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Native Pathways to Education
Alaska Native Cultural Resources
Indigenous Knowledge Systems
Indigenous Education Worldwide

Yup'ik RavenMarshall Cultural Atlas

This collection of student work is from Frank Keim's classes. He has wanted to share these works for others to use as an example of Culturally-based curriculum and documentation. These documents have been OCR-scanned. These are available for educational use only.






Grizzly Bear

Grizzly Bear


The Grizzly Bear

The Grizzly bear is stout and rather chunky in shape, with a large hump of fat and muscle over the shoulders. It has very long claws. People describe it as being somewhat "dish-faced" in appearance. Grizzlies eat a lot of salmon, and when salmon are especially numerous, they might eat just their favorite portions of the fish. These bears often catch and eat up to twenty salmon in an hour. Because of this, a bear could gain up to 6 pounds of fat in a 24 hour period. Although their diet is mostly plant material, they eagerly seek out animal matter because its food value is much more concentrated.

Grizzly bears spend the winter hibernating in their dens. Depending on the size of the bear, a sleeping chamber can measure over 7 feet wide and 3 feet high. Some dens have been used for centuries by numerous generations of bears. Grizzlies begin to hibernate in the middle of September.

Grizzlies may live longer than thirty years and can reproduce for most of their lives. One female kept at the Leipzig Zoo was still having cubs when she was twenty-six years old. Females generally don't breed until they are at least five years old. The breeding occurs in June or July. The bears give birth about 222 to 229 days after copulation. The actual fetal growth takes only about sixty days. A newborn Grizzly bear may weigh less than one pound, but nursing cubs gain weight quickly because bear milk contains as much as 33 percent fat . The cubs may increase their weight as much as 1,000 times. The sow bear will fiercely defend them from potential harm. Their deaths are frequently due to encounters with adult males, called boars. Wolves also sometimes prey on young Grizzly bear cubs. The term "Grizzly" is a colloquial name that refers to the animal's coloration. It means "grey-like." Most adult Grizzlies range from 350 to 700 pounds, rarely going over 1000 pounds. The Grizzly's reputation for ferociousness toward people makes the animal seem much larger.

Ninety percent of North America's estimated 40,000 bears are found in Alaska, the Yukon ,the Rocky Mountains of Alberta and British Columbia, and in the mainland Northwest Territories. Less than 800 bears still exist in the continental United States.

Grizzlies have suffered from both destruction of wildlands and the belief that they are dangerous to cattle, sheep and humans. There are, however, some attempts to protect them in their remaining habitats.

Billy Waska

Grizzly Bear

The Brown Bear

- Gabriel Duny


- Barbara Andrew

Polar Bear

- Tina Papp

Black Bears

- Henry S. Hunter

Asiatic Black Bear (Selenarctos thibetanus)

- Leslie Hunter Jr.

Sloth Bear

- LaVerne J. Manumik

Spectacled Bears Tremarctos ornatus

- Flora M. Evan

Panda Bear

- Palassa Sergie

Sun Bear

- Marlene Papp

Grizzly Bear

- Billy Waska

The Body of a Grizzly Bear

- Tina Papp

Hibernation and Denning of Grizzly Bears

- Flora Evan


Bear Fire
Stories and Poems
about Bears

by Marshall High School
Language Arts Classes
Spring, 1992


Produced by 
Information about Bears

Creative Stories from the Imagination

True Stories from Experience



Christmastime Tales
Stories real and imaginary about Christmas, Slavik, and the New Year
Winter, 1996
Christmastime Tales II
Stories about Christmas, Slavik, and the New Year
Winter, 1998
Christmastime Tales III
Stories about Christmas, Slavik, and the New Year
Winter, 2000
Summer Time Tails 1992 Summertime Tails II 1993 Summertime Tails III
Summertime Tails IV Fall, 1995 Summertime Tails V Fall, 1996 Summertime Tails VI Fall, 1997
Summertime Tails VII Fall, 1999 Signs of the Times November 1996 Creative Stories From Creative Imaginations
Mustang Mind Manglers - Stories of the Far Out, the Frightening and the Fantastic 1993 Yupik Gourmet - A Book of Recipes  
M&M Monthly    
Happy Moose Hunting! September Edition 1997 Happy Easter! March/April 1998 Merry Christmas December Edition 1997
Happy Valentine’s Day! February Edition 1998 Happy Easter! March/April Edition 2000 Happy Thanksgiving Nov. Edition, 1997
Happy Halloween October 1997 Edition Edible and Useful Plants of Scammon Bay Edible Plants of Hooper Bay 1981
The Flowers of Scammon Bay Alaska Poems of Hooper Bay Scammon Bay (Upward Bound Students)
Family Trees and the Buzzy Lord It takes a Village - A guide for parents May 1997 People in Our Community
Buildings and Personalities of Marshall Marshall Village PROFILE Qigeckalleq Pellullermeng ‘A Glimpse of the Past’
Raven’s Stories Spring 1995 Bird Stories from Scammon Bay The Sea Around Us
Ellamyua - The Great Weather - Stories about the Weather Spring 1996 Moose Fire - Stories and Poems about Moose November, 1998 Bears Bees and Bald Eagles Winter 1992-1993
Fish Fire and Water - Stories about fish, global warming and the future November, 1997 Wolf Fire - Stories and Poems about Wolves Bear Fire - Stories and Poems about Bears Spring, 1992



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Alaska Native Knowledge Network
University of Alaska Fairbanks
PO Box 756730
Fairbanks  AK 99775-6730
Phone (907) 474.1902
Fax (907) 474.1957
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Last modified August 21, 2006