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Native Pathways to Education
Alaska Native Cultural Resources
Indigenous Knowledge Systems
Indigenous Education Worldwide

Yup'ik RavenMarshall Cultural Atlas

This collection of student work is from Frank Keim's classes. He has wanted to share these works for others to use as an example of Culturally-based curriculum and documentation. These documents have been OCR-scanned. These are available for educational use only.






 Polar Bear

 Polar Bear

 Polar Bear

Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) live mostly in the far North around the Arctic Ocean, in Alaska, Canada, Greenland and Siberia. Their favorite hunting grounds are on the edge of the Arctic ice pack.

Their usual prey consists mostly of sea animals like fish, seals and walruses, but if they are really hungry they may go to a dump area and look for food.

Polar bears are the best swimmers of all the bears because they do more swimming in the winter while the other bears are sleeping in their dens. They can swim up to 6 miles an hour. Although Polar bears are big in size, they can run very fast. A Polar bear can run up to 25 miles an hour. They can even keep up with a reindeer. Polar bears have smaller heads and longer necks than Brown bears. They also have a slender body to help them swim faster and easier. A fully grown Polar bear weighs up to 1600 pounds and is nine and a half feet long. The fur coat on Polar bears helps them keep warm through the cold winter. The color of their coat is white with a yellow tinge.

Mother Polar bears can have up to two cubs a year. The cubs weigh up to one pound. They stay with their mother till they can live on their own and eat on their own. They stay up to 2 years with their mother so they can learn how to hunt and survive on their own Most of the time the males don't go into dens, but the females do because they have to give birth to the cubs. The males hunt most of the time and it is dangerous for the young cubs if the male finds them. The cubs would be eaten by the male and the mother could be hurt in a fight.

Up until 1972 Polar bear hides were very valuable. Hunters killed the bear just for the hide. Oil company employees also destroyed the homes of Polar bears. By 1973, Polar bears became threatened and Canada, Russia, and the United States had to sign an agreement prohibiting most sport hunting.


By:Tina Papp

The Brown Bear

- Gabriel Duny


- Barbara Andrew

Polar Bear

- Tina Papp

Black Bears

- Henry S. Hunter

Asiatic Black Bear (Selenarctos thibetanus)

- Leslie Hunter Jr.

Sloth Bear

- LaVerne J. Manumik

Spectacled Bears Tremarctos ornatus

- Flora M. Evan

Panda Bear

- Palassa Sergie

Sun Bear

- Marlene Papp

Grizzly Bear

- Billy Waska

The Body of a Grizzly Bear

- Tina Papp

Hibernation and Denning of Grizzly Bears

- Flora Evan


Bear Fire
Stories and Poems
about Bears

by Marshall High School
Language Arts Classes
Spring, 1992


Produced by 
Information about Bears

Creative Stories from the Imagination

True Stories from Experience



Christmastime Tales
Stories real and imaginary about Christmas, Slavik, and the New Year
Winter, 1996
Christmastime Tales II
Stories about Christmas, Slavik, and the New Year
Winter, 1998
Christmastime Tales III
Stories about Christmas, Slavik, and the New Year
Winter, 2000
Summer Time Tails 1992 Summertime Tails II 1993 Summertime Tails III
Summertime Tails IV Fall, 1995 Summertime Tails V Fall, 1996 Summertime Tails VI Fall, 1997
Summertime Tails VII Fall, 1999 Signs of the Times November 1996 Creative Stories From Creative Imaginations
Mustang Mind Manglers - Stories of the Far Out, the Frightening and the Fantastic 1993 Yupik Gourmet - A Book of Recipes  
M&M Monthly    
Happy Moose Hunting! September Edition 1997 Happy Easter! March/April 1998 Merry Christmas December Edition 1997
Happy Valentine’s Day! February Edition 1998 Happy Easter! March/April Edition 2000 Happy Thanksgiving Nov. Edition, 1997
Happy Halloween October 1997 Edition Edible and Useful Plants of Scammon Bay Edible Plants of Hooper Bay 1981
The Flowers of Scammon Bay Alaska Poems of Hooper Bay Scammon Bay (Upward Bound Students)
Family Trees and the Buzzy Lord It takes a Village - A guide for parents May 1997 People in Our Community
Buildings and Personalities of Marshall Marshall Village PROFILE Qigeckalleq Pellullermeng ‘A Glimpse of the Past’
Raven’s Stories Spring 1995 Bird Stories from Scammon Bay The Sea Around Us
Ellamyua - The Great Weather - Stories about the Weather Spring 1996 Moose Fire - Stories and Poems about Moose November, 1998 Bears Bees and Bald Eagles Winter 1992-1993
Fish Fire and Water - Stories about fish, global warming and the future November, 1997 Wolf Fire - Stories and Poems about Wolves Bear Fire - Stories and Poems about Bears Spring, 1992



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Alaska Native Knowledge Network
University of Alaska Fairbanks
PO Box 756730
Fairbanks  AK 99775-6730
Phone (907) 474.1902
Fax (907) 474.1957
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Last modified August 21, 2006