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Native Pathways to Education
Alaska Native Cultural Resources
Indigenous Knowledge Systems
Indigenous Education Worldwide

Yup'ik RavenMarshall Cultural Atlas

This collection of student work is from Frank Keim's classes. He has wanted to share these works for others to use as an example of Culturally-based curriculum and documentation. These documents have been OCR-scanned. These are available for educational use only.










There are two species of bears that occur South of the Equator, the Spectacled bear and the Sun bear. The Sun bear is the world's smallest bear and lives in the remains of the tropical forests of the Malay Peninsula, Java, Sumatra, Burma, and Thailand. The scientific name for the Sun bear is Helarctos malayanus.

The Sun bear gets its name from the yellowish crescent on its chest. In some areas of their range, Sun bears are known as Honey bears or Malay bears. They weigh between 60 and 143 pounds. This smallest member of the bear family grows to only about 45 feet in length. Wild Sun bears weigh over 110 pounds. The Sun bear is covered with short, dense, black fur. It lives in the jungles of the tropics. If I traveled through the jungle, when I emerged I would be smeared with dirt and sweat from head to toe. But if a Sun bear went through the jungle the same way, the bear would come out spotless. This is because of the smooth quality of the fur.

This sleek animal's muzzle may vary from grayish white to orange in color. It has small, rather beady eyes and small rounded ears. The feet, tipped with long sickle-shaped claws, are sometimes colored with gray and have no hair on their soles. Its short bowlegs give it an ungainly appearance when it walks. Like all other bears, the Sun bear often stands up on its hind legs to get a better view of a distant object or when it encounters a potential enemy.

The population of the Sun bear has been greatly decreased by hunting, but the Sun bear still exists in the forests of the Malay Peninsula, Java, Sumatra, Burma, and Thailand. The Sun bears are extinct on the Subcontinent near Bangalore, India. In some parts of Southeast Asia Sun bears have a reputation of being as dangerous as dangerous elephants.

The World Wildlife Fund has worked hard in the country of Sabah to save Sun bears from extinction. The Sun bear is considered an endangered species and hunting them is no longer allowed in Malaysia, or anywhere else. But some people still use Sun bear cubs for their pets. Hunters illegally kill the mother and bring the cubs back as pets. Hopefully this practice will soon stop.

Marlene Papp

Bear Fire Unit


The Brown Bear

- Gabriel Duny


- Barbara Andrew

Polar Bear

- Tina Papp

Black Bears

- Henry S. Hunter

Asiatic Black Bear (Selenarctos thibetanus)

- Leslie Hunter Jr.

Sloth Bear

- LaVerne J. Manumik

Spectacled Bears Tremarctos ornatus

- Flora M. Evan

Panda Bear

- Palassa Sergie

Sun Bear

- Marlene Papp

Grizzly Bear

- Billy Waska

The Body of a Grizzly Bear

- Tina Papp

Hibernation and Denning of Grizzly Bears

- Flora Evan


Bear Fire
Stories and Poems
about Bears

by Marshall High School
Language Arts Classes
Spring, 1992


Produced by 
Information about Bears

Creative Stories from the Imagination

True Stories from Experience



Christmastime Tales
Stories real and imaginary about Christmas, Slavik, and the New Year
Winter, 1996
Christmastime Tales II
Stories about Christmas, Slavik, and the New Year
Winter, 1998
Christmastime Tales III
Stories about Christmas, Slavik, and the New Year
Winter, 2000
Summer Time Tails 1992 Summertime Tails II 1993 Summertime Tails III
Summertime Tails IV Fall, 1995 Summertime Tails V Fall, 1996 Summertime Tails VI Fall, 1997
Summertime Tails VII Fall, 1999 Signs of the Times November 1996 Creative Stories From Creative Imaginations
Mustang Mind Manglers - Stories of the Far Out, the Frightening and the Fantastic 1993 Yupik Gourmet - A Book of Recipes  
M&M Monthly    
Happy Moose Hunting! September Edition 1997 Happy Easter! March/April 1998 Merry Christmas December Edition 1997
Happy Valentine’s Day! February Edition 1998 Happy Easter! March/April Edition 2000 Happy Thanksgiving Nov. Edition, 1997
Happy Halloween October 1997 Edition Edible and Useful Plants of Scammon Bay Edible Plants of Hooper Bay 1981
The Flowers of Scammon Bay Alaska Poems of Hooper Bay Scammon Bay (Upward Bound Students)
Family Trees and the Buzzy Lord It takes a Village - A guide for parents May 1997 People in Our Community
Buildings and Personalities of Marshall Marshall Village PROFILE Qigeckalleq Pellullermeng ‘A Glimpse of the Past’
Raven’s Stories Spring 1995 Bird Stories from Scammon Bay The Sea Around Us
Ellamyua - The Great Weather - Stories about the Weather Spring 1996 Moose Fire - Stories and Poems about Moose November, 1998 Bears Bees and Bald Eagles Winter 1992-1993
Fish Fire and Water - Stories about fish, global warming and the future November, 1997 Wolf Fire - Stories and Poems about Wolves Bear Fire - Stories and Poems about Bears Spring, 1992



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Fairbanks  AK 99775-6730
Phone (907) 474.1902
Fax (907) 474.1957
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Last modified August 21, 2006