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Native Pathways to Education
Alaska Native Cultural Resources
Indigenous Knowledge Systems
Indigenous Education Worldwide

Yup'ik RavenMarshall Cultural Atlas

This collection of student work is from Frank Keim's classes. He has wanted to share these works for others to use as an example of Culturally-based curriculum and documentation. These documents have been OCR-scanned. These are available for educational use only.






Black Bears

Black Bears

Black Bears

Black Bears

American Black bears are the most widespread and numerous bears in North America. They inhabit most of the continent's forested areas beginning at the northern tree limit of the Arctic, south throughout much of the United States and down the wooded Sierra Madre Mountains into northern Mexico. East and West they range from Newfoundland to British Columbia's Queen Charlotte Islands.

Black bears are small bears compared to their cousins the Brown and Polar bear. They usually weigh no more than 300 pounds and are less than 5.5 feet long. They have long straight noses and the largest ears of all the bears.

Trees are a Black bear's best friends. When ever they are in danger Black bears climb trees. They have rather short claws that are ideal for scrambling up a tree trunk. It is not surprising that Black bears stay as close to trees as they can. They rarely leave the forest.


Black bears like to eat berries, leaves, and fish. They will steal fish from smoke houses when people are not around the camp or if they are sleeping. Sometimes you could see them eating berries on the tundra when it is time for them to fatten up for winter.

Black bears have only two babies during the winter. They grow up in their cave till spring comes. There they will feed on their mother's milk until they are able to take care of themselves outside of the cave.

Black Bears

After leaving the den in spring, the mother bear will teach the cubs to run away from danger and how to hunt for fish in the rivers. She will also teach them how to eat good food like fish, roots, black berries, blue berries and salmon berries.

The mother will keep the cubs till they are about 2 years of age. Then the mother will kick them out of their lives. Then they will have to learn how to live on their own. That will be hard to do because they are still young. But they will have to learn how to live alone and be smart so they can tell what is dangerous and what is not. Even so some of them will be shot the first year they are alone.

Although Black bears are smart animals their young are curious and dumb. Sometimes they go to your tent and eat your food or bother you in the night when you are sleeping. This is when they get into trouble and may be shot and killed.

The present status of the Black bear is good. The population is way up right now. But I think it will go down because there are a lot of hunters in the world. Like me, I will still hunt them for their meat.


Black Bears

Henry S. Hunter

The Brown Bear

- Gabriel Duny


- Barbara Andrew

Polar Bear

- Tina Papp

Black Bears

- Henry S. Hunter

Asiatic Black Bear (Selenarctos thibetanus)

- Leslie Hunter Jr.

Sloth Bear

- LaVerne J. Manumik

Spectacled Bears Tremarctos ornatus

- Flora M. Evan

Panda Bear

- Palassa Sergie

Sun Bear

- Marlene Papp

Grizzly Bear

- Billy Waska

The Body of a Grizzly Bear

- Tina Papp

Hibernation and Denning of Grizzly Bears

- Flora Evan


Bear Fire
Stories and Poems
about Bears

by Marshall High School
Language Arts Classes
Spring, 1992


Produced by 
Information about Bears

Creative Stories from the Imagination

True Stories from Experience



Christmastime Tales
Stories real and imaginary about Christmas, Slavik, and the New Year
Winter, 1996
Christmastime Tales II
Stories about Christmas, Slavik, and the New Year
Winter, 1998
Christmastime Tales III
Stories about Christmas, Slavik, and the New Year
Winter, 2000
Summer Time Tails 1992 Summertime Tails II 1993 Summertime Tails III
Summertime Tails IV Fall, 1995 Summertime Tails V Fall, 1996 Summertime Tails VI Fall, 1997
Summertime Tails VII Fall, 1999 Signs of the Times November 1996 Creative Stories From Creative Imaginations
Mustang Mind Manglers - Stories of the Far Out, the Frightening and the Fantastic 1993 Yupik Gourmet - A Book of Recipes  
M&M Monthly    
Happy Moose Hunting! September Edition 1997 Happy Easter! March/April 1998 Merry Christmas December Edition 1997
Happy Valentine’s Day! February Edition 1998 Happy Easter! March/April Edition 2000 Happy Thanksgiving Nov. Edition, 1997
Happy Halloween October 1997 Edition Edible and Useful Plants of Scammon Bay Edible Plants of Hooper Bay 1981
The Flowers of Scammon Bay Alaska Poems of Hooper Bay Scammon Bay (Upward Bound Students)
Family Trees and the Buzzy Lord It takes a Village - A guide for parents May 1997 People in Our Community
Buildings and Personalities of Marshall Marshall Village PROFILE Qigeckalleq Pellullermeng ‘A Glimpse of the Past’
Raven’s Stories Spring 1995 Bird Stories from Scammon Bay The Sea Around Us
Ellamyua - The Great Weather - Stories about the Weather Spring 1996 Moose Fire - Stories and Poems about Moose November, 1998 Bears Bees and Bald Eagles Winter 1992-1993
Fish Fire and Water - Stories about fish, global warming and the future November, 1997 Wolf Fire - Stories and Poems about Wolves Bear Fire - Stories and Poems about Bears Spring, 1992



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Phone (907) 474.1902
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Last modified August 21, 2006