiving Nov. Edition, 1997
Happy Halloween October 1997 Edition Edible and Useful Plants of Scammon Bay Edible Plants of Hooper Bay 1981
The Flowers of Scammon Bay Alaska Poems of Hooper Bay Scammon Bay (Upward Bound Students)
Family Trees and the Buzzy Lord It takes a Village - A guide for parents May 1997 People in Our Community
Buildings and Personalities of Marshall Marshall Village PROFILE Qigeckalleq Pellullermeng ‘A Glimpse of the Past’
Raven’s Stories Spring 1995 Bird Stories from Scammon Bay The Sea Around Us
Ellamyua - The Great Weather - Stories about the Weather Spring 1996 Moose Fire - Stories and Poems about Moose November, 1998 Bears Bees and Bald Eagles Winter 1992-1993
Fish Fire and Water - Stories about fish, global warming and the future November, 1997 Wolf Fire - Stories and Poems about Wolves Bear Fire - Stories and Poems about Bears Spring, 1992



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Alaska Native Knowledge Network
University of Alaska Fairbanks
PO Box 756730
Fairbanks  AK 99775-6730
Phone (907) 474.1902
Fax (907) 474.1957
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Last modified August 22, 2006